Skip to main content

Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1914)"

See other formats


^&*&%. 






^PUwKwuK 






B007 1505^5' A 

California State Library 



CALIFORNIA 



State Library 



ftMA% 



Call 
Copy No. 






\°\\U\ 






CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY. 



SACRAMENTO 



This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

A book may be kept for three weeks and renewed 
for two weeks longer. 

A fine of five cents a day will be charged on over- 
due books. 



WE SEP 7 



THE BRICKBVILDER 

AN ILLUSTRATED ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY 

DEVOTED TO THE ART, SCIENCE, AND BUSINESS OF BUILDING 



Index for 1914 

VOLUME TWENTY-THREE, JANUARY TO DECEMBER INCLUSIVE 



ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Publishers 



NEW YORK 



BOSTON 



Index to Plate Illustrations. {According to Subject.) 

Plates numbered 1-16 in the January issue; February, 17-32 ; March, 3348 ; April, 49-64; May, 65-80; June, 81-96; 
July, 97-112; August, 113-128; September, 129-144; October, 145-160; November, 161-176; December, 177-192. 



Architect. 



Title and Location. 

BANKS 
Collateral Loan Company, Boston, Mass., C. H. Blackall__107, 108 
Pasadena National, Pasadena, Cal., Sylvanus B. Marston_134, 135 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL 

Franklin Building, Chicago, 111., George C. Nimmons 68-71 

CITY HALL 
Oakland, Cal., Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones 97-100 

FIRE HOUSE 
Washington, D. C, Gregg & Leisenring, Snowden Ash- 
ford, Municipal Architect ___ 24, 25 

HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS 
Henry Phipps Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., Grosvenor 

Atterbury 129-131 

Highland Private, Fall River, Mass., Parker Morse 

Hooper 180, 181 

John Dickson Home for Aged Men, Washington, D. C, 

Arthur B. Heaton 52-54 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

Plate No. 



Architect. 



Plate No. 



Title and Location. 

OFFICE 
Lawyers', Washington, D. C, Arthur B. Heaton 72 

POLICE STATIONS 

Police Headquarters, District Court and Fire Station, 
Marlborough, Mass., Bigelow & Dyer and Edward 
Percy Dana, Consulting 88, 89 

Police Headquarters and District Court, Salem, Mass., 
John Matthew Gray 86, 87 

POST OFFICE 

Municipal and Post Office Building, Southampton, L. I., 
F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr., and Hiss & Weeks, Assoeiated.85 

REFRESHMENT BUILDING AND BAND STAND 

Boston, Mass., William Downes Austin 96 

STORE AND OFFICE BUILDING 
Washington, D. C, Appleton P. Clark.. 

TOWN HALL 

Burlingame, Cal., Charles Peter Weeks. 



.72 



182, 183 



Title and Location. 

CHURCHES 



Architect. 



RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. 

Plate No. Title and Location. 



Architect. 



Plate No. 



CHURCHES — Continued 



All Saints', Masontown, Pa., John T. Comes 160 

Baptist, Churchland, Va., Neff & Thompson 151 

First of Christ, Scientist, New Orleans. La., Samuel 

Stone, Jr 156, 157 

First Presbyterian, San Francisco, Cal., William C. Hays.148-150 

Memorial, Greenwood, Va., Waddy B. Wood 158-159 

Presbyterian, Highland Park, 111., Charles S. Frost 155 



St. Ambrose, Phila., Pa., Duhring, Okie & Ziegler 153, 154 

St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 

Louis Sullivan. Completed by William C. Jones 152 

SS. Peter and Paul's, Rochester, N. Y., Gordon & 

Madden 60 

.Second Unitarian, Boston, Mass., Cram, Goodhue & 

Ferguson ( Boston office) 145-147 



EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. 



Architect. 



Plato Ni 



Title and Location. 

COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES 

Harvard University, Freshman Dormitories, Cambridge, 

Mass., Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 161-169 

Northwestern University, Dormitory Group, Evanston, 
111., Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones 174-176 

Richmond College, Richmond, Va., Cram, Goodhue & 

Ferguson ,..170-173 

Veterinary Building, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Cope & Stewardson 65-67 

LEARNED SOCIETIES 

Chapter House, Delta Upsilon, Philadelphia, Pa., Lester 

Kintzing I 38 

Club House, Delta Upsilon, Cambridge, Mass., R. Clip- 

ston Sturgis . ls4 



Architect. 



Plato \. 



Title and Location. 

LIBRARIES 

Beverly, Mass., Cass Gilbert _ ..81,82 

Davis, Exeter, N. H., Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson _. 12, 13 
Jesup Memorial, Bar Harbor, Me., Delano & Aldrich.. . 177-179 
Somerville, Mass., Edward L. Tilton ..22, 23 

SCHOOLS 

Frederick Douglas, The, Cincinnati, Ohio, Garber <.V 

Woodward 57-59 

Guilford Public, Cincinnati, Ohio, Garber & Woodward.. 7, 8 
Joseph Sears Public, Kenihvorth, 111., George W. Maher.136, 137 
Seaside Branch of the Widener Memorial, Longport, 

N. J., Horace Trumbauer 49-51 

Thorndike, East Cambridge, Mass., Charles R. Greco.. .83, 84 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS. 



Architect. 



Plate No. 



Title and Location. 

APARTMENT 
Lochby Court, Chicago, 111., Schmidt, Garden & Martin. 55, 56 

CITY HOUSES 

New York, N. Y., The Patio, Howells & Stokes 31, M 

New York, N. Y., 14 East 76th Street, York & Sawyer. ..90, 91 



Architect. 



PI. ,10 Ni 



Title and Location. 

CLUB HOUSES 

Capital Citv, Atlanta, Ga., Donn Barber. . 9-11 

Harvard, The, of Boston, Mass., Parker, Thomas & Rice. 101-106 
Masonic Temple Building, Memphis, Tenn., Jones & 

Furbringer 132, 133 



Index to Volume XXIII., Jan. — Dec, 1914. 



The Brickuyilder. 



Title and Location. Architect Plate No, 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES (American 
Auburndalc, Muss., Mrs. Lucie A. Fiske, Henry F. Lude- 

niann and C. V. Snedeker, Jr., Associated 109-112 

Cambridge, Mass., Joseph Everett Chandler. .. .14-16 

Chestnut Hill, Pa., "Harris Estate, Stewardson & Page .190 
Glencoe, 111., John W. Gary, Esq., Frederick W. Perkins. 140-144 
Glencoe, 111., C. H. Hermann, Esq., Howard Shaw 43, 44 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Ilenrv F. Baker, Esq., Edward 

L. Palmer, Jr. . 117 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., II. Rowland Clapp, Esq., Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr 1_'3 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Dr. J. H. Mason Knox. Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. 115, 116 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Semi-Detached "A-B," Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. _ 118,119 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Semi-Detached "C-D," Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. __12<> 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., .Semi- Detached "E F," Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr.... 121 

Hartford, Conn., Arthur P. Day, Esq., Smith & Bassette.61, 62 
Jamaica, L. I., Group of Houses, Electus D. Litchfield .191, 192 

New Haven, Conn., R. Clipston Sturgis 29 

Oak Park. 111., Spencer & Powers 73, 74 

Pasadena, Cal., Robert I). Farquhar 189 

Pasadena, Cal., E, F, Robbins, Esq., Myron Hunt 92-94 

Philadelphia, Pa., George Miller, Esq., Duhring, Okie & 

Ziegler 46 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Thomas Pringle, Esq., Thomas Pringle.95 
Readville, Mass., N. P. Ilallowell. Esq., Parker, Thomas 

& Rice 185, 186 

Rock Island, 111., Mrs. Denkmann-Hanberg, Spencer & 

Powers . .75-77 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., John S. Bridges, Esq., 

Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 122 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., Mrs. Gabrielle E. Gam- 
brill. Edward L Palmer, Jr. .113 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., lames R. Hagertv, Esq., 
Edward L. Palmer, Jr I 114 



Title and Location. Architect. Plate No. 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES (American) - Continued 
Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., Thomas L. Jones, Esq., 

Walter M. Gieske .128 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., G. Emory Morgan, Esq., 

Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 124 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., University Parkway, Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. .. __ " ." 125 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., University Parkway, Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. ..126 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md., University Parkway, Ed- 
ward L. Palmer, Jr. ...... 127 

St. Louis, Mo.,R. S. Brookings, Esq., Cope <S: Stewardson. 40, 41 
St. Louis, Mo., J. D. Davis. Esq., Cope & Stewardson. .38, 39 
St. Louis, Mo., j. Lionberger Davis, Esq , Cope & Stew- 
ardson _. 33,35 

St. Louis, Mo., J. F. Sheplev, Esq., La Beaume & 

Klein ." 45 

St. Louis, Mo., F. C. Thompson, Esq., Cope & Steward- 
son 36, 37 

St. Louis, Mo., Mrs. A. A. Wallace, Cope & Stewardson 42 

St. Louis, Mo., Mauran, Russell & Crowell 30 

Southampton, L. I., F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr 26-28 

Terre Haute, Ind., Fred B. Smith, Esq., Spencer em- 
powers 78, 79 

Washington, D. C, John Russell Pope 1-6 

West Chester, Pa., Mrs. M. E. Williamson, Duhring, 
Okie & Ziegler. __ 47,48 

FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS 

Bernardsville, N. J., Estate of Percy R. Pyne, Esq., 

Alfred Hopkins 63 

Red Bank, N. J., Estate of Jacob Schiff, Esq., E. Harris 

Janes 64 

Terre Haute, Ind., and Rock Island, 111.. Spencer & 

Powers 80 

HOTELS 

Biltmore, New York, X. Y., Warren & Wetmore 17, 18 

O-te-se-ga, Cooperstown, N. V., Percy Griffin ... .. 139 



Subject Index to Illustrations in Letter Press. 

Pages numbered 1-26 in the January issue ; February, 27-50; March, 51-74; April, 75~98 ; May, 99-122; June, 123 L48 
July, 149-174; August, 175 202; September, 203 230; October, 231-256; November, 257-2.S2 ; December, 283 312. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 



Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

ADMINISTRATIVE GOVERNMENTAL 

Detail of U. S. Government Barge Office, New York, 
N. V., James Knox Taylor ... 127 

ARMORY " 

New York, N. Y., Charles C. Haight 27 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL 

Kuppenheimer Building, Chicago, Samuel N. Crowen 291,292 

Mas., n Building, Kansas City, Mo., Wilder & Wight 181 

MeKnight Building, Minneapolis, Hewitt & Brown 181 

Store Building, Burlington, Vt., W. R. B. Wilcox 1S1 

Loft Building, New York, X. Y., Maynicke & Franke ..179 
Store and Loft Building, Phila., Pa., Magaziner& Potter_180 
Store Building, Washington, I). C, Arthur B. lleaton 182 
Store Building, Washington, D. ('., Clarke Waggaman. .182 
Townsend Building, Buffalo, N. Y., Green & Wicks .LSI 

EXPOSITION 
San Diego, Water Color Drawing, Bertram G. Goodhue. .276 






Titie and Location. Archi 

MEMORIALS 

Lincoln, Washington, D. C, John Russell Pope 7 

Robert Fulton, Winning Competition Design for, II. Van 
Buren Magonigle 274 

POST OFFICE 

Denver, Colo., Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield . 9 

STORAGE 

Warehouse, Oak Park, 111., George S. Kingsley 293, 294 

STORES 

Alexander Building, Fifth Ave.,N. Y.,Carrere & Hastings. 128 
Dreicer Building, Fifth Ave., N. Y., Warren & Wetmore. .127 

Indianapolis, Ind., Vonnegut & Bohn .146 

Wertheim Store, Leipziger Strasse, Berlin, Prof. Alfred 

Messel .205, 210 

THEATERS 

Booth, New York, X. Y., Henry Herts 128 

Greek, Selected 285 29m 



RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. 
CHAPEL 
Of the Intercession, New York, X. Y., Bertram Grosvenor 
Goodhue, Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 55, 85 



CHURCHES 

All Saints', Tooting, England, Temple Moore 247 

All Souls', South Hampstead, England, Nicholson & 

Coiiette , 245 

Church of Christ, Scientist, Manchester, England, Edgar 

Wood 235 

Church of the Holy Comforter, Charlotte, N. C, Charles 

C. Haight 28 

Church of St. John the Evangelist, Upper Edmonton, 

London, England, C. H. B. Ouennell. 248 



CHURCHES — Continued 

Church of St. Jude-on-the Hill, Hampstead Garden 

88 Suburb, England, E. L. Lut vens ...246 

First Church, Chestnut Hill, Mass , J. Lovell Little.. ..244 
First Congregational, Braintree, Mass., George Newton .'44 

Free Church, Hampstead, England, E. L. Lutyens 246 

Madison Square Presbvterian, New York, N. Y., MeKim, 

Mead & White ! 129 

Parish, Fairfield, England ._ 234 

St. Joseph's, Sheringham, England, G. Gilbert Scott 248 

St. Luke's Episcopal, Allston, Mass., Berry & Davidson. 244 
St. Margaret's Church, Leeds, England, Temple Moore. 247 

Suburban, England, Temple Moore 247 

Unitarian, Braintree, Mass., Edwin J. Lewis, Jr ...244 



EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. 



COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES 

Connecticut College for Women, Ewing & Chapped 167, 169 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.. Freshman Dor- 
mitories. Sheplev, Rutan & Coolidge 260, 263-268 

Northwestern University, the New Dormitories of, Evans- 
ton, 111., Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones .269,270 
Princeton University, Princeton, X. J., Day & Klauder-. 220 
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., Water Color 
Drawing of Dining Halls, Day and Klauder 220 



COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES— Continued 

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., Water Color of 
End of Hamilton Hall, Day & Klauder 221 

Richmond College, Richmond, Va., Cram, Goodhue &.- 
Ferguson, General Plan and Perspective 261 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., Perspective 
Yiew of, Cass Gilbert .111 

University of Pennsylvania, Pencil Drawing of Gymna- 
sium, Frank Miles Day & Bro __. 221 



<f 



174290 



( cu.o 



The Brickbvilder, 



Index to Volume XXIII., Jan. — Dec., 1914. 



111 



Title and Location. Architect. 

LIBRARIES 

Detroit Public, Elevation, Cass Gilbert 110 

Yale Memorial, New Haven, Conn., Competition Draw- 
ing for, Charles C. Haight 28 



APARTMENTS 

Chicago, 111., Brown & Walcott 164 

Chicago, 111., Walter Burley Griffin 163 

Chicago, 111., Hatzfeld & Knox 164,165 

Chicago, 111., Huehl & Schmidt 164' 

Chicago, 111., Huehl, Schmidt & Holmes __163 

Chicago, 111., John A. Nyden .. 166 

Chicago, 111., L. E. Stanhope 166 

Chicago, 111., Hugo H. Zimmerman 166 

CLUB HOUSE 

Masonic Temple, Toronto, Can., H. P. Knowles 144 



PaKe. Title anil Location. Architect. Page 

TECHNICAL SCHOOLS 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 

Water Color Drawing, William Welles Bosworth __ 275 
Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J., Bird's- 
Eye View, Ludlow & Peaboilv 29 

RESIDENCE BUILDINGS. 

BATHING POOLS 



Selection of Work by Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, 
C. P. H. Gilbert, Guy Lowell, MacClure & Spahr, 
McKim, Mead & White and Chas. A. Piatt .135, 

FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS 

Bernardsville, N. J., P. R. Pyne, Esq., Alfred Hopkins.. 94 

Clifford Brokaw, Esq., Alfred Hopkins 95 

Islip, L. I., S. T. Peters, Esq., Alfred Hopkins... .. 93 

Red Bank, N. J., Jacob Schiff, Esq., Alfred Hopkins 91 



139 



RENAISSANCE AND MODERN ARCHITECTURE. 

SPAIN Palacio Polentinos, Avila, Spain, Detail of Patio 229 

Casa de Las Muertes, Salamanca, Detail of 58 Palma Cathedral, Palma de Mallorea, Detail of Pulpit .252 

Colegie de San Gregorio, Valladolid, Detail of Patio 61 Sigiienza Cathedral, Sigiienza, Detail of Cloister. 250 



Escuelas Menores, Salamanca, Detail of Entrance.. __226 
Hospital Real, Santiago, Main Portal 60 



Sigiienza Cathedral, Sigiienza, Detail of Sacristy.. ...251 
University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Detail of 228 



Index to Plate and Page Illustrations. ( According to Author.) 



Architect. Home Address. 

Albro & Lindeberg, New York City _ 

Ashford, Snowden, Washington 

Atterbury, Grosvenor, New York City 
Austin, William Downes, Boston.. 

Barber, Donn, New York City 

Berry & Davidson, Boston, Mass. 

Bigelow & Dyer, Boston, Mass 

Blackall, C. H., Boston, Mass 

Bosworth, William Welles, N. Y. C. 

Brazer &- Robb, New York City 

Brown & Walcott, Chicago, 111 

Busselle, Alfred, New York City 

Cady & Gregory, New York City 

Carrere & Hastings, New York City. 
Chandler, Joseph Everett, Boston. .. 

Clark, Appleton P., Washington 

Comes, John T., Pittsburgh, Pa. ... 
Cope&Stewardson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, New 

York City and Boston, Mass. 

Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, N. Y.C. 

Crowen, Samuel N., Chicago, 111 

Dana, Edward Percy, Boston, Mass. 
Day & Klauder, Philadelphia, Pa. .. 
Delano & Aldrich, New York City .. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Phila., Pa. 
Emburv, Aymar, II, New York City 
Ewing & Chappeil, New York City.. 
Farquhar, Robert D., Los Angeles . 
Frost. Charles, Chicago, 111. . 

Garber & Woodward, Cincinnati 

Gieske, Walter M., Baltimore, Md. _ 

Gilbert, Cass., New York Citv 

Gilbert, C. P. H., New York City ... 
Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor, N.Y.C. 
Gordon & Madden, Rochester, N. Y. 
Gray, John Matthew, Salem, Mass.. 
Greco, Charles R., Boston, Mass. ... 

Green & Wicks, Buffalo, N. Y ._ 

Gregg & Leisenring, Washington ... 

Griffin, Percy, New York City 

Griffin, Walter Burley, Chicago, 111.. 

Guilbert & Betelle, Newark, N. J 

Haight, Charles C. New York City. 

Hatzfeld & Knox, Chicago, 111 

Hays, William C. , San Francisco, Cal. 

Heaton, Arthur B., Washington 

Herts, Henry, New York City 

Hewitt & Brown, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Hiss & Weeks, New York Citv 

Hoffman F. Burrall, Jr., N. Y. C... 

Hooper, Parker Morse, N. Y. C. 

Hopkins. Alfred, New York City 

Howells & Stokes, New York City .. 

Huehl & Schmid, Chicago. 111. 

Hunt, Myron, Los Angeles, Cal 

Janes, E. Harris, New York City 

Janssen & Abbott, Pittsburgh, Pa... 
Jones & Furbringer, Memphis, Tenn. 

Jones. William C, Chicago, 111 

Kingsley, George S.. Chicago, 111. .- 
Kintzing, Lester, Philadelphia, Pa... 
Knowles, H. P., New York City ... 



Mate. 



24, 


25 


129- 


-131 


96 




9-11 




88, 


89 


107 


108 



Page. 

113, 115, 126 



144 

244 



275 

57, 278 
163 
Fp. Mav, 145 
305 
128, 298 

14-16 

72 

160 

33-42, 65-67 

12, 13, 145-147, 170-173 275 
138, 139 
291, 292 

88, 89 

Fp. Sept., 220, 221 

177-179, 187, 188 79, 115 

46-48, 153, 154 

28, 143 
Fp. July, 167, 168, 169 

189 

155 

7, 8, 57-59 

128 

81, 82 110, 111, 112 

135 
53, 55-57, 255, 275, 276 

60 

86, 87 

83, 84 

181 

24, 25 

139 

163 
144 
27, 28 
164, 165 

148-150 

52-54, 72 182 

128 
181, 255 

85 

26-28, 85 

180, 181 

63 

31, 32 

92-94 
64 

132, 133 
152 

138 



54,91,93-95 
163, 164 

299 

293-294 
144 



Architect. Home Address. 

La Beaume & Klein, St. Louis, Mo. 
Lawrence, Warrington G., N. Y. C. 

Leavitt, Charles W., Jr., Boston 

Le Boutillier, Addison B., Boston 

Lewis, Edwin J., Jr., Boston, Mass. 
Litchfield, Electus D., N. Y. C. . 

Little, J Lovell, Boston, Mass 

Lowell, Guy, Boston, Mass 

Ludemann, Henry F., Savannah, Ga. 
Ludlow & Peabody, New York City. 
MacClure & Spahr, Pittsburgh, Pa.__ 

Magaziner & Potter, Phila., Pa. 

Magonigle, H. Van Buren, N. Y. C. 

Maher, George W., Chicago, 111. 

Marston, Sylvanus B., Pasadena 

Mauran, Russell & Crowell, St. 

Louis, Mo 

Maynicke & Franke, New York City 
McKim, Mead & White, N. Y. C... . 
Mellor & Meigs, Philadelphia, Pa. .. 

Neff & Thompson, Norfolk, Va. 

Newton 1 , George, Boston, Mass. 

Nimmons, George C, Chicago, 111... 

Nyden, John A., Chicago, 111. 

Palmer, Edward L., Jr., Baltimore _ 
Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones, New I 

York City \ 

Parker, Thomas & Rice, Boston 

Perkins, Frederick W., Chicago, 111. 
Piatt, Charles A., New York City... 
Pope, John Russell, New York City. 

Post, George B. & Sons, N. Y. C 

Pringle, Thomas, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Roth & Study, St. Louis 

Schmidt, Garden &• Martin, Chicago 

Shaw, Howard, Chicago, 111. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 1 

Boston, Mass. ) 

Smith & Bassette, Hartford, Conn. _ 
Snedeker, C. V., Jr., Savannah, Ga. 

Spencer & Powers, Chicago, 111. 

Stanhope, L. E., Chicago, 111. 

Stem & Fellheimer, New York City. 
Stewardson & Page, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stone, Samuel, Jr., New Orleans, La. 
Sturgis, R. Clipston, Boston, Mass. 

Sullivan, Louis, Chicago, 111. 

Taylor, James Knox, Washington 

Tilton, Edward L., Boston, Mass. .. 
Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield, N.Y.C 
Trowbridge & Ackerman, N. Y. C. . 
Trumbauer, Horace, Phila., Pa. 
Vaughan, Henry, Washington, 1). C. 
Vonnegut & Bonn, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Waggaman, Clarke, Washington 

Warren & Wetmore, New York City 
Weeks, Charles Peter, San Francisco 
Wilcox, W. R. B., Burlington, Vt... 
Wilder & Wight, Kansas City, Mo. . 
Wood, Waddy B , Washington, D. C. 

York &. Sawyer, New York City 

Zimmerman, Hugo H., Chicago, 111. 
Zimmerman, W. Carbys, Chicago, 111. 



Plate. 
45 



191, 192 



109-112 



136, 137 
134, 135 



Page. 

Fp. June 
136 

185-188 
244 

295, 296 
244 
138 

29 

136 

180 

274 



30 



179 
79, 129, 137, 297, 298, 300 
114 

244 



151 

68-71 

113-127 

97-100, 

174-176 

101-106, 

140-144 

1-6 

95 

55, 56 
43, 44 

161-169 

61, 62 

109-112 

73-80 

19-21 
190 

156-157 
29, 184 
152 

22,23 



49-51 



17, 18 
182, 183 



15S, 159 
90, 91 



166 
192-194 

159-162, 269, 270 

185, 186 

77, 130, 133, 134, 137 
7, 8, 131 
45-49 

306 



26(1, 262-268, 
271-273 



166 

Fp. Aug. 

127 

9 

77, 80 

255 
146 

182 

37 10, 127 

1S1 
181 



166 
189, 190 



iv Index to Volume XXIII.. Jan. — Dec, 1914. The Brickbvilder. 

Index to Articles. 

Pages numbered ] 26 in the January issue; February, 27 50; March, 51-74; April, 75-98; May, 99-122 ; June, L23 

its; July, 149 174; August, 175 202; September, 203 230; October, 231-256; November, 257 282; 

December, 283 312. 

Page 

Apartment Building, The Small Hugo II. Zimmerman ... ..... 163 

Architectural Acoustics, Building Material and Musical Pitch . Wallace C. Sabine, 1 

Architectural Design as an Aid to Real Estate Promotion . .Garrett II. Irving 295 

Architectural Jurisprudence William L. Bowman. 

I. The Architect and Criminal Law . .. .. 157 

II. The Architect in Cost Plus Contracts 223 

Atelier System of Architectural Education in America, The .. Austin W. Lord. 

Two Parts 183,217 

Bathing Pools Within and Out of Doors .Wilfred Carew 135 

Brick House to Cost $7500, Competition for a . Report of the Jury of Award .. 69 

Business Side of an Architect's Office, The D. Everett Waid. 

V. The Office of Messrs. George B. Post & Sons. . 47 

VI. The Office of Messrs. Howard Greenlev and Taylor & Levi .. . 62 

VII. The Office .if Messrs. Mann & MacXeille 103 

Casement Windows, The Modern Use of Howard V. Bowen 113 

Church, The Small E. Donald Robb ... 233 

--nid Paper Decoration and Interior Fittings ....... 277 

Church, The Small Brick __R. Randal Phillips 245 

Church Bells, Chime and Peal Bells Clinton H. Meneely 253 

Circular Prison and Jail Plan, The W. Carbys Zimmerman. 189 

City House of Unusual Plan, A M. B. Stapley 41 

Collegiate Architecture, Recent Editorial... 259 

Harvard University Freshman Dormitories, Cambridge, Mass. 

Richmond College, Richmond, \'a. 

Colonial 1 )oot ways of Baltimore, Md. Riggin Buckler 140 

Color in Architecture, The Use of Birch Burdette Long 125 

Continental and Commercial National Bank Building, Chicago, 111., The Editorial 21 

" Dead Hand " in Architecture, The.. - Claude Bragdon ___ 149 

Department Store, Architecture of the Modern German .. .William L. Mowll 205 

Distinctive American Architecture . ... Montgomery Schuyler. 

I. The New St. Thomas's Church. New York, N. Y.,Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects . . 15 

II. The Biltmore Hotel, New York, N. V., Warren & Wetmore, Architects 37 

III. Chapel of the Intercession, New York, N. V., Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue; Cram. 

Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects . 85 

IV. The Oakland City Hall, Oakland, Cal., Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones, Architects . ..Aymar Embury II 159 

I (ormitory Group at Northwestern University, The New William D. Foster 269 

Ecclesiastical Tiles J. H. Dulles Allen 239 

Editorial Comments and Notes 26, 50, 73, 98, 122, 148. 172, 202, 230, 256 

282, 311 

Efficient Planning in Mercantile Structures .. .. Editorial 291 

English Interiors, Some Modern - .. .. R. Randal Phillips 65 

Farm Buildings, Modern Alfred Hopkins. 

Two Paits 51 ( 91 

Heating and Ventilation ...... Charles L. Hubbard. 

I. Office Data for the Architect .. 33 

II. Space Required for Apparatus ns 

III. Offices and Banking Rooms ..... 307 

Hospital Doors and Windows . . William B. Stratton 153 

Hospital, The New King's College, London, Fnedand, William A. Pite, F.R.I.B.A., Architect ...R. Randal Phillips 99 

[-Beams, A Comparison of the Structural Efficiency of . .Frank H. Carter, C.E 147 

Iron Work of Baltimore, Old Riggin Buckler 30 

Library, The Private ..H. T. Bottomle\ . 

TwoParts- ..75,130 

Lighting of Public and Semi- Public Buildings . L. B. Marks. 

V. Hotels and Clubs, Hospitals and Railway Terminals . . . io 

VI. Gas Lighting . ... . _. 4; 

Miniatures and Their Value in Architectural Practice _ ..Berthold Audslcv 213 

Monographs on Architectural •Renderers . Editorial 

I. The Work of Otto R. Eggers. .. .'.. 7 

II. The Work of Alfred Morton Githens .... >j 
HI. The Work of E. Donald Robb ... ..... 55 

IV. The Work of J. Andre Smith. "Y.'.'.Y. 81 

V. The Work of Thomas R. [ohnson _ _ _ Ho 

VI. The Work of Floyd Yewell 143 

VII. The Work of Rockwell Kent 1 67 

VIII. The Work of A. B. Le Boutillier 185 

IX. The Work of Charles Z. Klaudcr 1 '1. 

X. The Work of Birch Burdette Long ... ..... . 274 

XI. A Comparison of English, French, and German Work. 30] 

Monumental Treatment of Fireplaces . .. David E. Fulton. 

I. In the Harvard University Freshman Dormitories, Cambridge, Mass. . 271 

297 



II. Selected 



Professors and the Profession, The .. ... .Albert Kelsex ~96 

Quantity System in Estimating .. Editorial.. 25 

Salem Fire from an Architect's Point of View ... Walter II. Kilham 170 

Spanish Buildings, Some Old and Unfamiliar • _ Arthur G Byne. 

I. Casa de Las Muertes, Hospital Real and Colegio de San Gregorio ... 59 

II. Hospital de Santa Cruz, Toledo ' p )f> 

III. University of Salamanca and the Palacio Polentinos, Avila . ->>; 

IV. Details. Sigiienza Cathedral and Pulpit in Palma Cathedral "49 

Store and Loft Buildings fulius Franke "". II "'."'.'.'. 177 

Suburb Conforming to Architectural Standards, A., Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. .. Arthur B. Cranford 191 

Suburban House and Garage, Competition for a Report of the Jury of Award 195 

Survival..) the Unfit, The. . Louis La Beaume >n 

I heatre, I he American, Its Antecedents and Characteristics ..Hugh Tallant 285 



COMPETITION PROGRAM— A BRICK HOUSE— Page XXIV 



THE 



BRICKBWDER 




HAN 







ARCHIIECVRAL 

MONTHIY 




JANUARY 

1914 




-[52523 no.* 



PVBLISHED BY 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 




BOSTON MASS. 



^SSSSSSSSm^S^SSSS^^ ,«S^SS$KSS$SS-V 












?/. y/, 









I 



■'/. v. 



ST. LOUIS 
TERRA COTTA CO. 

Manufacturers of 

Architectural 

AND 

Ornamental 

TERRA COTTA 

IN ALL COLORS 



EstablUhed 1856 



Henry Maurer & Son 

Manufacturer! of 

HOLLOW TILE 

Fireproofing Materials 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

Flat and Segment Arches 
Partitions, Furring, Etc. 

Hollow Wall Blocks for Buildings 

GENERAL OFFICE 

420 East 23d Street - New York 

Philadelphia Office, Penna Building 
Works Maurer, New Jersey 






S '//. V/. 



TIFFANY 



THE GUARANTEED 



ENAMEL BRICK 



1203 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Chicago 



BRICK, TERRA COTTA 
AND TILE COMPANY 

M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor 

CORNING - - NEW YORK 

Manufacturers of 

Architectural 
TERRA COTTA 



New York Office - 1182 Broadway 

CARTER, BLACK & AYRES 

Agencies in all the Principal Cities 


















'/, s? 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



if 









1! 









I 


















II 



GRUEBY TILE AND FAIENCE 

Quality in design and manufacture, as opposed to Quantity, 
is the difference that has always distinguished Grueby Tiles 



THIS will continue to be the dis- 
tinctive characteristic of the de- 
sign and manufacture of our 
product in our new plant at South Boston, 
Mass., which has been erected to replace 
our factory destroyed by fire on June 12. 

The lack of proper manufacturing 
facilities imposed upon us by the de- 
struction of our plant compelled us to 
forego the acceptance of many orders 
and contracts for early delivery. 

We are now ready to announce the 
complete resumption of our business in 
our new plant where, with new appliances 
and the most approved facilities for the 
manufacture of faience and tile, we will 
be able to conduct a larger volume of 
business and enter into a more intimate 
association with architects in effecting 
beautiful and permanent decoration in 
faience than at any previous time in our 
history. 



Over twenty years ago the first Grueby 
Tiles were made. 

They were received as a distinct 
advance over the machine-perfect en- 
caustic tiles, laid in rigid patterns with 
nearly invisible joints — a level to which 
the tile maker's craft had degenerated. 
The plastic, hand-made Grueby Tiles 
introduced at that time have steadily 
gained favor with prominent architects, 
and with a constant increasing architec- 
tural character they have played no small 
part in the rejuvenation of pavement and 
wall design in this country. 

We have in process of manufacture a 
new floor tile which is unusually distinc- 
tive in architectural qualities and which 
we firmly believe will merit the unquali- 
fied approbation of architects and their 
clients. 



We manufacture Tiles and Faience for exteriors, interiors, and floors in 
various size units and colors that will harmonize with different periods. 
Our flint mosaics cost less than ordinary marble and are much more 
durable and beautiful. Our non-slip, noiseless tiles do grip the feet. 
We invite your correspondence. 



Grueby Faience and Tile Company 

BOSTON, MASS. 



NEW YORK OFFICE 

In charge of Mr. G. H. Williams 

Architects' Building 



PHILADELPHIA 

Win. Moore Co. 
1506 Sansom Street 



LOS ANGELES OFFICE 

In charge of Mr. Carl Enos Nash 

208 Broadway Central Bldg. 



i! 





















I 






ii 

I 









THE BRICKBUILDER. 










THE BRICKBUILDER 



111 



11 










THERE is no better way of 
adding interest and beauty 
to a brick facade than by 
the use of Atlantic Terra 



Cotta for the trim. White 
glazed Terra Cotta contrasting 
with the brick is particularly 
effective. 



Virginia Railway and Power Building, Richmond ; Alfred C. Bossom, 
Architect ; John T. Wilson Co., Builders. White glazed Atlantic Terra 
Cotta in connection with brick. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company 

1170 Broadway, New York 



!! 






1! 






1 

i! 



I! 






IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



v. % 






1! 






« 



« 7a 




Masonic Temple. -San Francisco. California Bliss & Faville. Architects 

WHITE MATT ENAMEL 

and 

POLYCHROME ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

furnished by 

Gladding, McBean & Company 



OFFICE 

Crocker Building, San Francisco 



WORKS 

Lincoln, California 



v. v. 



(! 






v. v. 



: 












THE BRICKBUILDER 









I 

v, % 

I 



1 






■1 







Reproduced by permission of the Equitable Office Building Corp. 

THE EQUITABLE BUILDING 



NEW YORK CITY 



ERNEST R. GRAHAM. Architect 



THOMPSON-STAR RETT CO., Builders 



Arrfjtiniural ®?rra (llflita 

is to be the predominant building material throughout all elevations. 
The contract for the Terra Cotta has been placed with 

IM^ral ®?rra Cotta (Eompatuj 

Trinity Building, NEW YORK Monadnock Building, CHICAGO 

A Recognition of a Superior Grade of Term Cotta and Efficient Management 



VI 

% % 
■'/, ■'/, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE NEW JERSE\7 
ERRA COTTA CO. I 



AEC!SHTIEC¥IEJM^,L 
UN ALL COL 







....... 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



Vll 









I 









11 



jgeto gorfe architectural GTerraCotta Company Bo 



is^^^^ssss^ss^s^^^ 



I 




BIRKS BUILDING 
VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Snmerville & Putnam. Architects 



Terra-Cotta set without the expenditure oj a dollar for fitting at the building 

This magnificent and infinitely durable building for Henry Birks & Sons, Limited, leading Canadian jewelers, is but one 
more link in the ever growing chain of monumental buildings constructed entirely of terra-cotta furnished by the 

Nnu fork Arrljitrrtural ®erra-(Efltta (ftompang 

The terra-cotta from sidewalk to soffit crown is a gray matt finish, matching Portland stone, but with monotony of appear- 
ance obviated by a desired variation in color. The varying tones, merging and blending without sharp demarcation, bring 
out the beauty and exactness of the detail and give distinct character and life to the design. 

ONE FACTORY ONK MANAGEMENT FOR TWENTY-EIGHT YEARS 



401 VERNON AVENUE 
rough of Queens NEW YORK CITY 



% -y, ^ smm ^^^^^^^^m^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ssmm& 



smmmk s> ss ssss^sjssssss^s^^^^ % '/, 



Vlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 









I 






i 









% 



I: 

I -I 




ARCHITECTS searching for a medium 
Xlin which to express new forms will 
find in American Architectural Terra 
Cotta a material of the widest scope. 
It can take any form desired, and he- 
cause of the plastic properties of the 
material it is most adaptable for the ex- 
ecution of original detail. We gladly 
submit models of detail work which 
provide the architect very good means 
of judging the completed effect of the 
building at an early stage. 

Illustration shows terra cotta detail executed at our plant for 
Madison State Bank, Madison, Minn., Purcell, Feick & Elms- 
lie, Architects. 

AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
AND CERAMIC COMPANY 



ol I ICES 

PEOPLE'S GAS BUILDING. CHICAGO 



«• !S 



FACTORY 

TERRA COTTA. ILL. 



MANUFACTURERS' CATALOGUES AND SAMPLES WANTED 



Louis Allen Abramson, formerly of the firm of 
J allude & Abramson, announces the opening of an 
office for the practice of architecture at 220 Fifth 
avenue, New York. 

Warren R. Briggs, F.A.I. A., announces that 
he has formed a partnership with Edward B. Cald- 
well, Jr., for the practice of architecture under the 
firm name of Briggs & Caldwell, with offices in the 
Security Building, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Frank P. Nichols announces that he has opened 
an office at 501 Conover Building, Dayton, Ohio, 
for the practice of architecture. 

Albert W. Burgren, architect, formerly of the 
firm of T. Patterson Ross and A. W. Burgren, an- 
nounces that he has opened offices in the Ilolbrook 
Building, 58 Sutter street, San Francisco. 

Charles 11. E. Horn, formerly with Edbrooke and 
Horn, announces that he has opened offices for the 
practice of architecture at 712 714 Gas & Electric 
Building, Denver, Colo. 

The partnership of Giesecke and Stevens is an- 
nounced for the practice of architecture with offices 
in the Littlefield Building, Austin, Tex. 



Edward Crosby Doughty, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
Paris, France, Frederic George Bates, formerly 
Associate Architect with J. Milton Dyer, of Cleve- 
land, and James Allen Kane, formerly Chief De- 
signer for Parker, Thomas & Rice, architects, of 
Boston and Baltimore, announce their co-partner- 
ship for the practice of architecture, under the firm 
name of Kane, Bates, & Doughty, with offices at 
2203-13-14 Dime Savings Bank Building, Detroit, 
Mich. 

Isadore Feldman, for the past seven years con- 
nected with the office of J. P. Hynes, architect, has 
opened offices for the practice of architecture at 44 
Adelaide St., West, Toronto, Ont. 

Wasmansdorf & Eastman, architects, Lewiston, 
Mont., announce the opening of an office at Great 

Falls, Mont. 

William Carver, architect, announces the opening 
of an office in Phoenix, Ariz. 

R. Maury Browne and Robert C. Lehman announce 
that they have formed a partnership under the firm 
name of Browne & Lehman for the practice of archi- 
tecture at 1618 Bank of Commerce Building, Nor- 
folk, Va. 






!! 

V, V 

II 



I % 






II 

I 

■p, gj ;s$s$sss$!ssssassss$sa*ss*ssss!sss^ . ^mssss^ssssssssssssssssasssssssas ^ s> 



[ 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IX 



II 






i 









I! 






II 



ii 



II 

I! 






POLYCHROME TERRA COTTA 




WAITING BOOM, ROCHESTER PASSENGER STATION 



CLAUDE BR AG DON, Architect 







NE of the most beautiful and sympathetic uses ot polychrome terra 
cotta work in recent years is the frieze in the waiting room of the 
Rochester Passenger Station. The capitals of the pilasters and columns 
and the belt course at the spring of the great vault are likewise executed in 
our product. There is no other material which can so closely reproduce an 
architect's conception of color and decoration. 

We have devoted many years and spared no expense in the development 
of polychrome faience and our executed work in the most prominent build- 
ings in this country is unexcelled for the quality of the glazes and the beauty 
of their color. 

Where you desire rich and beautiful color effects in a 
permanent material our product will meet your demands. 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Company 



1133 BROADWAY, N.Y.C. 



NICETOWN, PA. 



45 BATTERYMARCH ST., BOSTON 












11 












THE BRICKBUILDER. 



II 




I 



The MODERN APARTMENT BUILDING 
must look as bright and fresh outside 
as inside. A building which is trimmed 
with Terra Cotta always looks new. 

MIDLAND 

TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 






I 



II 



THE INDIANAPOLIS 
TERRA COTTA CO. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



! 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 



1 






A Brickbuilder Bindei 




M 



ANY of our subscribers desire 
to retain their copies of THE 
BRICKBUILDER in an attractive and 
durable form for reference. For their 
convenience we have had made a 
most serviceable binder with stiff board 
backs covered with imitation leather 
with the title stamped in gold. 

The copies can be easily inserted or 
removed and no cutting or mutilation 
is necessary. They are held in place 
by narrow steel strips which hook over 
upright posts, made in sections so that 
the binder is equally serviceable for a 
few copies or for an entire volume. 
We offer them to THE BRICK- 
BUILDER subscribers at cost plus the 
shipment charges. 




Sent prepaid to any address in the United States for $1.50 

THE BRICKBUILDER 

85 Water Street Boston, Massachusetts 






II 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XI 









I 



II 
■a '/, 

11 



j "mmmr iiiiftrtnml Himmiml I nfrtttWr^»ia 1 




ii.--.-n. : 



i. Architects 



THE CHESfNUT STREET OPEKA HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA, 



Goorge & Bor»t, (i 



E 



VERY detail of the best precedent in classic architecture is faithfully expressed in 
architectural terra cotta in this theater facade. We believe it to be a convincing 
example that substantiates every claim we make for our product. The entire 
facade with the modeled detail of the cornice, column capitals and decorative panels is con- 
structed of a uniformly warm toned terra cotta in limestone finish with a vitreous surface. 

Much of the success of this work is due to our exact align- 
ment of pieces and accuracy in jointing. This is a characteristic 
quality of every piece of terra cotta produced at our plant. 
With our individual method of jointing and numbering and 
ordinary care on the part of the contractor, any architect can 
be certain of an equally successful building. 

Let us estimate on your next building 
We know how to make terra cotta 
We welcome an opportunity to prove it 




0. W. KETCHAM 



BURNT CLAY 
PRODUCTS 



Master Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Works: CRUM LYNNE, PA. 



NEW YORK, 1170 Broadway 
BOSTON, George Kendall. •» Pom Oflic 



Square 



u VSHINGTON, Lift Building 

BA1 I mom.. Hall, more American Building 



I 



I 



I 



I 



Xll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




I 



a 
a 

£ 



s 



v 



5 



I 



S 



7?wT???rT77OT? »^ wu/ ff7?7CT< << << ^ ^>>>y mi^aaaa tgg>>>a^>^^^ 



" INDEX OF " 
ADVERTISING 

ANNOVNCEMENTS 




American Enameled Brick and Tile Co. . xx 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. ... xlv 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. . viii 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co iii 

Bache, Semon & Co xxxviii 

Berger Manufacturing Co. . . xxxviii, xl, xliv 

Bird »5c Son 3d Cover 

Boynton Furnace Co xxxiii 

Bradford Pressed Brick Co xiv 

Bramhall-Deanc Co xxxvi 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. . . 2d Cover 

Cabot, Inc., Samuel xxxviii 

Carter, Black & Ayers xviii 

Casement Hardware Co xxxvi 

Clinton Metallic Paint Co xxxvi 

Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Co. . . xix 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Co. . ix 

Cutler Mail Chute Co xli 

Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co xliv 

Dreadnought Flooring Co xl 

Federal Terra Cotta Co v 

Fiske & Co., Inc xiii 

Gladding, McBean & Co iv 

Gorton & Lidgerwood Co xxxii 

Grueby Faience and Tile Co i 

Guastavino Co., R xxi 

Gum Lumber M'frs Ass' n xxxvii 

Hay Walker Brick Co., Inc xvii 

Hocking Valley Products Co xv 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co xxiii 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co x 

Ironclay Brick Co xvi 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W xlv 



Ketcham, O. VV xi 

Keystone Clay Products Co xviii 

Ludowici-Celadon Co xxii 

Macbeth Evans Glass Co xlvi 

Maurer, Henry, & Son 2d Cover 

Midland Terra Cotta Co x 

National Fire Proofing Co. . . . Hack Cover 

National Lead Co xxix 

National X-Ray Co xli 

Never Split Seat Co xxxvi 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co vi 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. vii 

New York Belting & Packing Co. . xliii 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Co ii 

Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Co xvi 

Prometheus Electric Co xl 

Raymond Concrete Pile Company . . xxxv 
Reliance Ball Bearing Door Hanger Co. . xliv 

Richardson & Boynton xxxiv 

Rogers and Manson Co. . xxx and xlii 

Rookwood Pottery Co xx 

Ruud Manufacturing Co xxxix 

Sargent & Company xxvii 

Sayre & Fisher Co xvi 

Smith Co., The H. B xxxii 

Smith, Edw., & Co. xli 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co vi 

St. Louis Terra Cotta Co 2d Cover 

Taylor Company, N. & G xxviii 

Tiffany Enameled Brick Co. . . . 2d Cover 
Trenton Potteries Co xxxi 

Western Brick Co xviii 

Western Electric Co xliii 

Wiley, John, & Sons 3d Cover 



A 



A 



z 



I 



z 



5 



V 



5 

V 



V 



V 



5 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Xlll 




HIGH SCHOOL, ALBANY, N.Y. 



Starrett & VanVleck and Oran Winthrop Rice, Architects 



BUILT OF 



TAPESTRY BKICK 

Trade mark registered, United States Patent Office and Canada 

MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

FISKE &- COMPANY, INC. 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 



XIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



11 



%i 







i 



11 






Section of Front - 
1i.esidence of 
Ernest Flagg 
yJrchitect 
Neu) York City 



Showing Use of 
"Bradford Reds" 



See Sweet's Catalog 



For buildings where the ultimate of refinement and 
service is demanded, architects find the answer in 

"Bradford Pressed Brick" 

(Trade Mark Reg. U. S. Pat. Office) 

The only brick made from the famous Bradford Red Shale, it is 
distinguished by its uniform, rich red color. Every brick is carefully 
inspected before shipment and will be found of standard size 
and texture. 

"Bradford Reds" Both dry pressed and wire 

cut impervious- the stand- 
ard RED Brick of America. For exterior walls, mantels, 
arches, interior walls and columns. Made in Roman and 
Standard sizes and matched with ornamentals carried in stock 

"Bradford Ruffs" £ .^ au f tiful rough su ff rface 

brick ror rustic effects 

Unusual attention given to reproducing Architects' Designs. Estimates and samples on request. 
Fill out the coupon below and send for our catalog today. 



MAIL THIS COUPON TO US TODAY 



BRADFORD PRESSED BRICK COMPANY 
BRADFORD, PENNSYLVANIA 



Please send me your ' ' RED ' ' Catalog. 



Name^ 



City and Slate 
St. Address 



Bradford Pressed Brick 
Company 

" The Red Brick People " 
BRADFORD - PENNSYLVANIA 



II 



I 



II 

11 












II 






THE BRICKBUILDER. xv 

|| m 9 || 

1 TJ? the Architectural Profession |) 






r ■ ^WRnilCH fl^ nn^c ^f fUl'o l^^nnl ;„of ™<> .root- o™ „,o 



^l; "THROUGH the pages of this journal, just one year ago, we 
first announced our line of 

|| GREENDALES g 

PATENTS APPLIED FOR Copyright, 1913 

II . Jl 

followed with a series of faithful color plates, which were not only 
strikingly beautiful in themselves, but which also reproduced the material 
exactly, with pictured suggestions as to joint treatment. 

During 1913 we served important buildings from New York to the extreme 
West, and from the Gulf of Mexico through Canada to Vancouver, Winnipeg and 
Montreal. (No other brick has ever met with such universal favor.) Why ? In 
GREENDALE RUGS we have patiently and earnestly endeavored toward produc- 



tion of facing- brick in texture, tone, and beautifully diversified color effects, which 
...... . ... . . .... 






would afford architects unlimited play in design and treatment, while making of brick 
a leading factor in the uplift of modern architecture and artistic effects, which will 
stand the test of time and the elements with beauty unimpaired. 

We start the new year with a record of successful achievement behind us. Our 
factory, the finest brick-making plant in the world, is running as smoothly as a giant 
ocean liner. Our equipment, clays and experience insure in the finished product those 
refinements of texture and color gradations which mean so much to the designers 



of our modern buildings. 

The colors are rich, soft and wonderfully varied. In texture no brick approaches 



the GREENDALE RUG, and the effect of a properly laid GREENDALE wall is 
artistic and satisfying in an extraordinary degree. 

If vou have never seen GREENDALES in the wall, or have never received 

samples, let us have your name so that an assortment of color prints or samples may 

be sent you. We want you to know all about GREENDALES and GREEN- 
II If 

DALE service. 

We wish to take this opportunity to thank the architects who have so generously 
contributed to the success GREENDALES have achieved during 1913, and in 
advance to thank those who use them in the future, and extend to all our sincere 

• , <■__ 1 J XT.... ^_- 



wishes for a happy and prosperous New Year. 



auvance iu uid.UK muse wuu use mem m mc iuluic, auu calciiu lu an uui biiiccie 
"""' V - J iV ^ ** * — rr; r -1 

If HOCKING VALLEY PRODUCTS COMPANY jj 

D. E. REAGAN, President 

Plant at Greendale, Ohio General Offices, Columbus, Ohio 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



7a % 






II 






II 

■"/. 7, 
7, '/, 






7, 7,. 




assess,'* 

iiuoiii mini HIIIBIIItl .■.. IliBIIHUU 

-«, ,];;;;;;;; minimm 

i nu nil iigi imn«w 

""»»«• ^lUlHi gill Jll! wl "" 





■■■■' 




O^ 



Adams Express Building, 57-59-61 Broadway, N. Y. 
Francis H. Kimball, Architect 

950,000 of our White Porcelain brick 

and 540,000 of our Cream White 

front brick used in this building 

Our White Porcelain Brick also 
Used in the Following Buildings 

City InvestingBuilding, Broadway, Cortlandtand Church Streets, 
650,000, Francis H. Kimball, Architect. Continental Insurance 
Building. 80 Maiden Lane, 750,000, D. H. Burnham Company, 
Architects. Western Union Telegraph Building, Broadway, 
Dey and Fulton Streets (now in course of erection), 700,000, 
William Wells Bosworth, Architect. Rockfall Apartments, 
N.E. Corner Broadway and lllth Street, 100,000, Geo. and Edw. 
Blum, Architects. German-American Insurance Building, 
Maiden Lane and Liberty Street, 250,000, Hill and Stout, Archi- 
tects. Broadway and Astor Place, 100,000, Francis H. Kimball, 
Architect. 

Sayre & Fisher Company 

Manufacturers of Fine Pressed 
Front Brick of various shades 

PLAIN AND MOULDED. WHITE OCHRE, LIGHT AND DARK 
BUFF, RED. GRAY POMPEII AN (mottled). OLD GOLD; ALSO PURE 
WHITE BRICK WITH DULL PORCELAIN FINISH. AND OUR NEW 
"PERSIAN" FACE BRICK. 

Superior Enamel Brick, Several Colors 

Re-pressed and Harvard Red Brick Hard Building Brick 

Fire Brick Hollow Brick 

If you have not seen our White Porcelain brick, send for samples 

Office: 261 Broadway, New York City, N.Y. 













'THE IRONCLAY BRICK is manu- 
* factured in seven different colors 
ranging from an old ivory to a deep 
bronze and represents the highest 
grade of Flashed Brick made. 

For composition, richness of color 
and durability, the Ironclay Brick is 
without a peer. 

Standards, Romans, Normans and 
ornamentals carried in stock at all 
times. 

The Ironclay Brick Company 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 



PFOTENHAUER = NESBIT CO. 

ST. JAMES BUILDING, BROADWAY, Cor. 26th ST. 
NEW YORK 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

ROUGH TEXTURE 
SMOOTH FACE 

IN RED, BUFF, GRAY, MOTTLED, 
WHITE, ETC. 

Enameled Brick, Roofing 
Tiles, Paving Clinkers, Etc. 

genuine "KITTANNING" Brick 
Genuine "H A R V A R D " Brick 
Genuine "GRE EN DALE" Rugs 



ll 












i! 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



xvi 1 






II 



HAY WALKER BRICK COMPANY 

SUCCESSORS TO 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co. Building Brick Department 

Manufacturers of high grade Templeton impervious Gray and BufT 
brick, Enamel brick, Porcelain brick, rough texture, iron spots, 
Corduroy and Velvet brick, in all shades. 

Plants located advantageously for shipments to all parts of the United 
States and Canada. 

Our large capacity enables us to handle satisfactorily every sized order. 



General Offices 

Farmers Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



New York Office 



AGENTS IN ALL LEADING CITIES AND TOWNS 




MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD STATION, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects, George A. Fuller Co., Contractors 

When completed two million five hundred thousand of high grade Templeton brick will have been used in this building 



1 









St. James Building, 1133 Broadway 



II 

I 






I 

% % ^^^^^^^^mm^m^^mmmmsmmm^^m^msms^mmimsmsmiss^m^ s «• !^m**ssas$s<s<ss$s^^^ % <* 



.Will 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






II 



















I 



II 



II 









I 



it 



I 



YY/HEN you select BRICK, 
you select the best 
material for a house. 

When you choose KEY- 
STONE REDS, you pick out 
the best brick made. 

May we send samples? 

KEYSTONE CLAY PRODUCTS CO. 

GREENSBURG, PA. 






II 









Western Brick Company 



DANVILLE, ILLINOIS 



ARTISTIC MEDIUM PRICED 

FACING BRICK 



IN ALL SHADES 



SMOOTH AND ROUGH TEXTURE 



CAPACITY 85,000,000 YEARLY 



I 









Two Entirely New Lines for 1914 



Write for Catalogue 



If 



SS^S««««««5««5«S^55S*S«^^ 



II 



\ 

'/a % 




One Hundred Bungalows 

The title of a 120 page booklet which 
contains one hundred designs for 
houses of the Bungalow type sub- 
mitted in the competition recently 
conducted by THE BRICKBVILDER 

Price, 50 cents 

ROGERS AND MANSON CO., Boston 



The Natco House 

The title of a new 72 page booklet 
which contains a selection of designs 
submitted in competition for a house 
to be built of terra cotta hollow tile 
at a cost of six thousand dollars. 
Also illustrations of houses built of 
this material, together with articles 
describing construction, etc. 

Price, 50 cents 

ROGERS AND MANSON CO., Boston 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xix 



11 






1 1 

it 



II 




w>.u 



Office and Factory Buildings of 

THE NATIONAL CASH REGISTER COMPANY, DAYTON, OHIO 

2,500,000 Buff and Gray Brick, manufactured by The Columbus Brick and Terra Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio, 

were used in the facades of these buildings 



Our Astrakhan Brick 
is the most perfect, 
rough texture brick 
on the market in size, 
shape and quality 




Made in 
BUFF, ONYX, 
GRANITE, GRAY 
and FLEMISH 



npV "PT?T?QQprri Gra y> Buff Speckled, Gray Speckled 
Ulvl rlvDoOuL' Standards and Normans 

\X/ J JvE> OU Ivory and Gray in Standards only 

ORNAMENTAL man colors 

BRICK MANTELS AND ARCHES MADE TO ORDER 

The Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Co. 



Established 1885 



Main Office: COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Works: UNION FURNACE, OHIO 



1! 



s 









,1 









XX 



THE BRICKBUILDER 









The BEAUTY, DURABILITY, and PERMANENT VALUE of 

"AMERICAN" 

Enameled Brick 




III 111 



■■ ■■! 

; — '. 'flf MWJWBT 




Is recognized by Architects in the British 
Possessions as well as in the United States. 

Illustration shows the Watkins Building, Hamilton, 
Ont., Canada, the exterior of which is built of White 
and Sage Green " American " Enameled Brick with 
excellent effect. 

"American" Enameled Brick are matt or lustrous in 
finish, impervious to moisture and rich in color. They 
defy the ravages of time and keep a building "new" 
for a century. 

Their many colors permit of extreme ornamentation in de- 
sign and afford a distinction in appearance unequaled by 
any other face brick. 

Samples — Miniature or full size brick forwarded upon 
request. Prompt attention given formal inquiries. 

See Sweet's Catalogue, I 9 1 3 edition, pages 122-131 

American Enameled Brick & Tile Co. 

1182 Broadway, New York City 



i 



If 

if 



ii 



1 1 

i 






II 



i 



ii 



Rookwood Faience Fountain 

In Light Gray Matt Glaze 



1! 

I 




For the Union Centra] Life Insurance Building, Cincinnati 



The Rookwood Pottery Company 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 

New York Office: ARCHITECTS' BUILDING, 101 PARK AVENUE 



II 
II 



School Architecture 

By Edmund M. Wheelwright 

This well-known work which 
deals with the planning of 

SchoolhoiiM-s ill all grades 

Will Soon Be Out of Print 

Less than 100 copies remain unsold 



Price $5.00 D« 



■red 



Rogers and Manson Company 

Publishers 
Boston 



PI 

I 

II 



If 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



x\i 



I! 



!! 



i 



I 



i 

i 



i 




Sntrriiir, g>t. uH;nmas'a (Clntrrh. Nun IJnrk 



(Cram. (fuuiMutr & Jfrriutauu. Arrljitrrtn (JC. 11. (Offirr) 

®hr ammtpanytttg iUimtrattmt shmus a fiftij-ftwt swan lltanltrit (Erilinn of 
(IJIjts is an rxamulr of our serial texture ftutfifyrn ail? auauten fur riutrrli murk. 



: 






Unsimt 
en g»tatt 8>t. 



K. (SttaBtaittu0 Gin. 



Nrnt Murk 

Ifullrr liuiliMuu 



I 






XX11 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 









I 

'A V. 

■//. ■<■/. 



1 



■I 



I 



I 







IMPERIAL 
CLOSED 
SHINGLE 
TILE 

USED ON 
LEONARD 
RESIDENCE 




LENGTH 

WIDTH 

EXPOSURE 

WEIGHT PER SQUARE 



8X8 INCHES 
- 950 LBS 



>ERIAL CLOSED SHINGLE TILE 

THERE is so much distinctive residence work and so much dis- 
tinctive work of more public character where the type and style 
of architecture calls for a sharply accentuated horizontal line on 
the roof, that there has always been a great demand for a good shingle 
tile of low reveal. 

With the flat shingle tile the desired architectural effect is obtained, 
but the warpage of these materials is so great and they are inherently 
so brittle, and therefore perishable, that the architectural effect is 
obtained often at the cost of weather-tightness, and with an absolute 
lack of economy. 

Our IMPERIAL CLOSED SHINGLE TILE is the result of years of experience and years 
of effort to produce a shingle tile that will give the desired horizontal line effect without the 
weak points mentioned above. It is a shingle tile of low reveal, interlocking at the top, bottom 
and side, and without the warpage and brittleness of the flat shingle. 

We show our IMPERIAL CLOSED SHINGLE TILE with stock trimmings laid on the roof 
of the Leonard residence, which is one of over a hundred moderate priced residences, which we 
have roofed with these tiles for the Sage Foundation Settlement at Forest Hills, L. I. Mr. Gros- 
venor Atterbury of New York City prepared the plans. 

The mottled color effect shown in this case is obtained by mixing our fire flashed tiles with 
tiles of a natural red color. The fire flashed tiles vary in color from a bright terra cotta red to a 
rich chocolate brown with all the intervening shades, and make an extremely attractive roof 
where variety of shade is desired and when it is not advisable to use a glazed tile. 

These tiles, like our other stock patterns, are manufactured in the full and matt glazes, as 
well as in the natural red and fire flashed. Samples will be gladly forwarded, express prepaid, 
on request. 

LUDOWICI-CELADON COMPANY 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xxm 



^ms^mmmmmmm. 



« 




THE PREDOMINANT HOME- 
BUILDING MATERIAL 

Those who know building-materials best agree 
that brick is the predominant facing-material for 
residences. 

No other material gives the architect such a 
wide scope for the expression of his genius. 

No other material is so enduring, so fire-safe; 
or gives such comfort in all extremes of weather. 

No other material is so economical in the 
long run. 



Hy-tex BricK 



gives the architect the utmost of these brick qualities. Our 
facilities for manufacture, distribution and prompt service 
are not and cannot be equaled by any other manufacturer. 
Hy-tex is the only name that stands for quality in every 
kind, color and texture known to brick-burning. 

NOTE — To those of the architectural profession 
interested in the competition for a $7500 residence 
faced with Hy-tex Brick, announced in this issue 
of The Brickbvilder, we shall be glad to send Hy- 
tex literature on request. Simply ask any of our 
offices for a "Competition Packet." 

HYDRAULIC-PRESS BRICK COMPANY 

Dept. M6. ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 

Largest Manufacturers of Face Brick in the World 

BRANCH OFFICES AND EXHIBIT ROOM 



BALTIMORE, MD., Title Bldg. 
CHICAGO, ILL., Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
CINCINNATI, O., Fourth National Bank Bldg. 
CLEVELAND, O., Schofield Bldg. 
DAVENPORT, IA., Putnam Bldg. 
INDIANAPOLIS, IND., Board of Trade Bldg. 



WASHINGTON, D. C, Colorado Bldg. 



KANSAS CITY, MO., Rialto Bldg. 
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 211 S. Fourth St. 
NEW YORK CITY, 381 Fourth Ave. 
OMAHA, NEB., Woodmen of the World Bldg. 
PHILADELPHIA, PA., Real Estate Trust Bldg. 
TOLEDO, O., Ohio Bldg. 



!• 



II 



II 



xxiv THE BRICKBUILDER. 

j| Competition for a Brick House to Cost $7,500 jf 

|| TO BE FACED WITH HY-TEX BRICK j| 

First Prize, $500 Mentions Third Prize, $150 

Second Prize, $250 Fourth Prize, $100 

Competition Closes February 10, 1914 

PROGRAM 

r ■ "^IIK problem is a detached house, to be faced with Hy-Tex brick at a cosl not to exceed $7, 500. Thestyleof 
the house .-uhI plan arrangement is left entirely to the designer; it should, however, provide the usual accom- 
-*- modations and conveniences for a small American family of moderate means. It is especially desired that 
the design should show generous appreciation of good brickwork, and in this connection originality in the treat- 
ment of the facing possibilities of the material is courted. The location may be assumed in a town, small city, 
or suburb of a large city. Shape and size of lot may be established arbitrarily by the designer; the land is level. 

The cost of the house complete, exclusive of the land, must be figured at 23 cents per cubic foot. This price 
must include cost of excavation, plumbing, heating, electric wiring, hardware and painting, in addition to 
the other costs of materials and construction. Measurements must be taken from the outside face of exterior 
walls and from the level of the basement Moor to the average height of all roofs, measured to a point two-thirds 
of the distance from the highest cornice to the ridge. Porches, verandas, and other additions are to be figured 
separately at one-fourth (twenty-five per cent) of their total cubage, provided they project beyond the bearing 
walls, and at one hundred per cent if provided for within the bearing walls. All cubage and other dimen- 
sions will be checked before the drawings are submitted to the jury. Those designs which exceed the limit of 
cost or which do not meet the other requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The jury will give consideration first, to the fitness of the design, to the material employed esthetically 
considered; secondly, to the excellence of plan. 

On the drawing, in a space measuring (i by •> inches enclosed in border line, is to be given, at a size which will 

permit of three-quarters reduction, the cubage of the house multiplied by the cost per cubic foot, and the various 

items, enumerated with costs, which go to make up the total cost of the house. An additional value will be given 

to the work if the style and color of brick chosen are indicated on the drawing either by a key or a series of notes 

printed on the sheet. 

...... 

This competition is being given for two distinct purposes. first: to encourage Tin: Bbickbvildeb in its 

effort to create a wholesome brick architecture in America and to iiive to architects and architectural draftsmen 

of the country an opportunity to measure their skill with one another. Second: to encourage a greater and more 

extended use of Hy-tex Brick in their various colors, textures, and forms. These brick are manufactured by the 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, the patrons of this competition and the contestants will be helped by a study 

of the catalogues and booklets issued by this company, which, upon application to the nearest office, will be 

sent to any architect desiring them. (See addresses on preceding page. ) 



I 



CONSTRUCTION 






Methods usually employed in the construction of brick walls as to bonding, anchorage, etc. may be followed, 
the exterior walls to be wholly faced with brick. 



Vi 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On a sheet of white paper measuring exactlj 26 by 20 inches with plain black border lines drawn one inch from edges, giving a space 
within the border lines of 24 by is inches, give a pen and ink perspective of the house, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 

feet to the inch; plans of firsi and second floors al a scale of S feet to the inch; a detail showing bond or other points of interest on 



feet to the inch; plans of tirst and second floors at a scale of S feet to the inch; a detail showing bond or other points of interest on 
exterior walls; enough detail sketches, including treatment of main entrance, to till out sheet. In connection with the plan of the first 
floor show as much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans are to be blocked 
in solid. Height of floors to be given on section. A graphic scale must accompany the plans. 
Very thin paper, mounted paper, or cardboard is prohibited. 



The drawing is to be signed by a iumi di pkm» or device, and accompanied by a sealed envelope, bearing the nom </> illume and con- 
taining the true name and address of the contestant within. 

The drawing is to be delivered Bat, or rolled (packed so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of The Bbickbviujeb, s5 

Water Street. Boston. Mass. , on or before February 10, 1914. 

Drawings submitted in this competition arc at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be 

exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged bj three or five members of the architectural profession representing different sections of the country. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brk kbvtldeb and the right is reserved by The Brickbvxldeh to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be given in connection with each design published. 

Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing, in the sealed envelopes containing 
their names, ten cents in stamps. 

Designs submitted in this competition will be returned direct from the office of The Huh khvii.dkh to the contestants. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This competition is open to all architects and architectural draftsmen. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Bbickbvii.oer. 

This competition is conducted under the patronage of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

11 



" «'«"«" riiliiun.iuin.f.Miii.i Miiiiiinn" 







'""""""""T'nrrr" 1 """""!'" 11 'irai i rpiiiiiiiiiiiirT r^ v i p' 11 ■ ■■ |i ■ ■■ : " iv 'l - i'"' 1 "'- ^- " n ni;. ■.iiinniiiiin 

UlillJUIIil '• i i'T *_unJ| .1 | n | - J 1 1 — :idi J' ^m^y^^J ijiu^y ji\ir.i.i-fl ^ HiiiHM |)) |mJ|J )H i,., ,,^:in ;»ii- il[^y;.|,||l,:i^,'£jH i'. . '. l.',:i.,llllJ|_MiiiiiLi.iii||iflim^[N^ mii'itmiHj]] 






,,-^f'l 





!»., Tj 



gpi^jw^^ 



KMIiiii 






NUMBER 1 



CONTENTS /or JANUARY 1914 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS Architect Plate 

CLUB, CAPITAL CITY, ATLANTA, GA Donn Barber 9-11 

HOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.. Joseph Everett Chandler 14-16 

HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D.C John Russell Pope 1-6 

LIBRARY. DAVIS. EXETER. N. H ....Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 12,13 

SCHOOL. GUILFORD PUBLIC. CINCINNATI. Garber & Woodward 7,8 



-**1 



M 



m 



LETTERPRESS 

DESIGN SUBMITTED FOR THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. WASHINGTON, D. C, 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT, OTTO R. EGGERS, DEL.- -Frontispiece 

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS. __ ....Wallace C. Sabine 

I. Building Material and Musical Pitch 
Illustrations from Diagrams 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS Ed. Review 

1. The Work of Otto R. Eggers 
Illustrations from Drawings 

LIGHTING OF PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS, THE L.B.Marks 

V. Hotels and Clubs, Hospitals, and Railway Terminals 

Illustrations from Photographs 

DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Montgomery Schuyler 

1. The New St. Thomas's Church. New York 
Cram. Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plan 

CONTINENTAL AND COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, THE 
CHICAGO. ILI Ed. Review 

D. II. Burnham & Co.. Architects 
Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 



Page 



10 



15 



21 



QUANTITY SYSTEM IN ESTIMATING 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



C neral Diz.ussizn 



m 



m 




"ji- 



lt 



all 



:y 



«t^ 



Wi 



I 



Mil 






1 

i 

II 
S- 




ii.me.i.ii.i.,;,! i : ...u^ 



~i»~ 



■»iiumiairn«t'H'i»-"-'n""— ■ 



uiuuu.jp; 





•1 




Ji its 



gQitOM- -j 

' RALPH- REINHOLD ■ -'10/55 ELL- F-WH ITEM EAD 

VKE-PR£5IBENT'S.'BVSINt5S'/vWNAGER.- •SECRfTAR.V&/M/WfllNG'EDlPR.' 
S! i TEREP-AT-THE-flPSTON-MASS- POST' OFFICE- A5-.5ECONO' CU 55/MIL- MATTER.- MAJKM' I8B2 

*- ■■' • COPY R.IGHT- 1914- BY' BPGERjS'AND-fAANSON-COrAPAN^- 

• SVftSCRIPTlON • RATES ' 
poR-THE'VNlTED'5TATtS'IT5-INiVLAR.-POSSES5lOMS-ANI)-CVBA'ft5.o«>pER;YEAR.v..l 

•F©R,'CANADA'55 30 PEfcYEAiO F o H-roR.ElGNC0VNTRlE5-!N'THE-TOTAL-VN)0N'6G? o -.- , ER-YEAR. J ;^ Mmmmmm 1 ^ 
•TRADE SVPPUED'BY-TttE- AMERICAN' NEWS • CQN\PAMY'AND'IT5- BRANCHES' \i' i IlTOift 

fAU CPPJE5 /AAl'..?^ F5.AT __ ^ ^ ^g 

^!^S^35S&t?^^ .wocrj(jyi/ , 'ij^/:-r.i-'Fi-ro:,:f J ;r(j"^.^;.'ifc J ; l ^.:,.. r ; . '--d 
-Jjjjj HJ ni> ' u> . mSSw .'iMn.M.r "*„.,''„ » „'" J. muffi I miiiiiiiiiiiii i I < A'M..t M a 'i J UBjjlJgj 









DESIGN SUBMITTED FOR THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

BY JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT. 

OTTO R. EGGERS, DELINEATOR. 



See article on page 7 . 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIII 



JANUARY, 1914 



NUMBER 1 



Architectural Acoustics. 



BUILDING MATERIAL AND MUSICAL PITCH. 



By WALLACE C. SABINE. 
Harvard University. 



THE absorbing- power of the various materials that en- 
ter into the construction and furnishing of an audi- 
torium is but one phase in the general investigation of 
the subject of architectural acoustics which the writer has 
been prosecuting for the past eighteen years. During the 
first five years the investigation was devoted almost exclu- 
sively to the determination of the coefficients of absorption 
for sounds having the pitch of violin C (512 vibrations 
per second). The results were published in the American 
Architect and the Engineering Record in 1900. It was 
obvious from the beginning that an investigation relating 
only to a single pitch was but a preliminary excursion, and 
that the complete solution of the problem called for an exten- 
sion of the investigation to cover the whole range in pitch 
of the speaking voice and of the musical scale. Therefore 
during the years which have since elapsed the investiga- 
tion has been extended over a range in pitch from three 
octaves below to three octaves above violin C. That it 
has taken so long is due to the fact that other aspects of 
the acoustical problem also pressed for solution, such for 
example as those depending on form, — interference, reso- 
nance, and echo. The delay has also been due in part to 
the nature of the investigation which has necessarily been 
opportunist in character and, given every opportunity, 
somewhat laborious and exhausting. Some measure of 
the labor involved may be gained from the fact that the 
investigation of the absorption coefficients for the single 
note of violin C required every other night from twelve 
until five for a period of three years. 

While many improvements have been made in the meth- 
ods of investigation and in the apparatus employed since 
the first paper was published fourteen years ago, the pres- 
ent paper is devoted solely to the presentation of the results. 
I shall venture to discuss, although briefly, the circum- 
stances under which the measurements were made, my 
object being to so interest architects that they will call at- 
tention to any opportunities which may come to their no- 
tice for the further extension of this work ; for, while the 
absorbing powers of many materials have already been 
determined, it is evident that the list is still incomplete. 
For example, the coefficient of glass has been determined 
only for the note first studied, C, an octave above middle 
C. In 1898 the University had just completed the con- 
struction of some greenhouses in the Botanical Gardens, 
which, before the plants were moved in, fulfilled admira- 
bly the conditions necessary for accurate experimenting. 



Glass formed a very large part of the area of the enclosing 
surfaces, all, in fact, except the floor, and this was of con- 
crete whose coefficient of absorption was low and had 
already been determined with accuracy. By this good 
fortune it was possible to determine the absorbing power 
of single-thickness glass. But at that time the apparatus 
was adapted only to the study of one note ; and as the 
greenhouse was soon fully occupied with growing plants 
which could not be moved without danger, it was no 
longer available for the purpose when the scope of the in- 
vestigation was extended. Since then no similar or nearly 
so good opportunity has presented itself , and the absorbing 
power of this important structural surface over the range 
of the musical scale has not as yet been determined. 
There was what seemed for the moment to be an opportu- 
nity for obtaining this data in an indoor tennis court which 
Messrs. McKim, Mead, and White, were erecting at Rhine- 
beck on the Hudson, and the architects undertook to se- 
cure the privilege of experimenting in the room, but 
inquiry showed that the tennis court was of turf , the ab- 
sorption of which was so large and variable as to prevent 
an accurate determination of the coefficients for the glass. 
The necessary conditions for such experiments are that 
the material to be investigated shall be large in area, and 
that the other materials shall be small in area, low in 
power of absorption, and constant in character ; while a 
contributing factor to the ease and accuracy of the inves- 
tigation is that the room shall be so located as to be very 
quiet at some period of the day or night. The present 
paper is therefore a report of progress as well as an appeal 
for further opportunities, and it is hoped that it will not 
be out of place at the end of the paper to point out some 
of the problems which remain and ask that interested 
architects call attention to any rooms in which it may 
be possible to complete the work. 

The investigation does not wholly wait on opportunity. 
A special room, exceptionally well adapted to the purpose 
in size, shape, and location, has been constantly available 
for the research in one form or another. This room, initially 
lined with brick set in cement, has been lined in turn with 
tile of various kinds, with plaster, and with plaster on 
wood lath, as well as finished from time to time in other 
surfaces. This process, however, is expensive, and carried 
out in completeness would be beyond what could be borne 
personally. Moreover, it has further limitations. For 
example, it is not possible in this room to determine the 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



absorbing' power of glass windows, for one of the essential 
features of a window is that the outside space to which 
the sound is transmitted shall be open and unobstructed. 
An inner lining of glass, even though this be placed 
several inches from the wall, would not with certainty 
represent normal conditions or show the effect of windows 
as ordinarily employed in an auditorium. Notwithstand- 
ing' these limitations, this room, carefully studied in re- 
spect to the effects of its peculiarities of form, especially 
such as arise from interference and resonance, has been 
of great service. 

Wall and Ceiling Surfaces. 

It is well to bear in mind that the absorption of sound 
by a wall surface is structural and not superficial. That 
it is superficial is one of the most widespread and persis- 
tent fallacies. When this investigation was initially 
undertaken in an endeavor to correct the acoustics in the 
lecture room of the Fogg Art Museum, one of the first 
suggestions was that the walls were too smooth and should 
be roughened. The proposal at that time was that the 
walls be replastered and scarred with the toothed trowel in 
a swirling motion and then painted, a type of decoration 
common twenty years ago. A few years later inquiries 
were received in regard to sanded surfaces, and still later 
in regard to a rough, pebbly surface of untroweled plas- 
ter ; while within the past three years there have been 
many inquiries as to the efficiency of roughened brick or 
of rough hewn stone. On the general principle of investi- 
gating any proposal so long as it contained even a possi- 
bility of merit, these suggestions were put to test. The 
concrete floor of a room was covered with a gravel so sifted 
that each pebble was about one-eighth of an inch in di- 
ameter. This was spread over the Moor so that pebble 
touched pebble, making a layer of but a single pebble in 
thickness. It showed not the slightest absorbing power, 
and there was no perceptible decrease in reverberation. 
The room was again tried with sand. Of course it was 
not possible in this ease to insure the thickness of a single 
grain only, but as far as possible this was accomplished. 
The result was the same. The scarred, the sanded, the 
pebbly plaster, and the rough hewn stone are only in- 
finitesimally more efficient as absorbents than the same 
walls smooth or even polished. The failure of such 
roughening of the wall surfaces to increase either the 
absorption or the dispersion of sound reflected from it is 
due to the fact that the sound waves, even of the highest 
notes, are long in comparison with the dimensions of the 
irregularities thus introduced. 

The absorption of sound by a wall is therefore a struc- 
tural phenomenon. It is almost infinitely varied in the 
details of its mechanism, but capable of classification in a 
few simple modes. The fundamental process common to 
all is an actual yielding of the wall surface to the vibrating 
pressure of the sound. How much the wall yields and 
what becomes of the motion thus taken up, depends on the 
nature of the structure. The simplest type of wall is 
obviously illustrated by concrete without steel reinforce- 
ment, for in this there is the nearest approach to perfect 
homogeneity. The amount that this wall would yield would 
depend upon its dimensions, particularly its thickness, 
and upon the density, the elasticity, and the viscosity of 



the material. It is possible to calculate this directly from 
the elements involved, but the process would be neither 
interesting nor convincing to an architect. It is in every 
way more satisfactory to determine the absorbing power 
by direct experiment. A concrete wall was not available. 
In its stead, the next more homogeneous wall was investi- 
gated, an eighteen-inch wall of brick set in cement. This 
wall was a very powerful reflector and its absorbing 
power exceedingly slight. Without going into the details 
of the experiment, it will suffice here to say that this wall 
absorbed one and one-tenth per cent of the lowest note in- 
vestigated, a C two octaves below middle C, having a 
vibration frequency of sixty-four per second ; one and two- 
tenths per cent of sounds an octave in pitch higher; one 
and four-tenths per cent of sounds of middle (' ; one and 
seven-tenths per cent for violin C ; two per cent for sounds 
having a pitch one octave above ; two and three-tenths 
for two octaves above ; and two and one-half per cent for 
sounds having a pitch three octaves above violin C, that 
is to say, 40 (l 4 vibrations per second, the highest note 
investigated. These may be written as coefficients of 
absorption thus : 

C 1( .011 ; C a , .012; C 3 , .014; C,, .017; C,, .020; C„, .023; C„ .025. 

There is a graphical method of presenting these results 
which is always employed in physics, and frequently in 
other branches of science, when the phenomenon under 
investigation is simply progressive and dependent upon a 
single variable. Whenever these conditions are satisfied — 
and they are usually satisfied in any well conducted inves- 
tigation, — the graphical representation of the results 
takes the form of a diagram in which the results of the 
measurements are plotted vertically at horizontal distances 
determined by the variable condition. Thus in the adja- 
cent diagram (Curve 1, Pig. I ) the coefficients of absorption 
are plotted vertically, the varying pitch being represented 
by horizontal distances along the base line. Such a dia- 
grammatic representation serves to reveal the accuracy of 
the work. If the phenomenon is a continuous one, the 
plotted points should lie on a smooth curve ; the nearness 
with which they do so is a measure of the accuracy of the 
work if the points thus plotted are determined by entirely 
independent experiments. This form of diagrammatic 
representation serves another purpose in permitting of the 
convenient interpolation for values intermediate between 
observed values. The coefficients for each type of wall 
surface will be given both numerically and diagrammati- 
cally. In order to avoid confusion, the observed points 
have been indicated only on the curve for wood sheathing 
in Fig. I. It will suffice to say merely that the other 
curves on this diagram are drawn accurately through the 
plotted observations. 

The next wall surface investigated was plaster on hollow 
terra cotta tile. The plaster coat was of gypsum hard plas- 
ter, the rough plaster being five-eighths of an inch in thick- 
ness. The result shows a slightly greater absorption due 
to the greater flexibility of a hollow tile wall rather than 
to any direct effect of the plaster. The difference, how- 
ever, is not great. The numerical results are as follows 
(Curve 2, Fig. I) : 

C,, .012; C,, .013; C,, .015; C,, .020; C,, .028; C, ;> .040; C r , .050. 
C,, is the lowest note, 64 vibrations per second; C^, the 



THE BRICK BVILDER. 



highest, 4,096 per second ; the other notes at octave 
intervals between. 

Plaster on an otherwise homogeneous sustaining - wall is a 
first step in the direction of a compound wall, but a vastly 
greater step is taken when the plaster instead of being ap- 
plied directly to the sustaining" wall is furred to a greater or 
less distance. In a homogeneous wall, the absorption of 
sound is partially by communication of the vibration to the 
material of the wall, whence it is telephoned throughout the 
structure, and partly by a yielding of the wall as a whole, 
the sound being then communicated to outside space. In a 
compound wall in which the exposed surface is furred from 
the main structure of the wall, the former vibrates between 
the furring strips like a drum. Such a surface obviously 
yields more than would a surface of plaster applied directly 
to tile or brick. The energy which is 
thus absorbed is partly dissipated by the 
viscosity of the plaster, partly by trans- 
mission in the air space behind it, 
and partly through the furring strips 
to the main wall. The mechanism of 
this process is interesting" in that it 
shows how the free standing plaster 
may absorb a great amount of sound and 
may present a greater possibility of res- 
onance and of selective absorption in 
the different registers of pitch. It is 
obvious that we are here dealing with a 
problem of more complicated aspect. It 
is conceivable that the absorption coef- 
cient should depend on the nature of 
the supporting construction, whether 
wood lath, wire lath, or expanded metal 
lath ; on the distance apart of the stud- 
ding, or the depth of the air space ; or, 
and even more decidedly, on the nature 
of the plaster employed, whether the 
old lime plaster or the modern quick 
setting gypsum plaster. A start has 
been made on a study of this problem, 
but it is not as yet so far advanced as to 
permit of a systematic correlation of the 
results. It must suffice to present here the values for a 
single construction. The most interesting case is that in 
which lime plaster was applied to wood lath, on wood stud- 
ding at fourteen-inch spacing, forming a two-inch air space. 
The coefficients of absorption before the finishing coat 
was put on were (Curve 3, Fig". I) : 

C, .048; C 2 , .020; C,, .021; C,, .034; C s , .030; C„, .028 ;C 7 , .043. 

The values after the finishing coat was put on were as 
follows (Curve 4, dotted, Fig. I): 

Cj, .036; C,, .012; C,, .013; C,, .018; C,, .045; C, ; , .028; C T , .055. 

It should be remarked that the determination of these 
coefficients was made within two weeks after the plaster 
was applied and also that the modern lime is not the same as 
the lime used thirty years ago, either in the manner in 
which it is handled or in the manner in which it sets and 
dries. It is particularly interesting to note in these obser- 
vations, more clearly in the plotted curves, the phenome- 
non of resonance as shown by the maxima, and the effect 
of the increased thickness produced by the skim coat in 



c, c. c, c. c c. c, 

Fig. I. 

Absorbing potcer for sounds vary- 
ing in pitch from C=64 to C= f,096 : 
/, brick wall; 2, plaster on terracotta 
hot loiv tile; J, plaster on wire lath; 
4, same wit/' skim coat; 5, wood 
shea t/iing. 



increasing the rigidity of the wall, decreasing its absorb- 
ing power, and shifting the resonance. 

The most firmly established traditions of both instru- 
mental and architectural acoustics relate to the use of 
wood and excite the liveliest interest in the effect of 
wood sheathing" as an interior surface for auditoriums; 
nor are these expectations disappointed when the phe- 
nomenon is submitted to exact measurement. It was not 
easy to find satisfactory conditions for the experiment, for 
not many rooms are now constructed in which plaster on 
studding and sufficiently thin forms a very considerable 
factor. After long waiting a room suitable in every 
respect, except location, became available. Its floor, its 
whole wall, indeed, its ceiling was of pine sheathing. 
The only other material entering into its construction was 
glass in the two windows and in the 
door. Unfortunately, the room was on 
a prominent street, and immediately 
adjacent was an all-night lunch room. 
Accurate experiments were out of the 
question while the lunch room was in 
use, and it was, therefore, bought out 
and closed for a few nights. Even 
with the freedom from noise thus 
secured, the experiments were not 
totally undisturbed. The traffic past 
the building did not stop sufficiently to 
permit of any observations until after 
two o'clock in the morning and began 
again by four. During the interven- 
ing two hours it was possible to snatch 
periods for observation, but even these 
periods were disturbed through the 
curiosity of passers and the more legiti- 
mate concern of the police. 

Anticipating the phenomenon of res- 
onance in wood in a more marked 
degree than in any other material, new 
apparatus was designed permitting of 
measurements at more frequent inter- 
vals of pitch. The new apparatus was 
not available when the work began 
and the coefficients for the wood were determined at 
octave intervals, with results as follows: 

C,, .064; C,, .098; C.,, .112; C,, .104; C,, .081; C„, .082; C 7 , .113. 

These results when plotted showed clearly a very marked 
resonance. The more elaborate apparatus was hastened 
to completion and the coefficients of absorption determined 
for the intermediate notes of E and G in each of the middle 
four octaves. The results of both sets of experiments when 
plotted together give Curve 5 in Fig. I. The accuracy 
with which these fourteen points fall on a smooth curve 
drawn through them is all that could be expected in view 
of the conditions under which the experiment was con- 
ducted and flic limited time available. Only one point 
falls far from the curve, that for middle C ((',, 256). The 
general trend of the curve, however, is established beyond 
reasonable doubt. It is interesting to note the very great 
differences between this curve and those obtained for solid 
walls, and even for plastered walls. It is especially inter 
esting- to note the great absorption due to the resonance 
between the natural vibration of the walls and the sound, 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



and to observe that this maximum point of resonance lies 
in the lower part, although not in the lowest part, of the 
range of pitch tested. The pitch of this resonance is 
determined by the nature of the wood, its thickness, and 
the distance apart of the studding on 
which it is supported. The wood tested 
was North Carolina pine, five-eighths 
of an inch in thickness and on fourteen- 
inch studding. It is, perhaps, not 
superfluous to add at this time that a 
denser wood would have had a lower 
pitch for maximum resonance, other 
conditions being alike ; an increased 
thickness would have raised the pitch of 
the resonance ; while an increased dis- 
tance between the studding would have 
lowered it. Finally it should be added 
that the best acoustical condition both 
for music and for speaking would 
have been with the maximum reso- 
nance an octave above rather than at 
middle C. 

Even more interesting is the study of 
ceramic tile made at the request of 
Messrs. Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson. 
The investigation had for its first object 
the determination of the acoustical 
value of the tile as employed in the 
groined arches of the Chapel of the United States Military 
Academy at West Point. The investigation then widened 
its scope, and, through the skill and great knowledge 
of ceramic processes of Mr. Raphael 
Guastavino, led to really remarkable 
results in the way of improved acousti- 
cal efficiency. The resulting construc- 
tion has not only been approved by 
architects as equal, if not better, in 
architectural appearance to ordinary 
tile construction, but it is, so far as 
the writer knows, the first finished 
structural surface of large acoustical 
efficiency. Its random use does not, 
of course, guarantee good acoustical 
quality in an auditorium, for that de- 
pends on the amount used and the sur- 
face covered. 

The first investigation was in regard 
to tile used at West Point, with the fol- 
lowing result : 




of its use, the tile may be distinguished for purposes 
of tabulation as Pittsburgh tile. Without following the 
intermediate steps, it is sufficient to say that the experi- 
ments were continued nearly two years longer and ulti- 
mately led to a tile which for the con- 
veniences of tabulation we will call 
Acoustical Tile. The resulting absorb- 
ent power is far beyond what was con- 
ceived to be possible at the beginning 
of the investigation, and makes the 
construction in which this tile is in- 
corporated unique in acoustical value 
among rigid structures. The coef- 
ficients for this construction are as 
follows : 



C,, .064 ;C 2 



.068; C 3 .117 ; C,, .If 
C 6 , .258; C : , .223 



l; C„ .250; 



c, c c, c 
Fig. II. 
Absorbing power: l. West Point 
tile; _', Pittsburgh tile; 3, acoustical 
tile ; /, best felt. 



d, .012; C 2 , .013; C„ .018; C 4 , 
.040; C,. .048; C 7 , .053. 



•029; C 5 



Li) 














9 














H 














1 














b 














b 






^6-" 














4 














A 














2 






^ 








I 








1 







These are plotted in Curve 1, Fig. II. 
The first endeavors to improve the tile 
acoustically had very slight results, 
but such as they were they were in- 
corporated in the tile of the ceiling of the First Baptist 
Church in Pittsburgh (Curve 2, Fig. II). 

C .028; C s , .030; C,, .038; C„ .053; C 5 , .080; C,, .102 ; C : , .114. 

There was no expectation that the results of this would 
be more than a very slight amelioration of the difficulties 
which were to be expected in the church. In consequence 



c, c c c. c c, c : 
Fig. 111. 

Absorbing power: /, bent wood 
chairs ; J.S, I. andfi. various kinds of 
pew cushions as described in text ; 6, 

audience per person. 



graphically shown in Curve 3, Fig. II. 
It is not a panacea. There is, on the 
other hand, no question but that prop- 
erly used it will very greatly ameliorate 
the acoustical difficulties when its em- 
ployment is practicable, and used in 
proper locations and amounts will 
render the acoustics of many audito- 
riums excellent which would otherwise 
be intolerable. It has over sixfold the 
absorbing power of any existing masonry construction 
and one-third the absorbing power of the best known felt 
plotted on the same diagram for comparison (Curve 4). 
It is a new factor at the disposal of the 
architect. 

Chairs and Audience. 

Equally important with the wall and 
ceiling surfaces of an auditorium are 
its contents, especially the seats and 
tlie audience. 

In expressing the coefficients of ab- 
sorption for objects which are them- 
selves units and which cannot be figured 
as areas, the coefficients depend on the 
system of measurement employed, 
Metric or English. While the interna- 
tional or metric system has become 
universal except in English-speaking 
countries, and even in England and 
America in many fields, it has not yet 
been adopted by the architectural pro- 
fession and by the building trades, and 
therefore these coefficients will be given 
in both systems. 

Ash settees or chairs, such as are 
ordinarily to be found in a college lec- 
ture room, have exceedingly small 
absorbing powers. .Such furniture forms a very small 
factor in the acoustics of any auditorium in which it is 
employed. The coefficients for ash chairs are as follows 

(Curve 1, Fig. Ill): 

Metric. 
.015 ; C,, .016; C, 

English. 

.20; C t , .20 ; C 3 , .21 ; C 4 , .23 ; C, 



C, .014 ; C .014 ; C ; , 



.017 ; C, ; , .019; C 7 , .021. 
.24 ; C„, .27; C 7 , .30. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



5 



The coefficients for settees were also determined, but differ 
so little from those for chairs that this paper will not be 
burdened with them. When, however, the seats are up- 
holstered, they immediately become a considerable factor 
in the acoustics of an empty, or partially 
empty, auditorium . Of course the chairs 
either upholstered or unupholstered arc 
not a factor in the acoustics of the audi- 
torium when occupied. The absorbing 
power of cushions depends in consider- 
able measure upon the nature of the 
covering and upon the nature of the 
padding". The cushions experimented 
upon were such as are employed in 
church pews, but the coefficients are 
expressed in terms of the cushion which 
would cover a single seat. The coef- 
ficients are as follows : 

Cushions of wiry vegetable fiber cov- 
ered with canvas and a thin damask cloth 
(Curve 2, Fig. Ill) : 



C,, 



C,, 



Metric. 
.060; C 2 , .070; C,, .097; C 4 , 
.148; C fi , .132; C 7 , .115. 



87 ; C 2 , 1.01 



English . 

C 8 , 1.40; C,, 1.95 
1.93; C T , .166. 



.135; C 5 , 



C,, 2.13 































&/ 






















b-\ 


/ ^ 




// 




// 








/ 




t / 


i 






y 












^ 

























expectation is due to the remarkable silence maintained 
by a large Cambridge audience that volunteered itself for 
the purpose, not merely once, but on four separate occa- 
sions. The coefficients of absorption thus determined lie, 
with but a single exception, on a smooth 
curve (Curve 6, Fig. III). The single 
exception was occasioned by the sound 
of a distant street car. Correcting this 
observation to the curve, the coeffi- 
cients for an audience per person are 



as 


follows 


Metric. 






c. 


, .160 ;C 2 


, .332; C ;i , .395 
C„, .460; C 7 , 

English 


C,, .440; C, 
.460. 


.455 


c, 


, 2.30 ; C, 


4.8(i; C,,5.70; 
C„, 6.60; C ; , 


C,, 6.34; C 5 
6 60. 


6.55 



c, c. 

Fig. IV 



Absorbing power of felt of varying 
thickness , fromone-kalf to three inches , 
showing oy extrapolation the absorp- 
tion by thin fabrics of the upper register 
only. 



Cushions of long hair covered with 
canvas and with an outer covering of plush (Curve 3, 
Fig. Ill): 

Metric. 
Cj, .080; C 2 , .092; C :j , .105; C 4 , .165; C 5) .155; C s , .128; C 7 , .085. 



C, 1.15; C 2 , 1.32; C,, 1.52 



English. 
C, .238; 



C 5) .224; C 6 , .185; C 7 , .123. 



Cushions of hair covered with canvas and an outer 
covering of thin leatherette (Curve 4, Fig. Ill ): 



C„ .062; C,, .105; C :t , .118 



C,, .90; C\, 1.52; C :l , 1.70 



Metric. 

C 4 , .180; C, .118; C„, .068: 



.040. 



English. 

C,, 2.60; C\, 1.70 



C, ; , .98; C 7 , .58. 



Elastic felt cushions of commerce, elastic cotton covered 
with canvas and a short nap plush (Curve 5, Fig. Ill) : 



C, .092; C 2 , .155; C,, .175 



C 1.32; C 2 ,2.24; C,, 2.53 



Metric. 
C,, .190; C, 

English. 
C,, 2.74; C-, 



.258; C,, .182; C-, .120. 



3.71 ; C 8 , 2.62; C-, 1.73. 



Of all the coefficients of absorption, obviously the most 
difficult to determine are those for the audience itself. It 
would not at all serve to experiment on single persons and 
to assume that when a number are seated together, side 
by side, and in front of one another, the absorbing power 
is the same. It is necessary to make the experiment on a 
full audience, and to conduct such an experiment requires 
the nearly perfect silence of several hundred persons, 
the least noise on the part of one vitiating the observation. 
That the experiment was ultimately successful beyond all 



Fabrics. 

It is evident from the above discus- 
sion that fabrics are high absorbents of 
sound. How effective any particular 
fabric may be, depends not merely on 
the texture of its surface and the mate- 
rial, but upon the weave or felting 
throughout its body, and of course 
also upon its thickness. An illumi- 
nating study of this question can be 
made by means of the curves in Fig. IV. 
In this figure are plotted the coefficients of absorption 
for varying thicknesses of felt. Curve 1 is the absorp- 
tion curve for felt of one-half inch thickness, Curve 2 
of felt of one inch thickness, and so on up to Curve 6, 
which is for felt of three inches in thickness. It is 
interesting to contemplate what the result of the process 
would be were it continued to greater thickness, or in 
the opposite direction to felt of less and less thickness. 
It is inconceivable that felt should be used more than 
three inches in thickness and therefore extrapolation 
in this direction is of academic interest only. On the 
other hand, felt with decreasing thickness corresponds 
more and more to ordinary fabrics. If this process were 
carried to an extreme, it would show the effect of cheese- 
cloth or bunting as a factor in the acoustics of an audito- 
rium. It is obvious that very thin fabrics absorb only the 
highest notes and are negligible factors in the range of 
either the speaking voice or of music. On the other hand, 
it is evident that great thickness of felt absorbs the lower 
register without increasing whatever its absorption for the 
upper register. Sometimes it is desirable to absorb the 
lower register, sometimes the upper register, but far more 
often it is desirable to absorb the sounds from C :i to (',, , 
but especially in the octave between C 4 and C.-, . 

The felt used in these experiments was of a durable 
nature and largely composed of jute. Because wool felt 
and ordinary hair felt are subject to rapid deterioration 
from moths, this jute felt was the only one which could be 
recommended for the correction of auditoriums until an 
interested participator in these investigations developed 
an especially prepared hair felt, which is less expensive 
than jute felt, but which is much more absorbent. Its 
absorption curve is plotted in Pig". II. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Location. 

Such a discussion as this should not close without point- 
ing out the triple relation between pitch, location, and 
apparent power of absorption. This is shown in Fig. 
V. Curve 1 shows the true coefficient 
of absorption of an especially effective 
felt. Curve 1 is its apparent absorption 
when placed in a position which is one 
of loudness for the lower register and of 
relative silence for the upper register. 
Curve 2 is the apparent coefficient of 
absorption of the same felt when placed 
in a position in the room of maximum 
loudness for all registers. It is evident 
from these three curves that in one posi- 
tion a felt may lose thirty per cent and 
over of its efficiency in the most signifi- 
cant register, or may have its efficiency 
nearly doubled. These curves relate to 
the efficiency of the felt in its effect on 
general reverberation. Its efficiency in 
the reduction of a discrete echo is de- 
pendent to an even greater degree on its 
location than on pitch. 

The above are the coefficients of 
absorption for most materials usually 
occurring in auditorium construction, 
but there are certain omissions which it 
is highly desirable to supply, particu- 
larly noticeable among these is the ab- 
sorption curve for glass and for old 
plaster. It is necessary for such ex- 
periments that rooms practically free 
from furniture should be available and 
that the walls and ceiling of the room 
should be composed in a large measure 
of the material to be tested. The author would appreciate 
any opportunity to carry out such experiments. The 
Opportunity would ordinarily occur in the construction of a 
new building or in the remodeling of an old one. 

It may be not wholly out of place to point out another 
modern acoustical difficulty and to seek opportunities for 
securing the necessary data for its solution. Coincident 
with the increased use of reinforced concrete construction 
and some other building" forms there has come increased 
complaint of tiie transmission of sound from room to room, 
either through the walls or through the floors. Whether 
the present general complaint is due to new materials and 
new methods of construction, or to a greater sensitiveness 
to unnecessary noise, or whether it is due to greater 





















































I 

3 

/ 


























/ 
1 










J 












/ 


2 


y^ 


\ 






'/ 






\ 




J 








\ 


A 


Vy 























c c c c, c c c 
fig. V. 

Double dependence of absorbing 
power on pitch and on location, show- 
ing one of the sources of error which 
must be guarded againstin the determi- 
nation of i oeffit tents of absorption and 
in the use o/ absorbing mate* ials. 



sources of disturbance, heavier traffic, heavier cars and 
wagons, elevators, and elevator doors, where elevators 
were not used before — whatever the cause of the annoy- 
ance there is urgent need of its abatement in so far as it is 
structurally possible. Moreover, several 
buildings have shown that not infre- 
quently elaborate precautions have 
resulted disastrously, sometimes funda- 
mentally, sometimes through the over- 
sight of details which to casual consid- 
eration seem of minor importance. 
Here, as in the acoustics of auditori- 
ums, the conditions are so complicated 
that only a systematic and accurately 
quantitative investigation will yield safe 
conclusions. Some headway, perhaps 
half a year's work, little more than a 
beginning, was made in this investiga- 
tion some years ago. Methods of 
measurements were developed and some 
results were obtained. Within the past 
month the use of a room in a new build- 
ing, together with that of the room im- 
mediately below it, has been secured 
for the period of two years. between 
these rooms the floor will be laid in re- 
inforced concrete of two thicknesses, 
five inches and ten inches, in hollow 
tile, in brick arch, in mill construction, 
and with hung ceiling, and the trans- 
mission of sound tested in each case. 
The upper surface of the floor will be 
laid in tile, in hardwood, with and with- 
out sound deadening lining, and covered 
with linoleum and cork, and its noise 
to the tread measured. 
However, such experiments but lay the foundation. 
What is needed are tests of the walls and floors of rooms of 
various si/.es, and of the more varied construction which 
occurs in practice, in rooms connecting with offsets and dif- 
ferent Hoor levels the complicated conditions of actual 
building as against the simplified conditions of an orderly 
experiment. The one will give numerical coefficients, the 
other, if in sufficiently full measure, will give experience 
leading to generalization which may be so formulated as to 
be of wide value. What is therefore sought is the oppor- 
tunity to experiment in rooms of varied but accurately 
known construction, especially where the insulation has 
been successful. Unfortunately with modern building ma- 
terials acoustical difficulties of all sorts are very numerous. 





Design Submitted for The Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D. C, by John Russell Pope, Architect. 

Otto R. Eggers, Delineator. 

Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHI- 
TECTURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

I. THE WORK OF OTTO R. EGGERS. 



IN presenting the work of Mr. Eggers as the first of a 
series on American rendering, one feels that a pecu- 
liarly excellent choice has been made, for the two rea- 
sons, that Mr. Eggers is primarily a designer and not a 
specialist in rendering, and that the work presents so beauti- 
ful a blend of pictorial and architectural effects. Architec- 
tural rendering has of late years become more or less of a 
specialty, and the men who make the exhibition drawings 
and the color renderings for submission to clients have 
in the main become a specialized class, which does noth- 
ing else, and their ranks are recruited mainly from the 
architects' offices, but with occasional accessions from the 
painters. In the old days the perspective drawing (it was 
not then called a rendering) was almost invariably made 
in the office of the architect, or often by the architect of 
the building it depicted, and these old renderings, though 
oftentimes crude and unintelligent, were perhaps more 
interesting than the beautiful drawings of the present day 
because they were personal documents of the designers. 
This older method gave of course a certain advantage in 
the securing of work to the architect of pictorial talent — 
an advantage perhaps undeserved since the picture is not 
the ultimate aim of the architect. The professional Ten- 
derer was developed to overcome this disadvantage. 

The fact that it is now the habitual practice of most 
offices, even of large size, to have their rendering done by 
men outside of the offices, does not mean that the propor- 
tion of men among the practising architects, or of drafts- 
men in their offices who' have ability in rendering, has 
decreased : in fact, the contrary is the case, and not only 
is there a larger proportion of men who are able to render 



with some approach to architectural skill, but also the 
work of these men is of a better grade than it used to be. 
Mr. Magonigle, for example, made a drawing for his pro- 
posed scheme for the Perry Memorial some years ago, 
which was quite as beautiful a thing as Mr. Long's won- 
derful drawing of the Hudson Fulton Competition. Mr. 
Seymour made a rendering of the winning scheme of the 
Perry Memorial (Friedlander and Seymour, architects), 
which was one of the best architectural renderings we 
have ever seen, and although it was a truly architectural 
rendering in black and white, it still was the type of 
drawing which could be submitted to a client. Mr. 
Hornbostel's facility with his pencil is as famous as it is 
extraordinary, and there is no one perhaps among the men 
whose business it is to render, who could so wonderfully 
indicate metal work and besides give the effect of dis- 
tance, as Mr. Hornbostel has done in his bridge draw- 
ings. Mr. Pope, in his student days, and in the course of 
the earlier years of his practice, made some very lovely 
colored sketches ; Mr. Cass Gilbert has often been repre- 
sented in the exhibitions by his water-color travel sketches, 
which he continues to make even at the present day, and 
when he occasionally does make a rendering, as he did of 
the Chapel at Oberlin College some years ago, we at once 
realize that its author was no amateur ; Mr. Piatt of 
course was a painter before he became an architect, and 
has continued to paint to the present time ; and while one 
cannot recall any particular architectural drawings of his, 
it is highly probable that he has made them and still 
could. These are but a few examples of practising archi- 
tects who are called to mind ; there arc unquestionably as 



8 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



many more in New York, Chicago, and elsewhere of equal 
ability with those mentioned, as well as a very great 
number who are perfectly capable of making a drawing 
which would pass muster in any exhibition ; for example, 
as Lindeberg, Kiessling, LeBoutillier, Spencer, Wright, 
and Embury. Beside these men there are again a very 
great number who are known by the work of their offices 
rather than by their personal design, whose rendering is 
extremely familiar, such men, for example, as T. R. John- 
son, John Almy Tompkins II, W. T. L. Armstrong, 
A. M. Githens, Andre Smith, and others who do make 
occasional renderings for outside architects, although most 
of their time is devoted to work in their own offices. From 
this latter list of names some have been selected for later 
articles in this series. Fifteen years ago, however, there 
was not such a crowd of talented names which instantly 
came to mind, either among the architects themselves or 
among the professional Tenderers. In the East Mr. Mugh- 
son Hawlcy had developed a style which was admirably 
adapted to catch the public eye, anil was followed by a host 
of imitators. Other men of original force, notably Mr. Birch 
Burdette Long as an independent renderer, and Mr. Wilson 
Eyre in renderings of his own work, struck an original note 
which also created followings, but when Eggers' work 
first began to be shown to the architectural public, it real- 
ized that a man had arrived who was an imitator of no one 
of the three. His work had neither the transparent delicacy 
of Long's renderings 
nor the careless force of 
Mr. Eyre's. If there 
were any one that he 
followed, it was rather 
Jules Guerin. His art, 
however, was far more 
architectural than that 
of Guerin, who after all 
is an impressionist 
among Tenderers, and 
resembles Long's to the 
extent that he thor- 
oughly understands ar- 
chitecture and is not 
afraid to work up detail, 
although subordinating 
it to the general color 
scheme. 

Mechanically his 
greatest innovation was 
in the use of the air 
brush, with which he 
secured the lovely vi- 
brant quality of his 
skies, and not infre- 
quently a large part of 
his painting was done in 
this manner with the 
details reinforced by the 
judicious use of pencil, 
charcoal, Chinese white 
or color applied in the 
usual way, as the case 
seemed to demand. His 
color schemes have 




usually been strong ones, brilliantly blue skies with a warm 
yellow lighting of the buildings, and in the architectural 
exhibitions they are inevitably placed at focal points, since 
they are far stronger and richer than most 'of the colored 
drawings which are hung ; but they are very rarely crude 
or garish in spite of the high key of his palette. There 
has been scarcely an exhibition, in New York at least, for 
the last half dozen years, which has not contained one or 
two examples of Mr. Eggers' art. The number has been 
limited, however, because of the fact above stated that 
Mr. Eggers is not a specialist in rendering, but is pri- 
marily a designer, and has been almost continuously em- 
ployed in one or another of the New York offices since he 
began his work. It was as a member of one or the other 
of these offices that his most beautiful rendering has been 
done ; for Tracy and Swartwout, for example, two mag- 
nificent drawings of the armory and Denver Post Office, 
and one of the Denver cathedral : while for John Russell 
Pope, where he now is and has been for the past few 
years, he made the drawings of Mr. Pope's scheme for the 
Lincoln Memorial, two of which are illustrated in this issue 
see Frontispiece), as well as that of the Masonic Temple 
at Washington. No black and white reproductions can 
do justice to their charm, although they will serve to 
illustrate the varied character of his work, for he has 
not confined himself to the medium which he has made 
peculiarly his own, but is also equally facile in the use 

of pencil, relieved by 
flat washes, somewhat 
after Mr. Gregg's man- 
ner, and in pen draw- 
ing. In fact some of 
the most beautiful 
things that he has ever 
done have been in pen 
and ink for frontispieces, 
bonk plates, headings, 
and the like, for which 
his inspiration has evi- 
dently been drawn from 
the Renaissance etchers 
and engravers, with a 
certain leaning toward 
Piranesi. 

Particular attention is 
called to Mr. Eggers' 
design and rendering 
for the new contents 
page of The Brick - 
bvildhr, as an example 
of his pen and ink work. 
There is one point in 
Mr. Eggers' career 
which is of notable in- 
terest — his style was 
self-evolved. He had, 
it is true, some school 
training both at the Art 
Students' League in 
New York and in the 
ateliers of the Society 
of Beaux Arts archi- 
tects, but his period of 



House at Wickatunk, N. J. John Russell Pope, Architect. 

Otto R. Eggers, Delineator. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



9 



study at the Art 
Students' League 
was brief, and in 
the ateliers he was 
rather a teacher 
than a student, far 
advanced beyond 
the majority of his 
colleagues, and 
even of the men in 
charge of the ate- 
liers in the use and 
management of 
color. 

One does not find 
that very many 
men eminent in their own lines have ever been for a long- 
time students in the sense that they were being taught 
by some one. In the true sense of the word, Mr. Eggers 
has always been a student, and probably always will 
continue to be, since he has carefully studied all art work 
from the time when he was a boy, and has drawn from 
all sorts of sources the elements which he has incorpo- 
rated and made his own. If fault is to be found with his 
work, it is rather in the direction of over carefulness and 
of carrying a rendering too far, which is perhaps the last 
thing one finds to complain of in the present age of 




U. S. Post Office, Denver, Colo. 



Otto R. Eggers, Delineator 



haste, and even 
when this happens 
as it does in some 
of his drawings, 
the picture never 
falls to pieces into 
a series of unre- 
lated details, but 
only becomes a 
little hard and 
liney. His ser- 
vices are of course 
eagerly sought by 
men who have 
competitions to 
render, or hope t 
obtain a big" commission through the presentation of a 
beautiful drawing, and it is a matter of general regret to 
the profession that his work does not permit of his giv- 
ing much time to things outside the office, although it is 
perhaps best that the artistic side of his capabilities 
should not be extended too far at the expense of his 
professional side ; and it is good to note that Mr. Pope, 
himself able to make an excellent rendering, as well as 
being a great architect, leans almost as heavily on Mr. 
Eggers' exquisite taste and skill in design as he does upon 
his ability to make an attractive rendering. 



wartwout, 




House at Scarsdale, N. Y. 






Otto R. Eggers, Delineator. 



Parker Morse Hooper, Architect. 



The Lighting of Public and Semi-Public Buildings. 

FIFTH PAPER. 

ACCOMPANIED BY A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATIONS SHOWING SPECIFIC LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS. 

By L. B. MARKS. 
Consulting Illuminating Engineer. ISew York City. 

HOTELS AND CLUBS. 



IN the lighting of hotels the lobby, reception room, 
and dining and banquet rooms usually receive most 
attention . 

The tendency has been to carry the scale of illumination 
in these rooms, especially in the lobby, far beyond the 
needs of good lighting, and to bedeck the ceiling, walls, 
and columns with brilliant lamps. Fortunately, improve- 
ment in the efficiency of lamps, both electric and gas, is 
now leading to the more extended use of diffusing; glass- 
ware to cover the lamps and soften the light. Semi- 
indirect lighting and indirect lighting, either alone or 
supplemented by direct lighting-, are being- used to a 
much greater extent than heretofore. A very happy 
combination of lighting units results from the provision 
of a moderate intensity of general illumination by indirect 
or semi-indirect lighting and a higher intensity of local 
illumination produced by table lamps, brackets, or floor 
standards. Such an arrangement also lends itself well to 
the attainment of desirable color effects. 

In Fig-. XXXIX is shown the method of lighting the 
Palm Room (dining- hall) of the Bellcvue-Stratford Hotel, 
Philadelphia. The illumination is carried out by indirect 
lighting- from the ceiling coves, supplemented by candela- 



bra on tall uprights. The lights on the candelabra are 
shaded by brown silk shades which give a tinted, mellow 
light, the color of which harmonizes with the room 
decorations. This arrangement serves the double pur- 
pose of relieving- any impression of " coldness " that may 
be due to the use of indirect lig-hting- alone and affording 
a means of rest to the eye by virtue of the color dif- 
ference . 

The average ceiling- height in this room is twenty-one 
feet ; the finish of the ceiling is cream-white, broken by a 
very pleasing series of paintings appropriate to the sur- 
roundings. The cove lighting system permits of the 
effectual display of the paintings. The side walls are 
finished in terra cotta buff, and the chairs in old gold 
with green velour upholstering. 

The current consumption was a secondary considera- 
tion on the part of the owners of the hotel, who sought 
first of all a lighting scheme which would lend itself to the 
decorative effect desired. The intensity of illumination 
on the tables averages 2.0 foot-candles, with a minimum 
of 1.6 and a maximum of 2.6. The power required for 
the indirect cove lighting, in which tubular tungsten 
lamps are used, is three watts per square foot. 




Fig. XXXIX. Palm Room (dining hall), Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, showing indirect lighting from ceiling coves, supplemented by 

direct lighting from candelabra on tall floor standards. 

10 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



ii 




Fig. XL. Transportation Club, New York City. Fig. XLI. Reception Room, Transportation Club, De 

Examples of Semi-indirect Lighting with Lamps Enclosed in Diffusing Glass Globes. 



Cole 



r T~ , HE illustrations above show the 
J. semi-indirect bowl lighting fixtures 

in the dining room of the Transporta- 
tion Club, New York City, and the 
reception room of the Transportation 
Club, Denver. The important point in 
semi-indirect lighting is to use bowls of 
relatively loiv brightness, as otherwise 
the glare of the bowl is apt to be trying 
to the eyes. 

The illustration at the right shows 
a gas light illumination. Forty-five 
degree angle shades pointed towards the 
•walls are used on reflex gas burners. 
The general illumination of the room 
is derived mainly from light reflected 
from the 'walls and ceiling. 




Fig. XLI1. Gas lighting installation at the Philadelphia Art Club. 







;;;r ;W?.',,v.^. 




Fig. XLI11. Ball Room of the South Shore Country Club, Chicago, 
showing large indirect lighting fixtures. 

Ceiling Height 28 ft. 

Dimensions 62x100 = 6,200 sq.ft. 

Outlets 3 Watts 6,900 Watts per square foot , 1.1 

A verage Toot-candles 2.8 

Ceiling Tint Ivory 

Wall Tint Dark Ned Panels on Side II alls 

Distance to Ceiling.- 60 ins. 

(Note. — Each fixture contains 23 lOO^watl lamps. The promenade on 
the side is also lighted by indirect lighting.) 




Fig. XL1V. Drawing Room, Whitehall Club, New Yo 
illuminated by tungsten lamps in opaque (in- 
direct lighting) fixtures. 

Ceiling Height .14ft. "ins. 

Dimensions .... . 50x66 = 3,300 sq. ft. 

Outlets 9 Fixture. ...6 100- Watt Lamps per Fixture 

Walls Total, 5,400. Walls fee square fool, 1.63 

Average Foot-candles f.25 

Ceiling Tint. - .Ivory 

II 'all Tint .... Dark II 'oodwork 

Distance to Ceiling 16 ins. 



12 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 




Fig. XLV. Indirect lighting fixtures, Grecian Marble Cafe, Blackstone Hotel, Chicago. 




Fig. XLV1. Lobby of Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, showing indirect lighting fixtures. 



The following data apply to Fig. XLV : 

Ceiling Height 16 ft. 

Dimensions .. 17 x50 = 2J50 sq. ft. 

Outlets 6(20 tO-watt lamps per fixture) 
II 'atts. Total, f,800. ll'alts per sq.ft. , 2.05 

Average Foot-candles f.O 

Ceiling Tint Ivory White 

Distance to c citing .... .4ft. 

The following data apply to Fig. XLVI : 

( 'eiling Height 'I ft. 

Dimensions t8x96 f,608 sq.ft. 

( Outlets . 12 (5 100-watl lamps per fixture I 

Fixture Special 

Halts Total, 6. mm. Watts per sq. ft., 1.3 
. Iverage Foot-candles 3250 

( eiling and II 'all Tint Ivory II 'hite 

Distance to ('citing 5 ft. I ins. 

Note.— Sfa baj 16 ft. x 24 ft. Indirect Hunt- 
ing also used in parlor "ii second floor, Masonic 
Lodge and barber Shop in this building.) 

J J r TTJf the type of chain system used in 
r f the San . I ulouio Hotel shown in the 
illustration below there are no ceiling 
shadou <s such as frequently occur when using 
a short fixture suspended by several chains 
hung from a ceiling canopy. The lamps 
in these diffusing bowl fixtures pro/eel 
horizontally inward from the bolts in the 
rim of the bowl. 

TpiG. XLVIII shows a rather unique 
■T method of lighting by the indirect 
method :.'/ l i!umiu:iti::r. / t,c fag'Ming is 

carried out exclusively by lamps mounted 
on floor pedestals. Inside of the targe shade 
at the top of each of these- pedestals is 
mounted a 250-watt tungsten tamp cen- 
trally located and pointed towards the ceil- 
ing. A silvered mirror reflector which 
surrounds the tamp, except at its lower 
portion, directs most of the light to the ceil- 
ing through the open top of the shade. 
The illumination of the room is thus car- 
ried out mainly by light reflected from the 
ceiling. . I portion of the light from the 
lamp is permitted to escape downward and 
sideward to light up the art shade. . I 
stronger downward direction of the light 
and a greater transmission through the 
art shade may be accomplished by supple- 
mental lamps mounted inside of the shade. 




Fig. XLVI1. Semi-indirect lighting in Dining Room, San Antonio Hotel, Texas. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



J 3 



This scheme permits of a combination of 
direct and indirect lighting clastic enough 
to produce lighting effects of widely differ- 
ent character to suit the needs of different 
rooms. It has the further advantage of 
providing color tone to the illumination 
and of completely screening the lamps 
themselves. 

The following data apply to the above 
installation : 

Interior Tea Room 

Place --Hyde Park Hotel City. .Chicago 

Ceiling Height ."_ 12 ft. 

Dimensions. 56x23 = 1,288 so. ft. 

Fixture floor Pedestal 

Watts, 2,000 Watts per sq.ft., 1.55 

A verage Foot-candles 3:5 

Ceiling Tint /, ight Gray 

Wall Tint ._ Light Pink- 
Distance to Ceiling 5 ft. 10 ins. 

(Note. — Each pedestal contains 1 250-watt 
tungsten lamp.) 

r T~'HE three lighting fixtures shown at 
J. the right are adaptable for various 
forms of indirect and semi-indirect light- 
ing. Fig. XLIX shows a lighting stand- 
ard ( Three Graces) supporting an urn in 
which the lamps are housed. The urn may 
be opaque as in indirect lighting or trans- 
lucent as in semi-indirect lighting. This 
type of standard is well adapted for either 
electric or gas light, and has been very effec- 
tively used in hotels and clubs. A decora- 
tive bowl fixture with chain suspension, in 
which a single large lamp furnishes the 
light, is shown in Fig. I. This type of 
fixture has found favor in hotels and clubs 
and can be advantageously used either in 
semi-indirect or in totally indirect lighting. 
Fig. LI is designed in Louis XV style 
and used mainly for indirect lighting. 

The following data apply to Fig. LII : 
C eiling Height, 20ft. Dimensions, 38x95 ft. 

Chit lets 8 Fixture Floor Pedestal 

Watts, 8,000 Watts per sq.ft., 2.22 

Average Foot-candles 5.0 

Ceiling and Wall Tint Ivory While 

Distance to Ceiling 12 ft. 6 ins. 

(Note. — Pedestals stand about 7 ft. 6 ins. from 
floor. Old rose carpets and curtains. Bracket 
lamps not used.) 




Fig. XLVIII. Night view of the Tea Room, Hyde Park Hotel 
combined indirect and direct lighting in a standing 



, Chicago, 
lamp. 



showing 




Fig. LII. Louis XVI. Dining Room, Congress Hotel, Chicago, showing floor pedestals with tungsten lamps for indirect illumination. 



14 THE BRICKBVILDER. 

HOSPITALS. RAILWAY TERMINALS. 

THE operating-room and the hospi- "T?IG. LIV represents a night view 
tal ward are perhaps the two %ff ^f J. of the waiting room of the Union 
most important portions of the building Station, Washington, D. C, showing 
from a lighting standpoint. The gen- indirect illumination by concealed arc 
eral principles of illumination, as Bh T * ■ lamps. This station, including the con- 
hereinbefore discussed, cover the fun- ■ course and train sheds, covers more 
damental requirements of a lighting Ift ' i I t ' ian t -' 1 -"'hteen acres of ground space. 
installation designed to meet this ser- "■"" - g, fe . » The following description of the sys- 
vice, but special requirements, as in the ZT -i/~ffir!'l tern of illumination in the main wait- 
operating room, render the lighting of k -__„ ^^^^KB*** ^'•.--iPllli ing room, and the data of illumination 
such a room a problem apart from yk "^ |j* tests in this room, are given by Mr. W. 
most others. D'A. Ryan: 

Dr. W. M. L. Coplin Philadel Mflil The architectural features of the 

phia, in a paper on the subject of hos- Fig- LIII. Night view of Hospital Ward, il- waiting room called for concealed light - 

..... ,^. « lt , ., ,, luminated by general indirect and . r ., ... r • t 

pital lighting, thus describes the local direct lighting. in S from the ceiling or for indirect 

lighting of a typical operating room : _ ,-,>„, ,-,/,■ ,•-,•/ \-, ■ ,, ■ ,■ . ■• lighting. The latter system was de- 

& & •' Qt PPL l-.MI:. \ //A G the indirect ceil- 

The walls are white: the side light ° »'»f '"']'" V' Yl" %?*% "' ?'','"'*?, ^^ ° n ' *** ^'^ "^ ° f the al °° VeS 
and the skylight are lifted with diffns- &£&! SS^S^i£St'SSSt °° dthff ^ *** «** ° £ ** ^ 
ing glasses. In other words, an at- the eyes of the occupants of opposite beds. The lighting units consist of inverted 
tempt has been made to adapt the Indirect lighting when used for this put- series arc lamps placed on top of the 
photographer's method to the lighting ^^a^t^i^^Zl^ colonnades back of the balustrade, 
of an operating room. I he lighting fi ghte d ceiling would be objectionable to The lamos are nlaced in esneriallv con- 
fixturc is made of steel with the lamps Patients lying in bed. 

arranged radially around the center, strutted boxes with corrugated mirrors, 

and with one central pendent light. There are no shadows the whole arrangement so designed to throw the light on 
in the room; the table legs east no shadow. Often the the barrel shaped ceiling which is approximately one hun- 
lighting engineer considers he has accomplished what is dred feet from thc floor Cathedra ] flass se reens were 

necessary in lighting if he has obviated the shadows, but , , . , . , . ,. , .. , „, 

.-,, •. ■ c , . f , . • , • , . ., , ,. .( u„\, t placed in the path of the rays to soften the light. The 
still it is tar short of what is desired in the way of light- * * 

ing. As arranged, the light is of no value in illuminating USL ' " f these sereens entailed a loss of about fifteen per 

the intestines of a patient. cent of light. 

Commenting on the 1.. cation of the fixture for lighting The following are the data of illumination tests in the 

the operating table, Dr. Coplin calls attention to the fact niam waiting room : 

that this fixture should not be placed directly over the Dimensions of room 210 x 120 ft. 

operating table as in most hospitals, even though the Area of room 25,200 sq. ft. 

fixture be provided with the best diffusing glass shades. g e !^I of lam P s ' - ' ' 'J " £' 

, . . , , , . , Height to center of arch 9$ ft. 

He favors having the light come from the side or sides,— a Cubic feet 2,072,000 

direction which not only usually results in more effective 

lighting, but also in avoiding the shadows caused by the En ^f a ^ lamps per bay (10 bays) 140 

interposition of the hand or body of the operator, between Ends east 14 

the light and the patient- Mr. W. S. Kilmer who has Ends west 4 

made a careful study of the illumination requirements in Total arc lamps 158 

hospitals recommends Total kilowatts. • -75.9 

that available intensity V Watts per sq. ft.... 3.01 

on operating table be not XVatts P er cubic ft " ' ■ - 0366 

less than 25 foot-candles m Intensity of illumination 

n , , ,. • # on horizontal plane 

and that the quality ap- along major axis of 

proximate daylight. In ' # » \ \ room 

some of the foreign hos- . - 1.1 to 2.0 foot-candles 
pitals the problem of se- Along minor axis 

,. . , .. ., ligkm 1.0 to 1.7 foot-candles 

curing a directed light ^^ 

from either one direct,', m A ^ ' )irect c " rrent 6 f, am P cr< ; 

series lamps with special 

or simultaneously from reflector, 

several directions, has 5 fr £a 

been solved by locating . ■■ jl The lighting of the 
a series of mirrors above ]| D ,^ j? j L, ja. ml. » ' waiting room of this 
and at the sides of the tmm \^mmMm\ 5*^^ Jr Jr Jm terminal is in striking- 
operating table and re- JP ^^^m —^^^ .J^^Lj » ^'^^i^B contrast to the lighting 
fleeting a powerful beam ^m\ ^r jKp Mr9 jtm\~ JWTTi ' n " :e new (,rano - Cen- 
of light to the table from ^^^Wf^J/^^r MB^ j^b |A9| l^Uj tral terminal. X.Y. City, 
each of these mirrors. ^^Jjj ^ rt| ^ ^™ "' in which exposed lamps 

_. , „ , .,. , . ,, . ,„, . . „ ... c , T , r> <- are used practical lv 

•Trans. Ilium. Eng. Sue, Fig. LIV. Night view ot Main Waiting Room, Union station, Washington, U.C, 

Jan., 1912. showing indirect illumination by concealed arc lamps. throughout. 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE I. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHV RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. !. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 2. 




VIEW FROM APPROACH 




VIEW OF TERRACE FRONT 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 3. 




% # 



DETAIL LOOKING TOWARD GARDEN 
HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 4. 




DETAIL OF PORTE COCHERE 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. I. 



THE BRICKRVILDER 



PLATE 5. 




DINING ROOM 




LIBRARY 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 6 




- H 

o 5 

O < 

Z ,.? 



I 

< 



Ul 

< D 

UJ * 

CO Z 

D I 

O O 

X 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 7. 





g 

x 
o 

< u 
I £ 

< 



o 
o 

X 



en 5 

CQ 

D * 



Q 
OS 
O 
u. 
J 

5 

a 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 8. 




DtTAIL °r COLl/AVI ArtD 6ALV./TLI. 
/honnij .ionmLiion of Kirn /citt-n 



wno/irAixn ^ictiom TntLf nam 1 "* 

'aLur. ... I'.. r.iii^. fir. KtuJ 

DETAIL OF MAIN ELEVATION 

GUILFORD PUBLIC SCHOOL. CINCINNATI. OHIO 

GARBER & WOODWARD. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 9. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



CAPITAL CITY CLUB. ATLANTA, CA. 
DONN BARBER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. I. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 10. 





< 
O 

^ b 

i 

< 



-j 

H 
< 

D 
U 

> 



U 



/- 

-J s 

< Q 

I- 

< 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 1 1 . 




/ on ,■«>,",-* 



CAPITAL CITY CLUB. ATLANTA, GA. 

DONN BARBER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 12. 







,f rr l-rl -, \ ~\ ' .'i'-'I T ' . 










1 | 1 ' ., ' I ' 1 !„ 1 ' :„ ' 


M 








' -L ■ 


. 







FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 
DAVIS LIBRARY. PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY, EXETER. N. H. 
CRAM. GOODHUE & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 13. 




READING ROOM 



lTA*w FUm 



T- ,* fcen 



T> 0T :«.n >TAL> TLo 



Tot- t>r laT .-*■■.-., n 11., 







■ 



CROSS SECTION 

DAVIS LIBRARY. PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY. EXETER. N. H. 
CRAM. GOODHUE t» FERCUSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 14. 




GARDEN FRONT 



HOUSE AT CAMBRIDGE. MASS. 
JOSEPH EVERETT CHANDLER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 15. 




LIVING ROOM 




STAIR HALL 



HOUSE AT CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
JOSEPH EVERETT CHANDLER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. I. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 16. 




DINING ROOM 




MANTEL IN HALL 



HOUSE AT CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
JOSEPH EVERETT CHANDLER. ARCHITECT 



DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTYRE 




i\ 



SERIES OF ILLYSTRATIONS 

OF THE MOST NOTABLE 

WORK OF THE YEAR WITH 

APPRECIATIVE TEXT BY 

MONTGOMERY SCHVT 




L E R 



TH E new St . Thomas ' s 
in New York is al- 
ready recognized as 
the most successful Gothic 
church in that city, bar- 
ring the success of Old 
Trinity at the head of Wall 
street, which has held a 
proud preeminence among 
the Gothic churches of the 
city ever since it was con- 
secrated in 1846. Rather 
curiously it happens that 
Richard Upjohn, the archi- 
tect of Old Trinity, was 
also the architect of the 
original St. Thomas's 
which was destroyed by 
fire some years ago. It is 
true that his son, Richard 
M., is the architect of rec- 
ord, but equally true that, 
at the time of its erection, 
the church was commonly 
ascribed by architects to 
the original Richard. 
Still more curiously that 
the modern demand for 
the ' ' accommodation ' ' of 
a congregation, which, as 
we shall see, has been the 
essential requirement in 
the differentiation of the 
new St. Thomas's from 
the strictly ' ' Anglican 
type of ground plan, was 
also the urgent require- 
ment in the designing of 
the St. Thomas's of the 
early seventies. This was 
by no means a require- 
ment of a medieval Gothic 
church. Quite the con- 
trary. As to the layman, 
the requirement of the 
medieval Gothic church, 
so far from betraying any 
disposition to ' accom- 
modate " him, was that he 
should be put in his place 



The New St. Thomas's Church 
Fifth Avenue, New York City 

CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS 



4-J ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^ 



. 



». 



N A V -E 



¥^4 ♦♦♦♦♦** EP 




Pla 




Detail of Rose Window and Carving on East Front. 
15 



and made to feel that he 
was a worm, blessed above 
his deserts in being per- 
mitted to gaze from afar, 
in the dim recesses of the 
vaulting of the nave or the 
aisles, upon the celebra- 
tion of the ' ' mysteries 
which was going on in the 
full light of the choir. 
Since then the layman has 
reclaimed his rights and 
has refused to be relegated 
to the shadowy background 
of what is going on. He 
pays, and he has to be 
conciliated. He is concili- 
ated in modern Gothic to 
the extent that his opinion 
that the preaching holds 
the first place in the at- 
tractions of the church, 
and that the celebration 
of the ' ' mysteries ' ' takes 
a place quite secondary 
and subordinate, simply 
has to be taken by the 
modern architect as the 
basis of his design. 

So long ago as the early 
seventies, when the old 
St. Thomas's was built, 
so old and so old-fashioned 
an architect as Air. Upjohn 
was then had to take pro- 
fessional notice of the new 
requirement. The St. 
Thomas's of that day was 
under construction con- 
temporaneously with the 
Church of the Holy Trin- 
ity, at Madison avenue and 
42(3 street, slangily known, 
when it was new, as the 
"Church of the Homely 
Oil Cloth," by reason of a 
rough mosaic of colored 
brickwork which was 
spread over the second tier 

windows. This lattei 



t6 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



was distinctly an "auditorium" 
church in its interior, alth 
the exterior expression of the audi- 
torium was by no means complete. 
The subsequent attempt of an ill- 
informed rector to take the force 
and meaning- out of the design, 
much like the attempt now in prog- 
ress to take the force and mean- 
ing out of the design of the Cathe- 
dral of St. John the Divine, 
resulted in the assuagement of the 
sorrows of lovers of architecture 
when the church, thus "marred 
by traitors," was finally put out of 
its misery by being demolished. 
Its architect, Leopold Eidlitz, was 
an architect who followed his logi- 
cal conclusions to the bitter end. 
In speaking of Mr. Upjohn's solu- 
tion of the modern, laic, "audi- 
torium "' problem in St. Thomas's, 
in comparison with his own in the 

Church of the Holy Trinity, he observed : " Mr. Upjohn's 
solution was to admit all the congregational accommoda- 
tion that could be admitted, while retaining the tradi- 
tional idea of a church. .Mine was much more radical. I 
frankly abandoned the traditional idea of a church, and 
designed a theater with ecclesiastical details." This was. 
in fact, the difference. So timid and conservative an 
architect as Mr. Up- 
john, excellent archi- 
tect though he was, 
would hardly have 
varied from the tra- 
ditional notion of a 
church without some 
precedent. He found 
this precedent in the 
octagon of Ely, which 
he modified on a 
small scale to meet 
the modern demand. 
as the architects of 
the Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine modi- 
fied it on a large 
scale. The develop- 
ment of the " cross- 
ing," with the inser- 
tion of chapels in the 
angles of the accru- 
ing octagon, was the 
essence of the design 
o f the elder St. 
Thomas's. It was 
not altogether suc- 
cessful, although the 
octagonal arrange- 
ment was clearly ex- 
pressed on the out- 
side, and although 
the lantern with 




Detail of Turret on Rector's Residence. 




Detail of South Entrance to Narthex 



which the corner tower was 
crowned was an undeniably pic- 
turesque and spirited feature of 
the frontage on Fifth avenue. 

What makes all this preliminary 
talk pertinent is the fact that the 
architects of the later St. Thomas's 
have found themselves ''up 
against " the same condition which 
their predecessor encountered and 
have obviated it by even more 
strictly traditional means. Pre- 
sumably the "accommodation" 
was one of the recpiirements im- 
posed upon the competitors for the 
designing of the new church. The 
late William Martin Aiken was one 
of the judges of that competition, 
and was overheard to remark that 
he was much disappointed with the 
results of the competition, although 
he concurred with the other judges 
in considering the design of Messrs. 
Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson the most promising for 
further elaboration of the submitted drawings. Whether 
by the conditions of the program or not, that design took 
as a datum the provision of more seating capacity than 
an orthodox Gothic treatment of the prescribed "lot" 
would supply, and undertook to provide for it by a novel 
method, neither that of the expanded crossing of the old 

St. Thomas's, nor 
HHI^KllSH tne " amphi- 

T^ theater with ecclesi- 

>s^^ astical details ' ' of the 

>r fi^^^l ''evangelical'' 

Church of the Holy 
Trinity. The expe- 
dient was adopted of 
what one may call a 
lay gallery on one 
side, and above the 
main floor, flanking 
the orthodox and con- 
ventional structure of 
nave and aisles. 

This subordinate 
but still essential re- 
quirement of a super- 
addition to the main 
plan for the benefit of 
an importunate laity 
no longer negligible 
must be insisted on, 
in any analytic con- 
sideration of the de- 
sign of the new St. 
Thomas's, for the 
reason that from it 
proceed all the "ques- 
tionable shapes" and 
features of the design 
of the church. In the 
very interesting in- 





THE BRICKBVILDER 



i7 








ST. THOMAS'S CHURCH, NEW YORK 
CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBYILDER 




Chapel at South Side of Nave. 

terior it is this necessity of furnishing additional accom- 
modation to the laity, in their gallery, on a plot pro- 
crusteanly limited, that has enforced the narrowing of the 
aisles of the regular ecclesiastical "lay out" to mere 
passageways, or "ambulatories." These ambulatories 
are of so much less than the conventional relation of width 
to their nave as to puzzle the spectator, unaware of the 
reduction of lateral pressure in the vaulting system adopted 
lure, as to the means by which the thrust of the vaults 
of the broad nave is taken up. Properly 
speaking, this question is not an esthetic 
criticism. That is because, as in all 
Gothic work, the vaulting and its ulti- 
mate abutment are two things and not 
one, the vaulting- belonging to the in- 
terior and the buttressing to the exterior, 
and the two never being seen together. 
There can thus be no contradiction 
shocking to the cultivated eye, and 
which, in the French phrase, "jumps 
to" the eye thus cultivated. It is only 
a mental puzzle, to be solved ultimately, 
and by reference to the " system " after 
the esthetic impression of interior and 
exterior has had its way and spent itself. 
Meanwhile, the impression of the inte- 
rior remains. The simple vaulting of 
the broad nave, with its round piers 
rather emphasized than complicated by 
the simple reeding of the vaulting shafts, 
has the expression of an austerity 
amounting to asceticism, which belongs 
to Gothic so very "early" as hardly 
to be distinguishable from Romanesque. 
Indeed, the general expression of the 
interior is austere, perhaps the more so 
because the "square East end," geo- 
graphically speaking the West end 
which, in authentic examples of English 
Gothic, goes so far to enliven the vista 
by its emblazoned expanse of painted 
glass, cannot here have that effect. 
Again it is the Procrustean limitation 
of the site. By reason of this, by reason 
of the impingement of the end upon 



secular and alien occupation, the " glorious wall " becomes 
impossible. It is only the lights in the upper stage that 
can be made to " tell." What enrichment can be applied 
below must be applied in the form of painting, mosaic, or 
pigmental, or else of the sculptured reredos already indi- 
eated in the drawings ; in either case deriving its illumi- 
nation either from frank artificiality or else from the 
upper openings, frontwise or lateral, for which alone the 
conditions give scope. 

Exteriorly, and it is the exterior that has already made 
the new St. Thomas's the striking popular success it is, 
the enforced peculiarity of the plan is still more clearly re- 
sponsible for all the questionable points of the architecture. 
The most questionable of these is doubtless the virtually 
equal division of the front between the gabled nave and 
the truncated tower, with its tall "diaphanous" belfry 
stage. When you know or recall the imposed, or assumed, 
necessity of a lateral gallery outside of the nave and aisles 
of the ecclesiological scheme, this division will no longer 
seem the freak it may have seemed to you at the first 
glance, but only the necessary expression of an unusual 
disposition. Moreover, you will come near to being as- 
tonished at the amplitude of space that has accrued from 
an arrangement enforced in the first instance by an 
exiguity of space. In the nearer bays, you find what 
you might call a terrace of massive buttresses, rising and 
receding as if there had been no question of space to 




N*£ 




Chancel, Showing Organ and Carved Screen. 
{The fillings of the chancel are tempotaru) 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



l 9 




r ^t 



I 





wm 



NAVE. LOOKING TOWARD NARTHEX 



1 




1 




■•■■I 








En - 








: 




SWii 



ST. THOMAS'S CHURCH, NEW YORK 
CRAM. GOODHUE & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS 



20 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



adjust on the Procrustean pre- 
scriptions of the lot." Be- 
yond these you find what in 
England might, in domestic 
architecture, be called the " of- 
fiees " of the parochial plant, 
built, indeed, "to the limit" 
laterally, and carried to a much 
greater height than that of the 
buttressed aisle which they ad 
join, but giving you, from the 
outside as well as from within, 
the sense of an amplitude >>( 
space very much greater than 
you could expect from the hard 
limitations of the scheme. 
Here, as elsewhere, the de- 
signers have plucked the flower 
safely from the nettle danger, 
or, as the prosaic architect must 
be fain to admit, this is highly 
ingenious planning. 

If we have said nothing about 
the artistic effect of this techni- 
cal achievement, it is because 
the illustrations speak for them- 
selves in this regard. The 
architectural investiture of the 
skeleton we have been endeavor- 
ing to explain offers, as the in- 
spector of these illus- 
trations will admit, 
surprising turns of 
expressiveness and 
beauty. It were 
tedious to particular- 
ize, but one may be 




Detail of Bay in Nave. 




allowed to call attention to such 
features as the rose window, 
which, with all the medieval 
precedents for it, appears here 
to be quite unprecedented; to 
the tall belfry lights; to the 
"imitation" on the flank of 
the predominant turret of the 
tower; to the tall gallery that 
masks the gable, as old as Notre 
Dame de Paris and may be 
older, but gaining here a virtual 
novelty by its treatment. In 
fact, the two visible fronts 
abound in suggestions. But a 
point which the student who 
has not seen the building itself 
is almost certain to miss is the 
luck the design has had in being 
carried out in the material 
chosen, — a limestone almost 
white, with curious and random 
splashes in it of a darker tint. 

As the " firm " which signed 
the plans for St. Thomas's has 
been dissolved or resolved into 
its elements since the comple- 
tion of the edifice, there can be 
no harm now in saying that 
whereas the plan of the church 
was that of Mr. Ralph 
Adams Cram, the 
working out and all 
of the detail should 
be ascribed to Mr. 
Bertram < rrosvenor 
< roodhue. 




Detail of Carving at East Entrance. 



The Continental and Commercial National Bank Building, 

Chicago, 111. 



D. H. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS. 



IT IS said, and with truth, that the art which employs 
materials successfully is as real as that which con- 
structs with permanence and economy. Without con- 
struction, building- is impossible ; but unless exercised in 
suitable materials with a proper sense of their nature and 
serviceableness, fine architecture is equally unattainable. 

In the building- for The Continental and Commercial 
National Bank, the architects have evidenced a technical 
sympathy with the materials in which they designed. This 
is easily recognizable in the treatment of the architectural 
terra cotta which has been used on the four street facades 
from the third floor level up through seventeen stories and 
attic. The esthetic value of a building material, what- 
ever its nature, has to be expressed by its use and work- 
manship, form deriving char- 
acter from its natural qualities. 
It is therefore by means of this 
esthetic expression of the tex- 
ture of terra cotta that the fine 
effects of the architecture of this 
building are realized. 

The building covers an entire 
city square in Chicago, bounded 
by streets on all sides, and in this 
respect is unique as a bank and 
office building in that city. The 
new home of the bank was de- 
signed in its essential features 
during the lifetime of the late 
Daniel H. Burnham and is one 
of the last of the many great 
undertakings with which his 
name is associated. 

The first two stories are com- 
pletely occupied by The Conti- 
nental and Commercial National 
Bank, which to-day is the second 
largest bank in the country. 
The upper stories are divided up 
for offices. The main entrance 
to the bank is located on La Salle 
street, this being the principal 
banking street in Chicago. This 
entrance feature is emphasized 
by noble granite columns car- 
ried up four stories in height 
and with corresponding treat- 
ment of the terra cotta for the 
tipper stories. On the Adams 
street side the ground floor is 
occupied by the Hibernian Bank- 
ing Association and on the 
Quincy street side by the Con- 
tinental and Commercial Trust 
and Savings Bank, subsidiaries 
of the main institution. 




Transverse Section Looking West. 




General View from Perspective Drawing 

21 



The main banking room occupies the second floor and in 
some portions is four stories high, reached by two monu- 
mental staircases in the center of a large corridor near 
each entrance. The banking room is lighted by daylight 
through the barrel vaulted glass ceiling which serves the 
double purpose of ceiling and roof for the entire area of 
the open court. The interior court is 54 feet wide by 
155 feet long. It is faced with white terra cotta and 
enameled brick. The sectional drawings illustrate the 
banking room and the floors beneath. 

In all senses of the word this building is a modern fire- 
proof structure. It is the last word in construction, heat- 
ing, ventilating, etc. The structure is of steel with flat 
floor arch system, on caissons built upon solid rock. 

Impervious terra cotta of a 
beautiful yellowish gray, sof- 
tened by inconspicuous brown 
spots, was the material success- 
fully used in the building. This 
combination of colors was the 
result of exhaustive experiments 
for this specific purpose. The 
factor of color in architectural 
work is one upon which stress 
should be laid. Most architects 
whose work is pleasing in its 
relationship of color have suc- 
ceeded by begging the question 
and by using in place of really 
positive colors a monotone 
scheme. This scheme was em- 
ployed in the subject under 
consideration and is highly suc- 
cessful. The surf aces are warm , 
sympathetic, and rich. In laying 
out the work special care was 
taken to arrange the jointing 
agreeably. All joints in ashlar 
as set were raked l /i inch deep, 
thus displaying joints as clean- 
cut black lines. 

Architectural terra cotta, 
though a constructive element, 
has, however, an esthetic qual- 
ity if it governs, as it should, 
the genesis of detailed form. 
It imparts the quality of texture 
which is beginning to be better 
understood in this country. 
That the architects have given 
thoughtful study and considera- 
tion to its use in this particular 
instance is to be remarked upon. 
The employment of this material 
has endowed the work with 
direct interest and beauty. 



22 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



Two interesting 
drawings are hero 
presented to illustrate 
the construction and 
to show how the ex- 
terior terra cotta fin- 
ish was attached to 
the steel skeletons. 
The other illustra- 
tions tell their own 
stories of the magni- 
tude of this whole 
work and the general 
scheme of the de- 
sign. The illus- 
tration adjoining, 
showing a comer of 
the building, is from 
a photograph taken 
from the only point 
from which the build- 
ing may be viewed in 
its correct perspec- 
tive. It is also the 
nearest in point of 
position to that taken 
in the rendered per- 
spective, a reproduc- 
tion of which is shown 
at small scale on pre- 
ceding page. 

It is necessary to 
allow here that good 

building and good art are the same ; the quality is properly- 
common to both, admirable construction having beauty 
in building as well as in other workmanship. Construc- 



tion as an art in en- 
tablatures, domes, 
vaultings, arcades, 
roofs, staircases, etc., 
oilers abundant ex- 
amples which do not 
permit the disinte- 
gration of artistic ef- 
fect from construc- 
tive skill. It would 
seem that the archi- 
tect of this building 
was emphatically the 
master of his work 
rather than the un- 
willing slave of mi- 
tractable materials 
and awkward condi- 
tions. This is a sense 
conveyed to the mind 
by modern erection 
other than works of 
engineering. The 
conclusion is enforced 
that many architects 
have a genuine en- 
joyment in their 
handling of building- 
materials and crafts 
and are able to ex- 
press the means they 
employ to attain their 

View Showing Upper Part of La Salle iHieet rront. ends in their work. 

In the final analysis of this new building it can surely be 
said that dignity, fitness, and security arc expressed alike 
by the material, construction, and arrangement. 





Longitudinal Section Looking North. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



23 




• CORNICE • ON- PENT-HOUSE 



20^ FLOORPAVILIONSPANDREL- 





-5 T -H'FLOOR- SPANDREL- 



-PARAPET- 

t r r r — r v r rttT 



TERRA COTTA CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 

CONTINENTAL AND COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK BUILDING 

CHICAGO. ILL. 

D. H. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



rtouti F»_«o«- LiM«, 




PLAN- THRU -COLUMNS 
- AT -19^- FLOOR- 



- 18^ -FLOOR -SPANDREL- 



MAIN- CORNICE- 




SECTION -THRU- LA SALLE - ST. -LOGGIA- CEILING 



<JZa\.c f J' b J 



■ r' i r retx 



TERRA COTTA CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 



CONTINENTAL AND COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK BUILDING 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

D. H. BURNHAM & CO.. ARCHITECTS 



The Quantity System in Estimating. 



GENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Editors, THE BRICKS VILDER : 

IT IS exceedingly interesting- to note the different atti- 
tudes of your correspondents towards the quantity 
surveying system. 
The subject seems to have been obscured by the sug- 
gestion that a reorganization or a radical improvement in 
the methods of preparing plans and specifications in archi- 
tects' offices is a necessary preliminary step to the estab- 
lishment of the quantity surveying system. This is not 
the case. The quantity surveyor's duty is to take plans 
and specifications as he finds them and from them com- 
pute the quantities of labor and material in the building. 
It is, of course, desirable that the plans and specifications 
should be good ones, and the better the plans the better 
his survey ; but even with a poor set of plans he is likely 
(because of his greater experience and the facilities at his 
disposal) to make a better survey than half a dozen com- 
peting builders. But there is no basis for the idea that 
quantity surveying would of itself improve any architect's 
plans or require better plans than the contractor now gets. 
The science of quantity surveying has only been in 
existence in England for about fifty years, and originated 
by builders who were asked to tender on a building meet- 
ing and appointing one from among their number to pre- 
pare their quantities, furnishing each with a copy to be 
priced, on which he would base his bid. 

In order to reduce unproductive expense, these parties 
would agree that whoever got the job should pay the whole 
cost of preparing the quantity schedule, and so each one 
would add the cost to his bid before putting in his tender, 
and the owner would thus pay for the quantities without 
knowing it. In event of the bids being all rejected, the 
competing builders each paid a proportion of the cost. 

Very soon independent surveyors took up this work and 
the benefits of a schedule of quantities made up by inde- 
pendent parties was soon felt, and before long architects 
realized the advantages to them in having the appointment 
of this surveyor in their own hands and in having- the use 
of the quantities during the progress of the building and 
for the settlement of extras, so that it was not long before 
the quantity surveyor came to be appointed by the archi- 
tect instead of being appointed by the competing builders. 
Contractors are of two kinds and do their estimating in 
different ways. Mr. Blackall and Messrs. Isham and Cady 
speak of one type who figure work in a rough and ready 
way, sometimes by cubing the whole building, and pricing 
it at the same price per foot cube as the last similar build- 
ing they put up, or else taking off a schedule of the mate- 
rials and adding a lump sum price for labor. These 
guesswork, haphazard methods are survivals of a past day 
and generation and (although more commonly in use than 
we would like them to be) arc steadily and surely dying- 
out, especially among the larger contractors. The other 
type are those who carefully take off quantities in order to 
make up their estimates, and it cannot be denied that all 
the principal contractors on building work in the East do 
take off a schedule of quantities before making competitive 
bids, and that they price their labor by unit prices in 



accordance with the schedules in the same way. These 
are the men who are interested in the development of a 
quantity surveying system - men who at present do spend 
large sums in getting their bids accurate, only at last to 
lose the fruit of their work to some one who doesn't know 
how to make an estimate or has forgotten something. 

I will go this far with Mr. Blackall in agreeing that 
there is some uncertainty about contracts in England, some 
latitude in estimates, some difference in profits, for the 
English system is not perfect; but I do not agree that they 
are as great as they are here, and especially in the range 
of estimates my English experience (which extended over 
twelve years) did not show me any jobs which were taken 
at ridiculously low prices except in one or two eases when, 
through pure carelessness, a builder priced out a whole 
bill of masonry and carried it into the summary with the 
decimal point set back a place, or a builder's clerk made 
a mistake in addition. No system will insure against 
errors of that sort. 

It is not suggested that there will be any immediate 
demand for quantities on small jobs such as ten-roomed 
houses, -mall stores, etc., but the primary need comes on 
buildings costing $20,000 and over ; this figure need not 
be a limit, but an economical limit will soon set itself. 

It has not been claimed that the quantity surveying- 
system will have any part in lowering or raising unit 
costs, and it also will make no difference whether bids 
based on quantities are accepted as lump sum contracts, 
or cost plus fixed sum with guarantee, or any other type 
of contract. 

The way in which Mr. Jones refers to stringent blanket 
clauses in the contract and badly drawn plans would make 
it seem that, if all contracts were fair and impartial, and 
all plans clear and well drawn, there would be no need 
for quantities. But quantities are needed just as much in 
either case, with this difference, — that where plans are 
clear and specifications definite, the contractor would reap 
the primary advantage in being saved the labor of mak- 
ing an estimate of quantities; but where plans were not 
clear and specifications of the "blanket" type the owner 
would in a large percentage of cases reap the advantage. 

The quantity surveying system, if adopted in this coun- 
try, will eliminate one of the uncertain elements in pres- 
ent day building contracts, by furnishing each contractor 
with a schedule of the materials and labor shown on the 
plans, instead of leaving him to figure them out. It will 
not interfere with his own judgment in pricing or making 
Up a bid. It will not necessitate any changes in archi- 
tects' plans. It will not reduce fair competition or elimi- 
nate the careless or incompetent among builders or 
architects. It will not interfere with letting work under 
any type of contract the architect may desire, nor will it 
raise or lower costs. It is simply one logical forward step 
in the awarding of building contracts, the advantages of 
which must be experienced to be fully appreciated, but 
which seem apparent to all those who have carefully con- 
sidered the subject. 

Leslie 1 1 . Allen. 



25 



26 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



8 



? 



EDITORJAL COMMENT 
AN D<N O T E S * * 
F O R. * TH E * M O NTH 




H>»>>ft>>>w>^>ff>»w?a>ft>:>E^^^ 



IT IS the inalienable right of everyone to think for 
himself, to form his own opinions regarding those 
matters with which he is intimately concerned. And 
undoubtedly every one has an opinion as to the outlook 
for building during the coming year. The very nature of 
our work brings us into touch with those who are identified 
with building operations in different parts of the country, 
and if we may intelligently judge from the opinions that 
come to us, we feel safe in predicting' that there will be a 
general revival during the year. 

Expansion in general business is always reflected, fa- 
vorably, in the building field. As we all know, expansion 
in business is dependent upon wise legislation, a good crop 
outlook, and the attitude of banks and other institutions 
toward those who seek loans for the promotion of sound 
and legitimate business enterprises. To this let us add 
that optimism rather than pessimism is an important fac- 
tor in creating and maintaining a healthy condition. 

Taken as a whole, building operations for L913 were 
very satisfactory. They were not as extensive in some 
parts of the country as in others, but this is natural and 
will probably always be so. The real depression came 
during the last two or three months and this depri 
was noticeable particularly in the larger cities. Here we 
find that a great deal of work which was already on the 
boards was ordered held up for one reason or another. 
Again, a great deal of work that had only reached the 
" interview " stage suddenly vanished. It will take but a 
short time when conditions have 
become more favorable to start 
this work going again, and to it 
will be added a great deal of new 
work, because cities and towns of 
this country are not overbuilt. 
The demand for most kinds of 
buildings has been ecpial to the 
supply. A period of hard times 
and consequent retrenchment in 
building operations is almost im- 
mediately followed by a correspond- 
ing increase. 

Let us consider briefly those 
influences which do now and will 
continue to stimulate building- 
operations. A rapidly increasing- 
population must be housed. Elec 
tricity and the motor have reduced 
and are reducing distances with 
the result that new areas are being 
developed to provide new homes, 
schools, churches, business blocks, 
and manufacturing plants. The 
more prosperous among us will 
continue to build houses which 



PRIZE WINNERS 



will reflect modern thought in design, plan, and equip- 
ment. New inventions which administer to the comfort 
and material welfare of mankind will have a large influ- 
ence in creating a demand for new hotels, apartments, 
hospitals, banks, libraries, theaters, office buildings, etc. 
Is this work likely to stop for any considerable length of 
time? Has it ever seriously stopped within the recollec- 
tion of any man in practice to-day ? We think not. 

The practice of architecture is, generally speaking, in- 
fluenced by two words, — " stop " and " go." The one is 
the spark that prostrates. The other brings into instant life 
every creative energy. Depression comes suddenly — you 
can tell it by the long line of draftsmen who hit the trail 
with a gloomy pine. Reaction is equally as sudden — you 
can tell it by the untrodden verdure that covers the trail. 
The word "stop" was undeniably uttered during the 
closing months of last year. Weighing — to the best of 
our ability and with the one thought of forming an intelli- 
gent estimate — the reports that have come to us from 
different sections of the country we are of the opinion 
that the word " go " is soon to be passed down the line. 

FOR some years there has been a strong movement 
on the part of the members of the National Asso- 
ciation of Master Plumbers and National Associa- 
tion of Steam and Hot Water bitters to secure the letting of 
their contracts by architects instead of general contractors. 
It is interesting to the profession, therefore, to give here 
the resolution that was adopted 
at the last Annual Convention of 
the American Institute of Archi- 
tects. 



THE BRICKBVILDER S VWUAL 

AKCIIITKCTl RALTERRACOTTA 

COMPETITION. 

THE Jury of Award for the Moving- 
Picture Theater Competition 
awarded First Prize. $500, to Louis 
Fentnor and Robert Pallesen, associ- 
ated, New York City ; Second Prize, 
$250, to Thomas 1'.. Herman and 
Dinardo & Beersman, associated, Al- 
bany, X. V. ; Third Prize, $150 to 
Gustave G. Vigouroux, New York 
City ; Fourth Prize, $100, to James 
Flaherty, Boston, Mass. Mentions: 
Walter Scholer and David W. Carlson, 
associated, Xew York City; Robert R. 
Graham, Syracuse, X. Y. ; LeRo} 
barton and Walter McQuade, associ- 
ated, Brooklyn, N.Y.; C. Hugh Ferber, 
Reno, Xew; Harrv E. Warren, boston ; 
Midgley Walter Hill, New York City. 

The competition was judged Janu- 
ary 10 by Winthrop Ames, Howard 
Greenley, Harry Creighton Ingalls, 
Albert Kelsey. Hugh Tallant,' and 
Arthur Ware. 



" Resolved, That the American 
Institute of Architects in conven- 
tion assembled recommends to the 
members of our profession the 
adoption of the practice of direct 
letting of contracts for mechanical 
equipment, such as heating appa- 
ratus, plumbing, and electrical 
equipment. This recommendation 
is based on the conviction that 
direct letting of contracts as com- 
pared with sub-letting through 
general contractors affords the 
architect more certain selection of 
competent contractors and more 
efficient control of execution of 
work and thereby insures a higher 
standard of work, and, at the 
same time, serves more equitably 
the financial interests of both 
owner and contractor." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xxvn 




Chapel of the Intercession 

Trinity Parish 

New York City 



Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue 

of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Architect 















f 





Rim Lock with Knob used 
on inside of door 



Escutcheon with Ring Handle 
used on outside of door 



Co-operation with the architect in theinterpretation into 

metals of his design has resulted in hardware that is both 

artistically and mechanically satisfactory 

SARGENT & COMPANY 



I 






NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



NEW YORK BOSTON PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 



SARGENT HARDWARE is obtainable through representative hardware merchants in all cities 



XXV111 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



.ssss^sssss^j^s^^^ 



SSSSSi««S«S s$ « Ssss^sSsnSsssjs^ssjss^s^^ 






"TARGET- AND -ARROW" Roofing Tin 
















NEW TERMIN \l. STATION, SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO 

National Railways oi Mexico 

Roofed with JN,x~s sq. ft. of Target-and-Arrow rooting tin 

Architect, E. 1'. DeWolf, Chief Engineer of Construction, National Railways of Mexico 
Roofer-, Empresa de Pierro Galvanizado, Mexico City 

FOLLOWING the example set by many leading American railroads, our 
neighbors across the border selected this old-time product for the roof of 
this terminal building. 

Notice the neat, clean-cut appearance of the tin roofing, laid with standing 
seams. 

Long service, with complete protection from the weather and from fire, and freedom from 
roof troubles, are ensured by using this time-tried roofing material. It costs a little more than 
other roofing tin, so you are not likely to get Taylor quality if you write a specification that 
permits substitution. 

\ postal canl request will bring a standard tin roofing specification form for 

architects' use. and some instructive literature telling- about this old product. 

N. & G. TAYLOR CO., Philadelphia 

Headquarters for good roofing tin since 1810 

s s«SsSVsSSSSj^!sSs^SSJsSs^^ 

^SSSXSSJSS^S^N^^S^N^S^^ 












l 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXIX 









I 

11 






1 






i! 






Eco?tomical 



Easily Applied 




Rapidly Mixed 



Dutch Boy 

Pure 

Red Lead-in-Oil 

"Stays Soft Like White Lead" 




Durable 



Pure Red Lead Ground in Pure Linseed Oil 
is a Big Step Forward 

When white lead was first put on the market ground in pure linseed 
oil a most important advance was made in the painting business. Now we 
are ready to supply this other valuable lead product in this convenient 
paste form. 

It marks another big step forward. 

Architects and engineers have long recognized the great protective 
value of red lead when used to paint skyscraper skeletons, steel bridges, 
and other structural iron and steel work. Sometimes, however, because 
workmen told them paint made from old style red lead required special skill 
in application, and because of its propensity for setting quickly, its advan- 
tages were foregone and a less effective paint used instead. 

Dutch Boy Red Lead-in-Oil overcomes even the semblance of objec- 
tion and supplies a long felt want — a red lead paint as easy to handle as the 
old reliable Dutch Boy white lead-in-oil. 

To insure every architect and engineer an opportunity to inspect 
and test red lead in its new, convenient form we will send a sample 
of Dutch Boy Red Lead-in-Oil, with details of its advantages, 
upon application to our nearest branch. Use the coupon, 
please. 



i 



V 



pi 



& 



^ # 






V 



New York 
Cincinnati 



NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 

Boston Buffalo Chicago 

Cleveland St. Louis San Francisco 

(John T. Lewis & Bros. Co., Philadelphia) 
(National Lead & Oil Co.. Pittsburgh) 



cV* ,b 






^r v 



, & 



v4? 



** 



& 



.S 



&■ 






I 

I 






xxx THE BRICKBUILDER. 

n.l._,.l A-.„l^„_„ I! 









Colonial Architecture 
/#/' those about to Build 



Being the best examples, Domestic, Governmental, and Institutional, 



85 Water Street : : : Boston, Mass. 






in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, with observations upon 



.„ ^ . „^j~,„ — , * — „ — ^ v , , _ r __ 

the local building art of the Eighteenth Century. 



g v HERBERT C. WISE and 
J H. FERDINAND BEIDELMAN 



This volume has been prepared for the guidance of architects and for all lovers 
of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, who desire to familiarize themselves with 



the best work of the Georgian or Colonial period. 

There are two hundred and seven illustrations, a large portion of which are 
full page plates. It may safely be said that no similar series of illustrations so 
wonderful in scope and of such clearness of detail has ever before appeared at so 
moderate a price. The text is practical throughout and gives in compact form 
the result of years of study and first hand investigation. There is only a mod- 

buildings described, the book in its largest sense is a practical and scholarly study 
of the truly native design of this country. 



erate amount of emphasis given the historical and other associations of the 

buildings described, the book in its largest sense is a practical and scholarly study 
. . . . . . « . •. . 



A partial list of the contents is iriven below 

The Plan and Design of Colonial Buildings Public and Semi-Public Buildings 

Sonic Pre-Revolutionary .Mansions Roadside Houses 

of Pennsylvania A Colonial Town 

Old Quaker Houses of the Quaker City Mansions of Delaware 

Dwellings of Lesser Size Later Colonial Houses 

Council Halls of Our Forefathers Churches of the Swedes and English 

Interiors and Characteristic Detail Early Craftsmen and Their Methods 

Octavo Volume Decorated Cloth Binding 

SENT BOXED AND PREPAID TO ANY ADDRESS IN THE UNITED STATES 

UPON RECEIPT OF THE PRICE 

I . $5 - 00 1 



II . ^- uu II 

ROGERS & MANSON COMPANY 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXI 






II 



I 

ll 





















ll 






II 



! 









i 












s 



The Closet that 
Does Not Embarrass 
by Noisy Flushing 

The installation of a Siwelclo 
Closet means freedom from the 
noisy flushing of the old-style closet, 
which reaches every part of your 
home and always seems loudest when 
guests are present. A Siwelclo is 
valued in every home of refinement, 
not only because of its noiselessness 
but for its thorough cleanliness. 




The Trenton Potteries Company 

SI-WEL-CLO .£55% CLOSET 



This closet is noiseless because we planned it to be 
noiseless. It did not just happen that way. 

Moreover, it is thoroughly sanitary, flushes perfectly, guarded 
against sewer gas with a 3-inch water seal. Made like the rest 
of our line from the best Vitreous China. Many architects are 
including the " Siwelclo " in their specifications. Order Plate 
982-LM. 



Trenton Potteries Company fixtures of 
Solid Porcelain and Vitreous China give 
to the bath room the touch of refinement 

that fine China and Cut Glass do to the dining 
room. It is economical because of its durability. 
We will gladly send any architect a copy of our 
new LM Catalogue. 




Trenton Potteries Co. 

Trenton, N. J., U. S. A. 










li 

% % 

II 






I 

I! 






I 

II 



XXX11 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 









II 



MILLS 



Water Tube Boilers 

For 

Steam and Water Warming 

Vertical Water Tubes 

Vertical Fire Travel 

Tested to 125 lbs. at works 

Rapid Circulation Dry Steam 

Economy of Fuel 




No. 44 Boiler 



THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



NEW YORK 



WESTFIELD, MASS. 
PHILADELPHIA 



BOSTON 






11 









The Gorton Self - Feeding Boilers 

For All Systems of Steam and Hot Water Heating 

"Maximum Efficiency" 






:««SSiS«« 




66 



24 Years' Continuous Service" 



Sectional View, No. Ill Boiler 



Boston, July 14, 1913 
Gorton & Lidgerwooo Co. 
Gentlemen : 

In reply to your Mr. Houghton's letter of the 9th, will say 
we have had your boiler in use for about fourteen years and under- 
stand the people who occupied our building previous to us had the 
same boiler for about ten years. We have found it to give good 
satisfaction, efficient and economical to run. Once a year we have 
had the boiler overhauled at a small expense. 

Very truly Yours 
(Signed) WM. F. MAYO CO. 

Our new Catalog " Modern House Heating " No. 87 tells why. 
Copy on request. 

GORTON & LIDGERWOOD CO. 

96 Liberty St., New York 















THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXX111 



II 



^)OfM<c<fy 




STEAM 



Ite2fc,. I 



\% 



Ifl 



STEAM 









3 fctfow ^A*^ 

Cj srn*Oi . _ 

Why 1M foves tiqdte 



LH 



W2T\J 



FURNACE CO, 



Chicago New York Jersey City 



XXXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








czn 




□ 



Economical Coal Consumption 

Combined with 

Absolutely Perfect Heating 

Secured by multiplied heating surfaces that receive and dis- 
tribute more heat from a low fire than other heaters obtain 
from a freshly filled grate under full draft. 

You can depend absolutely upon the perfect heating effi- 
ciency and full economy of 

Richardson & Boynton Heaters 

" Richardson " Steam and Hot Water Boilers 
and " Perfect " Warm Air Furnaces 

Their ratings are based on an honest, conservative estimate 
of their scientifically tested capacity. 

Our experience of over 75 years, manufacturing thousands 
of heaters of all types, warrants us to positively guarantee our 
products of to-day to fully meet the requirements for which 
they are intended and give absolute satisfaction under all 
conditions. 

Let us explain to you personally or by mail why our goods best fit your needs 



/ 

J 


' 


' 




nn 


< 


■ 




n 


n 




, 




t 


i 


( i 


> 


i 


> 


u 


u 




i 


L 


i i 


r- 


> 

n 




- 



RICHARDSON & BOYNTON CO. 405 Bo ' ton s,reet 



BOSTON - MASS. 



New York 



Minneapolis 



Philadelphia 



Los Angeles 



Chicago 



Providence 



Kansas City 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXV 




A Happy and Prosperous 

New Tear 



^HE Raymond Concrete Pile Company 
*• wishes you a Happy and Prosperous 

New Year. 

To the Architects of America we wish to express our 
sincere appreciation of the unqualified endorsement ac- 
corded by them to the reliability of Raymond Concrete 
Piles and Raymond methods. 

We also desire to announce the continuation of our policy 
of keeping you posted on the subject of concrete pile con- 
struction each month throughout the year on this page of 
The Brickbuilder. 

Our aim is to present something of real interest and value 
to you each month, including the developments that grow 
out of new problems and work. If there are points which 
we fail to cover fully and clearly, we invite direct corres- 
pondence and stand ready at all times to give you the 
benefit of our experience to the fullest extent. 

A handsome book of 1 68 pages, covering many interesting phases of founda- 
tion work:, w iH De sent free, together with a scientific treatise on concrete piles. 

RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE COMPANY 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS 

NEW YORK Branch Offices CHICAGO 

140 Cedar Street in ah Principal Cities 111 W. Monroe Street 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal. Can. 



2 



y A 



Vi, 



XXXV] 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 







Specify 
" Clinton * 

Mortar 
Colors 






Yale Gymna 



M 









ADE from the best ores for mortar 
color purposes. Most finely ground. 

Better results obtained with less color per 
thousand brick than any mortar color made. 
Will not fade nor cause efflorescence. A stand- 
ard for more than thirty years. 

Be sure packages bear genuine Clinton trade- 
mark. 



DETAILS AND PRICES GLADLY FURNISHED 

Clinton Metallic Paint Co. 



Dept. M 



CLINTON, N. Y. 



wm 



See information and data. Sweet's Catalog 
1914 edition 



Insist on this Label 









Quality— and Price 



High price does not always mean 
high quality, but good quality and 
low price seldom go together. 
The purchases you remember with 
satisfaction are almost invariably 
those where you have paid a fair 
price for a good article which has 
given good service. 
When considering the range, you 
can give your client the most in 
service and satisfaction by specify- 
ing the BRAMHALL DEANE 
RANGE. 

BRAMHALL, DEANE CO. 

261 West 36th Street NEW YORK 






Ranges and kitchen equipment for residences, hotels, 
hospitals, clubs, restaurants, etc. 






sssssssssssss sssssssssa 










^««S*S«KSS«SSm$iSSS 






Five Year Guarantee 

When a closet seat is guaranteed for five years <>f satisfactory service, 
the average person does not appreciate the real meaning of this fact. 
\ seal which is guaranteed for five years must be made to do much 
better than that in service, because a safety factor must be allowed 
for. We can unhesitatingly guarantee 

The NEVER SPLIT Closet Seat 

for that length of time, because we know that the bolted joints are 
: han equal to the occasion and our finish has long since established 
its permanency. 



le of four 







"NEVER SPLIT' Closet Seats 

pieces of the finest straight-grained quartered oak and the grain runs 
around the seat. Write for our Catalog. 

KeSS L »TCo. 



•A. 












BE GOOD TO YOUR CLIENTS 

AND GIVE THEM BEAUTIFUL WINDOWS 
EQUIPPED WITH OUR 1914 MODEL HOLD- 
FAST ADJUSTERS. 

FOR THEY AMERICANIZE THE GOOD OLD 
ENGLISH CASEMENT, MAKING IT A CON- 
VENIENCE AND A COMFORT. 

THE "BULLDOG" OUTER ARMS GIVE THEM 
POWER AXD STRENGTH FOR HARD SERVICE. 

AXD THE PRICE ISN'T A "HOLD-UP." 

Get our 32-page Casement Window Handbook 
for your draughtsmen. 

CASEMENT HDW. CO. 9 < ' u ri , l V^fi?i REET 















THE BR1CKBUILDER. 



XXXVII 






I! 









II 






% 88 

II 






II 






II 






II 






1ED 



S SSS***S«>SS$*«**SS««*S*SSS^^ 




WINS: 




•-'"•■•... 

" ..■•" " ?■■..... " 

"" ,.,!■ " i . .4.: 

.. .. ■ 



AMERICA'S FINEST HARDWOOD as used in some of AMERICA'S FINEST Bl ILDINGS by HOI 'ABIRD & ROCHE 

The first really important 
building in the United States 
for which RED GUM trim 
was specified— the structure 
in which the above named emi- 
nent and careful firm first 
boldly showed the courage of 
their convictions as to RED 
QUAES unequalled value and 
beauty fund its dependability J 
was the famous 22-story Hotel 
La Salle, Chicago. The same 
A reinfects thereafter specified 
RED GUM for the typical 
trim in the University Club 
of Chicago. 

They also had proven by ex- 
perience the truth of the claim 
that in its Natural Finish RED 
GUM VEN EER equals Cir- 
cassian Walnut —and costs but 
a fraction as much. 




HOTEL LA SALLE, CHICAGO 



• ' ' • » ■ .. . , 

■ ■ • ■ ; 



■ ■■■•■■■■■ M 

fi< m tn (" >" 



WOODMEN OF llnkl./i. KM. III. I 







ilai^ifflsi Ja 
sTgiifili' 

ira u flfi m jfjjjrj 13 

r »3 jH| -=3 TOT] -j3 .[|fj TJ 

S5^T^^ I i ceo" 

UNIVERSITY CLUB, CHICAGO 



fit in 

a 
s 



Messrs. Holahird & Roche next se- 
lected RED GUM as the charac- 
teristic trim of the luxurious new 
HOTEL SHERMAN, Chicago, 
and shortly after for the new 1 . eland 
Hotel, Springfield, III. 




Hi' 1 1 I sill k-M |\, ///, ICO 



These signal cases having proven thoroughly satisfying, they next installed RED GUM TRIM 
throughout the great new building for the "WOODMEN OF THE, WORLD," at Omaha. 

"RED GUM IS NO LONGER AN EXPERIMENT- IT IS A Bl T/" 

At its present price RED GUM is the most remarkable purchase in the entire hardwood field. 
INSIST ON IT for Interior Trim, for Car;,;! Detail Work and fur Special Ordei Furniture. 
\rchitects and owner* planning to build should w* !/•• the undei fig nedfor samples, full infot motion and list of important 
building* of ALL TYPES wherein RED GUM hai given yean a) tminent satisfaction, both practical and artistic. 

GUM LUMBER MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 

904 BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING 
Memphis, Tennessee 



II 












88 V, 



I 









XXXV111 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






I 



1 




i 



I 



1 



II 



1 



Conservatory of Music, James Miliiken University. 

Patton & Miller, Architects, Chicago 

Sound-proofed throughout with 

Cabot's Deafening "Quilt" 

Quilt wasspecified because the architects knew its value, but 
superior claims were made to the trustees for another product, 
and therefore tests were ordered which proved the superiority 
of Quilt so conclusively that the competitors were obliged to 
admit it. 

Quilt is the sound-deadener that breaks up and absorbs the 
sound-waves — it is a thick, resilient cushion of air-cells. Felts 
cannot do this because they are too dense and thin. 

Full information on request. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Manufacturing Chemists 
1133 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 24 W. KINZIE ST., CHICAGO 

Cabot's Creosote Stains, Cement and Brick Stains, Plaster- 
bond Dampproofing, Protective Paint, Conservo Wood Pre- 
servative, Old Virginia White. 












I 







^ERGER , S RIB-TRUS REIN- 
FORCING AND FURRING PLATE 



Write for catalog 





For the best service 

ddress nearest 

branch 




THE BERGER MFG. CO. 

CANTON, OHIO 



New York 

St. Louis 
Boston 




San Francisco 
Minneapolis 

Philadelphia 



Argentine Glass 



( Opaque Structural Plate Glass) 

TS a wainscoting possessing the durability and 
other individual excellences of glass, together 
with decorative effects hitherto obtainable only 
in materials of inferior service. 

Opaque Structural Plate Glass is the only ma- 
terial known that, during the entire life of its 
installation, remains as new in appearance and 
as effective in service as on the day of setting. 

In its field Argentine Glass stands pre-eminent. 
It is the most thoroughly annealed and strongest 
product of its kind. 

Argentine Glass is produced in a wider range 
of colors, thicknesses and sizes than any other 
and is the only structural plate glass guaranteed 
to be non-absorbent and therefore unstainable. 

Architects interested are invited to make a 
simple test, — by flowing ordinary writing ink 
on glasses offered for their consideration. 

A few representative installations of 
Argentine Glass 

Hotel McAlpin, New York 

Public Schools, St. Louis 

Public Schools, Minneapolis 

Gedney Farms Hotel, Briarclift" Manor 

Stations for the D. L. & W. Railroad at 

Montclair, Ithaca, Blairstown. etc. 
Panama Railroad Station, Colon, Panama 
Hospital du Val de Grace, Paris 
Hospital Ste. Eugenie, St. Petersburg 
Victoria Hospital. Bournemouth 
Municipal Hospital, Para, Brazil 
Bacteriological Institute, Liverpool 
Hotel at Leeds. Edinburgh, Dunedin (New Zealand). 

and other similar installations in practically every 

civilized country. 

Smn pics in full range of fifteen colors 
furnished on application 



Semon Bache & Company 

50 Hubert Street New York City 



II 



Non-Absorbent Non-Crazing Unchangeable 



If 






I 



« ■//. 



I 

| 

II 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXIX 



11 
























li 

'/, '/a 

II 



!l 



II 






II 



II 



II 



I! 

% ■'/, 



I 



RUUD 



GUARANTEED WATER HEATERS 

For EVERY PURSE- -For EVERY PURPOSE 



This year the use of Gas Water Heaters will be more wide- 
spread than ever before, as a result of the ever increasing 
interest in the manifold advantages of heating water by the 
Instantaneous Automatic Method. To meet this demand, 
progressive Architects will naturally turn to the Ruud Line 
as a medium by which all their clients may have 

Inexpensive Reliable Service 

Every conceivable condition of gas or 
water pressure, or any hot water require- 
ment that may be called forth, is now 
answered by the Ruud, and every one, 
from the humble cottage to the palatial 
residence, is guaranteed the same eco- 
nomical, ever ready service, the only 
difference being the initial cost and capac- 
ity of heaters. 

Six Distinct Types and 
Numerous Sizes 

Ruud Positive-Acting Double Fuel Controlled 
Instantaneous Heaters. Four sizes — 3, 4, 6 and 8 
gallons per minute capacity. For the middle-class and the 
larger, more pretentious homes. 

Ruud Positive-Acting Double Fuel Controlled 
Cottage Heaters. Two sizes — 2\-i and 3 gallons per 
minute capacity. For small homes, drug stores, barber 
shops, candy kitchens, etc. 

Ruud Multi-Coil Automatic Storage Systems. 

Five sizes— 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 gallons per hour 
capacity. For hospitals, hotels, gymnasiums, etc. 

Ruud No. 50 Automatic Storage Systems. Made 
with 50, 66 and 80 gallon tanks.- For small apartments, 
hotels, etc., where low pressure conditions of gas or water 
exist. 

Ruud No. 30 Automatic Storage System. Made 
with 40 gallon tank. For speculative building, small 
homes, etc., where low pressure conditions of gas or 
water exist. 

Ruud Tank Water Heaters. Three sizes — Nos. 
20, 25 and 35. For "renters," the cheaper class ol 
residences, industrial plants, etc. 





Ruud Instantaneous 

Automatic Water 

Heater 

Equipped with Ruud 
Positive -A c ti n g 
Double Fuel Control 
and Ruud Side Out- 
let Flat Gauze Burn- 
ers (patented features). 
Represents all the re- 
finements of modern 
water heater construc- 
tion. 



Ruud Automatic 

Cottage Water 

Heater 

Equipped with Ruud 
Positive-Acti n g 
Double Fuel Control, 
Ruud Side Outlet Flat 
Gauze Burners and 
all the other features 
of the larger Instan- 
taneous Ruud, differ- 
ing onl\ in price and 
capacity. 



Complete detailed information of any or all of the above Ruud's ' ' will be gladly tent upon request 

RUUD MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



MAIN OFFICE— PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Branches in all large cities 



Factories— Pittsburgh, Pa., Toronto, Can., 
Hamburg, Ger., Kalamazoo, Mich. 






























xl 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






SSSSSSV 



SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 















Have You received 
your Dreadnought 
color sample? 

If you have not sent us your 
name and received the samples 

of "DREADNOUGHT" cork 

composition flooring in full range 
of colors, we invite you to do so. 

"DREADNOUGHT" has been 
selected by hundreds of good 
architects for important buildings. 

"DREADNOUGHT" has 

proven itself a worthy flooring at 
a fair price and has made friends 
with architects and owners in 
many classes of buildings and in 
many cities. 

We shall be glad to tell you 

about "DREADNOUGHT" 

when we send the samples in 
color, and why it was selected 
for extensive use in the New 
Grand Central Terminal, New 
York, the new Biltmore Hotel, 
New York, and elsewhere. 

DREADNOUGHT 
FLOORING CO. 

30 East 4 2d Street, New York 






Berger's Metal Lath 




Write for catalog 



The Berger Mfg. Co. 

Canton, Ohio 
For the best service address nearest branch 



New York 
St. Louis 



Boston 

San Francisco 



Minneapolis 
Philadelphia 















Recent Installations of 
Prometheus — the Plate Warmer 



Charles Templeton Crocker Residence 

Hillsborough, Cal. 

Willis Polk. Architect 

Robert S. Brewster Residence 

Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

Delano and Aldrich, Architects 

Abram Garfield Residence 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Abram Garfield, Architect 

William Skinner Residence 
36 East 39th Street, New York 

Countess Langier-Villars Residence 
Tivoli, New York 

Parmelee Residence 
Washington, D. C. 

Langelotte Residence 
Riverside, Cal. 

Roger Gillman Residence 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Milne Residence 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Seigel Residence 
Detroit, Mich. 



Want a Catalog? 



The Prometheus Electric Company- 
231 East 43d Street, New York 



11 



11 















THE BRICKBUILDER 



xli 



v. v. 



11 






%. '//. 



I 



S 



n 

i 

II 

U 

If 

I 

II 

ii 



1 1 



I 

ii 



THE 

CUTLER MAIL CHUTE 




MAIL BOX 

UNION CENTRAL LIFE 

INS. CO. 

CINCINNATI. O. 

CASS CUBE RT , 

NEW YORK, 

GARBER & WOODWARD. 

CINCINNATI. 

ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS 



equipment in the Union 
Central Life Insurance 
Company's building, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, consists of 
twenty-nine (29) stories of 
twin or double Chutes, of 
the Model F type, and the 
bronze Mail Box illustrated. 

There is of course the 
same reason for duplicating 
the Mail Chute installation 
that there is for proportion- 
ing the number of elevators 
to the amount of service 
required, and this is now 
generally understood and 
provided for by architects 
in buildings of the first 
importance. 



Cutler Mail Chute Company, 

Cutler Bldg , Rochester, N. Y. 



!§ 






I I 

!! 







1827 

' & CO. 



TKAL.E J. X. L. NO. 1 " A " K 

(For Varnishing Interior Woodwork) 

AND 

I. X. L. FLOOR FINISH 

Carry this Guarantee on Every Can: 

WE GUARANTEE 

these varnishes as well aged and made of 
nothing but hard fossil gums of superior grade, 
finest oil of special refining and pure spirits 
of turpentine. No Rosin. No Substitutes. 

They are made for the architect who wants the very best ob- 
tainable. On account of elasticity and freedom of working, they 
cover the greatest amount of surface, and therefore are the most 
economical. 

Artistic Set of Finished Panels on Request 

EDWARD SMITH & CO. 

" Varnish Makers for 87 Years" 
Main Office and Works 

West Avenue, 6th and 7th Streets, Long Island City, N.Y. 

P. O. Box 1780, New York City 
Western Branch, 3532-34 South Morgan Street, Chicago 



11 



I! 

I 
II 






I 




You Can Please the 
Owner 

by incorporating Eye Comfort Lighting in the plans 
of the home or other building you draw up for him. 
Your work stands out better when the room is flooded 
with this clear, mellow, glareless light which beauti- 
fully illuminates the whole room and brings out every 
detail of your design. 

Eye Comfort 
Lighting 

is free from glare, restful to the eyes — the only true system 
of indirect illumination. It is being installed in the most beautiful 
and modern homes, office buildings, hospitals, railway stations, 
and the luxurious passenger trains of the leading railway systems. 

Wherever good light is essential it can be obtained best by 
Eye Comfort Lighting — the greatest efficiency— no harsh glare — 
no shadows. 

Consult Our Engineers 

Without obligation on your part our corps of expert lighting 
engineers will help you plan the lighting system for any building 
you are interested in. 

Send to-day for complete information on Eye Comfort Lighting 
and our free engineering services. 

National X-Ray Reflector Company 

General Offices: 243 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 
New York Offices : 14 W. 33rd Street 



II 



II 

If 

II 



4. i 



I 



I 



II 

I 



i ^ 






PI 












SSS^S>msSss^sSSS^^ 



2? % 



^mm 



xlii 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



II 















1 






I 






» 






II 


















Every Architect Needs 

KIDDER'S STANDARD WORKS 



The first and most authoritative hooks to he consulted on problems of construction 

in architectural practice. 



Building Construction and 
Superintendence 

By F. E. Kidder, C.E., Ph.D., Architect. 
Rewritten by Prof. Thomas Nolan, M.S. , A.M. 

Part I. Masons' Work 

New and Revised Edition 

Ninth edition, 992 pages, 628 illustrations, one 
8vo volume, cloth. Price, $6.00. 

Part II. Carpenters' Work 

New and Revised Edition 

Rewritten by Prof. Thomas Nolan, M.S., 

A.M. 

Ninth edition, 900 pages, 830 illustrations, one 

8vo volume, cloth. Price, §6.00. 

Part III. Trussed Roofs and 
Roof Trusses 

Over 300 illustrations, one large 8vo volume, 
cloth. Price, $3.00. 



Churches and Chapels 

Third Edition 



I). 



The best American Book on Church 
and Construction. 

This edition has been thoroughly revised and 
enlarged, many new designs being added, in- 
cluding several for Roman Catholic Churches, 
120 illustrations in the text and 67 full page plans. 
( )ne oblong quarto volume, cloth. Price, $3.00. 

Architects' and Builders' 
Pocket Book 

Fifteenth Edition 

The most widely consulted book in the building 
field. No architect, structural engineer, con- 
tractor or draftsman can afford to be without 
a copy. 16mo, 1,703 pages, 1,000 figures, 
morocco. Price, $5.00. 

Strength of Beams, Floors 
and Roofs 

Including directions for designing and detailing 
roof trusses, with criticism of various forms 
of timber construction. Illustrated with 164 
engravings from original drawings. 
Cloth. Price, S2.00. 



The above is a list of Mr. Kidder's complete works, all of which should 
be in the hands of every Architect, Builder, Contractor, Draftsman and all 
those connected with building operations. There is no need to comment 
on the authority of Mr. Kidder, for his works are everywhere recognized 
as the most highly valued and useful works among technical publications. 

Any of these books will be sent postpaid on receipt of their price 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



85 



Architectural Publishers 

WATER STREET 



BOSTON, MASS. 



v. v. 

I 



i 









!l 









il 



a> ss ssssss5ssssss«s>^^ 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^ » !S SS5S«K*SSS«SS«SmSS«SSS^^ * V/ ' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xliii 









PHILADELPHIA 
BOSTON 



PITTSBURGH 
ST. LOUIS 



CHICAGO 

SAN FRANCISCO 



FORTY-SECOND STREET BUILDING 

Madison Avenue and Forty-Second Street, New York 

Buchman & Fox, Architects 

HPHE main hall, basement 
*■ hall and subway en- 
trance of the Forty-Second 
Street Building are floored 
with our 

Interlocking 
Rubber Tiling 

which was selected by the archi- 
tects to withstand the enormous 
wear of many thousand persons 
daily. 

Our floors prevent accidents due to slip- 
ping — are sanitary, waterproof, indestruc- 
tible and noiseless. Produced in a variety 
of beautiful colors. Our flooring harmonizes 
with any decorative scheme. 

In all cases where a floor possessing such 
qualities is required, we urge the careful 
architect to specify New York Belting & 
Packing Co.'s Interlocking Rubber Tiling. 

Full information, samples and illustrated catalogue show- 
ing a selection af designs in colors will be 
furnished on request 

New York 
Belting & Packing Co. 

Original Manufacturers 
91-93 Chambers Street - New York City 



YOURS ! 



\ 




A Post Card 
will bring 
this 
useful reference book 
on 

Western Electric 
Interphones 

A valuable addition to the architect's 
reference library. 

It contains full descriptions of the 
various intercommunicating systems 
suitable for homes, business offices, 
and factories. 

Profusely illustrated — tastefully 
bound — an unusual hand book. 

Your copy will prove useful. 
WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY 



Manufacturers of the 7,000,000 "Bell" Telephones 



Chicago 
Milwaukee 
Pittsburgh 
Cleveland 



Kansas City Ran Francisco Montroal 
Oklahoma City Oakland Toronto 



Minneapolis 
St. Paul 
Denver 
Omaha 



» Angeles 
Dallas 
Houston 
Seattle 



Winnipeg 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Edmonton 

Antwerp 



[It Lake City Portland 
EQUIPMENT FOR EVERY ELECTRICAL NEED 

Member Society for Electrical Development 
••DO IT ELECTRICALLY" 



London 

Berlin 

Paris 

Rome 

Johannesburg 

Sydney 

Tokyo 






I 



II 



i 






XllV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







y y ■//, >mms$$mm$$mm!sm!ms$$s& ^ssmsmmn s « KSKsaK*sssa«KKssas«««ss^^ 



The Foreword of 
This Book — 

Since our introduction of cold 
drawn metal mouldings, the 
usefulness of this product has 
extended into almost every kind 
of manufacture. To make our 
experience and facilities readily 
available to every possible user 
is the object of the present 
catalog. 

If interested in " Metal Mould- 
ings and Shapes " you will find 
this book a ready reference and 
of value in your work. A copy 
may be had for the asking. 

Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co. 

Executive Offices and Factories 

88 Blackstone Ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Branch Offices in Alt Principal Cities 





















Berger's Metal Lumber 







I-Joists 



Why not use Metal Lumber instead of wood lumber? 
Write for catalog 

The Berger Mfg. Co. 

Canton, Ohio 

For the best service address nearest branch 













B 



New York 
Boston 

Philadelphia 



St. Louis 
Minneapolis 
San Francisco 



Also manufacturers of Prong Lock Studs and Furring, Rib-Trus. Ferro- 

Ltthic and Multiplex Reinforcing Plates. Metal Ceilings, Expanded 

Metal Lath. Sidewalk Forms, Raydiant Sidewalk Lights, etc. 






" A bird in the hand 
Is worth two in the bush." 

ETTER use a Door Hanger that 
you know is right rather than ex- 
periment with one that merely 
promises satisfaction. 

RELIANCE" HANGERS 

Have always made good 

Used wherever the Best is wanted 

Reliance Ball Bearing Door Hanger Company 

1 Madison Avenue, New York 

Agents in All Large Cities 















THE BRICKBUILDER 



xlv 






I 



A Few Helpful Facts About 
Pipe and Boiler Insulation 




the only one which permits 



As you of course know, insulation is based on the fact that heat 
cannot pass through dead or motionless air. Therefore, the more 
dead air a pipe covering confines, the greater its efficiency. 

Now, J-M Asbestocel Pipe Covering is the only low pressure 
covering we know of which confines air — and lots of it — in an absolutely dead state 
no circulation whatever. 

In other coverings the air-channels run from end to end and the air is, of course, continually traveling back and forth. 

But the air cells run around the pipe — each cell entirely separate in 

J<M ASBESTOCEL PIPE COVERING 

Thus the spaces are so small that the air has no chance to circulate. 

Also, because of this arrangement of the air cells, J-M Asbestocel Pipe Covering is built on the arch principle and 
is therefore far stronger than other low-pressure coverings — doesn't crush down under weight — lasts longer than any other 
kind of low-pressure covering. 

If you will investigate, we believe you will find that your client's interests will be best served by the installation 
of J-M Asbestocel. 

Write our nearest branch for booklet giving the results of an engineering test (made by disinterested investigators) 
showing how much more coal J-M Asbestocel Pipe Covering saves as against ordinary coverings. 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 



Albany 

Baltimore 

Boston 



Buffalo 
Chicago 
Cincinnati 



Manufacturers of Asbestos and »m.£.|QLE ^ *Wff& C* 

Magnesia Products AM^OTllO 

Cleveland 

Dallas 

Detroit 



Asbestos Roofings. Packings, 
Electrical Supplies, etc. 



THE CANADIAN H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO., 



Indianapolis Louisville 
Kansas City Milwaukee 
Los Angeles Minneapolis 


New Orleans 
New York 
Omaha 




Philadelphia 
Pittsburgh 
San Francisco 


Seattle 
St. Louis 

Syracuse 


MIXED Toronto 


Montreal 


W innij 


eg 


Vancouver 130 






I 



1 



I 



I 



II 



if 






II 



II 



II 



jyi 



Your Building is No Better 
Than Its Roof— 






v V*S" 



and there is no better roofing material obtainable than 

Copper Bearing Open Hearth 

ROOFING TIN 

This material has long passed the experimental stage— and has been 
proved by time and weather to be the most durable for roofing 
purposes. The tin roof of quality and service is secured as follows : 

BASE PLATE — Copper Bearing Open Hearth Steel. WORKMANSHIP An honest and experienced tinner 

BRAND — "C. B. Open Health in addition to trade-mark. PAINTING Red oxide and linseed oil properly applied 

COATING — 20 tn 40 pounds, .in and heavier is n, ommended 

RESULTS — Good protection, lasting service, satisfaction and economy. 

Write for full information on our Copper Bearing Ternes. and for booklet Copper— Its Effect Upon Ste< 
RoofingTin." We also manufacture Apollo Best Bloom Galvanized Sheets Black Sheets Pormed Products eti 



American Sheets Tin Plate Company 

General Offices: Frick Building, Pittsburgh,Pa. 



Chicago 



PT"TPTPT SALES OFFICES = 
Cincinnati Denver Detroit New Orleans New York 



Philadelphia 

Export Representatives: United States Steei Products Company. New Vc 
Pacific Coast Representatives: United States Steel Products Company, San Francisco, Los Angeles. 



Pittsburgh 

ind. Sea 



St. Louis 






II 



II 












xlvj THE BRICKBUILDER 



To the Architects and Builders 
of America — a Request 

WE have never adequately presented the extent and 
possibilities of our services to the architect and the 
builder — may we, then, request a reading of the following? 

In the narrow sense, our products are globes, shades and 
all forms and kinds of illuminating glassware, but in the 
largest and truest sense our product is Good Light. 

Our aim is to supply and anticipate every need of the 
architect; to increase his resources by increasing the archi- 
tectural possibilities of good and beautiful light; similarly to 
increase decorative possibilities by producing a wealth of new 
and beautiful designs in illuminating equipment; finally, to 
maintain a Department of Illuminating Engineers which shall 
relieve the architect of such technical planning of installations 
as he may care to delegate. 

We are constantly adding to our products. Many of these 
are exceedingly beautiful, the decorations reviving the spirit 
of an historic period or exhibiting recent and original art- 
tendencies. We produce for architects any special equipment 
that they may request and will develop any original idea of 
design or decoration that an architect may desire. 

We wish to call particular attention to Alba — a wonderful 
product of our laboratories. Its perfect powers of diffusion 
and reflection, and remarkably low absorption, make it the 
most valuable glass, for most purposes, yet produced. 

We invite your largest use of our facilities and service. 

May we send you plates illustrating a few of our products? 

Macbeth -Evans Glass Company Pittsburgh 

Sales- and Show-rooms also in New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Boston, Cleveland, 

Dallas, San Francisco and Toronto 



*/, '/, SS*SSSiSSS!SS*SSS*S$S$SSSSSSS^^ ^ Si :S$S5i8*SSS*SSSmSSm*SS^^ % V. 

II 















Generally speaking, waterproof 
:may mean almostanything — 
In connection with 5 

NEPONSET 

WATERPROOF BUILDING PAPER 

it means scientifically, positively 
and permanently 

WATERPROOF 



NEPONSEf 




II 






II 




Bird & Son. Est. 1795, East Walpole, Mass., New York, Chicago, Washington, San Francisco, 

Canadian Plant, Hamilton, Ontario. 

MAKERS OF NEPONSET BUILDING PAPERS, SOUND DEADENING FELT. WATERPROOFING FELT, ROOFINGS AND WALL BOARD. 



i 



^ .4 ^^m^m^mmss^^^^^m^^^mmsm^s^^^^^^^m^s^sss^^m^ is « *m*^s<*smsss*ssisssAs$ssssss$sss$s$^^ '/>. % 












1 



11 









1 



Cements, Limes and 
Plasters 

Their Materials, Manufacture and Properties 

By Edwin C. Eckel, C.E., Assistant Geologist, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

8vo, xxxiv+7l2pages, 165 figures, 254 tables. Cloth, $6.00 net. 

This book presents a summary covering the composition 
and character of the raw materials, the methods of manufac- 
ture, and the properties of the various cementing materials. 

Building Stones and 
Clay Products 

By Heinrich Ries, Ph.D., Professor of Economic 
Geology in Cornell University. 

8vo, xiii+415 pages, 59 plates, including full-page half-tones 
and maps, 20 figures in the text. Cloth, $3.00 net. 

This book gives the fundamentally important facts and 
takes up the more important occurrences of building stone. 

Contains a list of structures in which the more important 
building stones have been placed. 



A Treatise on the 
Design and Construction 
of Roofs 

By N. Clifford Ricker, B.S., M.Arch.. D. Arch., 
Professor of Architecture, University of Illinois. 
8vo, xii+432 pages, 644 figures. Cloth, $5.00 net. 

Supplies the data, methods, formulas and tables required 
in the design of a roof, arranged in the simplest manner and 
so as to require the least time and labor in their application. 

Fire Prevention and 
Fire Protection 

A Handbook of Theory and Practice 

By Joseph Kendall Freitag, B.S., C.E., Associate 
Member, American Society of Civil Engineers. 
l6mo, viii-f- 1038 pages, 395 figures, including line and half- 
tone cuts. Morocco, $4.00 net. 

Presents the present status of fire resistance as applied 
to buildings, in a manner suitable for ready reference. 

A copy of this authoritative Work, has been placed In every fire- 
house in New York. City. 






I! 



JOHN WILEY & SONS, Incorporated 

432 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



, 









LONDON — CHAPMAN & HALL, Ltd. 



MONTREAL, CAN.-RENOUF PUB. CO. 



II 



i 



ssssassssssss^siss^^ 



^ a? ssssK^sssssssissassssssssss^^ 88 3 



I i ^^^^^^^^^^mm^mmmm^mmmmm » • .^ss*s _*— ^ • ■ 




*-p 



k 



Every Shell and Web of Every Block 

Is in DIRECT ALIGNMENT and under COMPLETE 
COMPRESSION in all the Bearing Walls built of 

NATCO XXX 

An addition to the stability of the Building contributed by the 
double cross web which is the distinguishing feature of this new 
Natco Hollow Tile Block. 

This double cross web also noticeably facilitates the work of con- 
struction, allowing the Blocks to be placed in proper position in 
less time and with less trouble. 

Every tile we manufacture is branded Natco. In order to secure NATCO XXX 
it is necessary to specify the XXX as well as the word NATCO. 

NATIONAL FIRE -PROOFING- COMPANY • 

NEW YORK PITTSBURGH CHICAGO 




"""' "■"■"""* j|||||||||....|. [ -=^.^i....- i nJ-afgaag 

liiiiiiiini ii mi jiiii mi i iiiiin"ff>i|ii|j|i i_iiminiijiBH^ii>i 



«* 



l_fc- 



.Uili*. 




'M' 



CONTENTS for FEBRUARY 19 14 



^- — - ■ _ -y f- ■ ,'» a 



V *-S^_ « "Vc 



\J 




«Iil 



.9^^-^^^^^y%t*y 




NUMBER 2 





9fr2 



# 



.'^_F ! 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS Ar(hil((t 

FIRE HOUSE;. WASHINGTON, I). C. Gregg & Leuenring 

Municipal Architect, Snowden Ashford 

HOTEL, THE BILTMORE. NEW YORK, N. Y Warm, & Wetmore 

HOUSE, NEW HAVEN. CONN... R. Clipston Sturgis 

HOUSE, THE PATIO IN, NEW YORK. N. Y Howells & Stokes 

HOUSE, SOUTHAMPTON, L. I F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr. 

HOUSE, ST. LOUIS. MO. Mauran, Russell & Condi 

LIBRARY, PUBLIC. SOMERYILLE, MASS : EdwardL. Tilton 

RAILWAY STATION, NORFOLK, VA Stem & Fellheimer 

LETTERPRESS 

ST. CECELIA'S CHURCH. ENGLEWOOD, N. J., SKETCH OF INTERIOR, 
AYMAR EMBURY II, AND ALFRED M. GITHENS, ASSOCIATED ARCHI- 
TECTS, ALFRED M. GITHENS, DEL Frontispiece 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS Ed. Review 

II. The Work of Alfred Morton Githens 
Illustrations from Drawings 

OLD IRON WORK OF BALTIMORE, MD. Riggin Buckler 

Accompanied by Measured Drawings of Selected Examples of 
Wrought Iron Railings 

HEATING AND VENTILATION Charles L. Hubbard 

I. Office Data for the Architect 
Illustrations from Diagrams 

DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Montgomery Schuyler 

II. The Biltmore Hotel. New York. N. Y. 
Warren & Wetmore. Architects 

A CITY HOUSE OF UNUSUAL PLAN If. B. Stapley 

Its Well Lighted Interiors \diie\rd !>y the Incorporation of a Patio 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plan 

LIGHTING OF PUBLIC AM) SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDINGS. THE 
VI. Gas Lighting 

Illustrations from Photograph i 

BUSINESS SIDE OF AN ARCHITECTS OFFICE. THE.... 
The Office of George B. Post & Sons 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plan 

EDITORIAL COMMEN'l WD NOTES OF THE MONTH 



Plati 



' Lwi^^t...^ 



VC- ! 



Pace 



27 



30 



33 



T? I |ei* 1 



J- 



5 V 



T:u 



S 

rrjJ_ 

a 



Hi 



/.. II. Marks 



I). Everett It 'aid 



13 



§3 



£!-•» 



=1 



LEii 



V_ Mi 1 




PVB LI SHED -MONTHLY 

vow. -1PG1L1L5' AN,J 'MAN5 ©N'CPMPANY - bo i t© n • , ' 

MtTHVK;1>'RPCER5' - RALPH- REIMHOLD- -m/JSELL-F-WHlTEHEAD J^ 

'PR.E5lDENT-S.TR.EAoVREi!L- VICE-PR£51DENT'8.-BV5IND5-MA/J.\CER.- ■SECW.TAR.YIlNWWfltWVEDlT'R- g 
\MTEREP-AT-THE-B05TON-MA5S-|W57-OFFICE-A5-5EjCOND-CLft557A.ML-MATTER-MAR.Crl-a'!6r.i ^ 
COP Y RIGHT • 1914- BY- BPGESJS-ANS7AANSON • C.OrAPANX • 
• 5VR5CR.IPTION ■ R.AT ES • 
■FOR.-THE-VNITED-5TATES- 1T5-1NSVLAR.-POSSES510HS r.N0CV^-S5.o<? PER.YEA 
■FOIL-CANADA 55 30 PER* FAR.- FOR.FOR.EICN<PVNTR1ES'1N"HE-P<«TAL-VWON''85V '.^R-VFAR. £ 
TRADE 5VPPUE3-BV- THE AMERICAN • NEWS'COMPANY-AND'ITS'BRANCHE.V £ 



; LED -FIAT 



■< i,j \\i yL*y ' jJi p i n^nr 



...■i. ■■■ ! ' ' .....-,...,,■ , , \/J, ,ds |,|J )gi.l\1.tl 




L^^i'iv 



11 



I II III I II 



-=,:« 



m 














I ■ / 

















US 



«1 







SKETCH OF INTERIOR OF ST. CECELIA'S CHURCH, ENGLEWOOD, N.J. 

AYMAR EMBURY II AND ALFRED M. GITHENS. ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS 
ALFRED M. GITHENS, DELINEATOR 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXIII 



FEBRUARY, 1914 



NUMBER 2 




Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHI- 
TECTURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

II. THE WORK OF ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 



MR. GITHENS as an architectural renderer is not 
as well known as Mr. Eggers, the first in this 
series, not because his work is of unequal qual- 
ity, but because most of it has been rendering- of buildings 
in the Gothic style, and his method is one which does not 
suggest his actual ability to render buildings of other 
types. Besides this his work for his brother architects is 
necessarily somewhat limited by the fact that he has been 
for some years in partnership with Mr. Charles C. Haight 
(the firm name is Charles C. Haight and Githens), and 
has had during that time a very considerable share in the 
design and construction of the numerous buildings at Yale 
for which this firm were the architects, as well as the 
other large work that they have executed. 

Mr. Githens was born in Philadelphia in 1876, studied at 
the University of Pennsylvania, and afterwards won the 
Stewardson Traveling Scholarship ; he is a former stu- 
dent of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, which school has 
however not impressed its methods upon either his 
rendering or design, although he was enabled to get the 
real good of the Beaux Arts training in plan and its 
general broadening influence. As a draftsman he was at 
different times connected with several offices, but those 
in which his particular ability showed most clearly, and 
with which he was connected for the longest times, were 
Cope and Stewardson and Charles C. Haight, both of 



which were eminent for their work in the Gothic style. 
The first renderings by Mr. Githens which the writer 
ever saw were those made in Cope and Stewardson 's office 
for some of the buildings at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and at Princeton. These renderings showed the 
same characteristics that his work to-day possesses ; they 
were notable for sharp accents on the salient features, and 
for a sort of glossing over of the parts which he found 
uninteresting. His palette is unusual ; cold in the ex- 
treme and keyed with color combinations which, brilliant 
in themselves, do not convey to the eye any surcharge of 
color. His work is never suave or calm ; one feels always 
that the day is cloudy, and that there is wind in the air. 
He is not a maker of lovely color schemes which dress up 
the poorest architecture into a semblance of decency, hut 
is the instinctive architect seizing eagerly, almost fiercely, 
upon those things which he finds good, forcing them on 
your attention with a few heavy and yet delicious pen 
strokes, and running flat toned washes over the parts in 
which he is not especially interested ; but by some instinct 
not easily understood he manages, perhaps unconsciously, 
to so place his accents that lie lias in the end not a scries 
of spots but a picture, and always an architectural picture. 
This is Githens at his best, and working in the way most 
natural with him ; thus he has worked in the perspective 
of the Yale Library and in that of the church interior. 



28 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



His method in render- 
ing differs very widely 
from that of most 
draughtsmen , especially 
in the one respect that 
the pencil drawing with 
which he starts is not 
regarded as a guide and 
a thing to be covered up ; 
he makes the pencil lines 
themselves count in the 
rendering, washing in 
flat surfaces with water 
color, sometimes using 
it for his shadows, but 
more often indicating 
them with a fountain 
pen. Any one who has 
ever tried to use ordi- 
nary ink in connection 
with a water color knows 
how it tends to spread 
and blur ; when Githens 
uses it he seems to fore- 
cast in advance the pre- 
cise direction of these 
spots, so that they too fit 
into the picture. Chi- 
nese white is said in the 
schools to be a danger- 
ous thing to use, but 
all our architectural ten- 
derers employ it largely, 




House at Englewood, N. J 



Alfred M. Githens, Delineator. 




Church of The Holy Comfortor, Charlotte, N. C. Charles C. Haight, Architect 
Alfred M. Githens, Delineator. 



and none perhaps with more skill than Githens, though he 
rarely mixes it in his water color tones, but uses it for ac- 
cents and high spots. He is of all the men the writer has 
observed in the actual process of their work the least careful 
as to his material ; any color or any sort of paper is good 
enough ; it may or may not be mounted, and if the water 
is dirty he changes his color scheme rather than get fresh 
water ; it is essentially the method of a hurried man 
whose renderings are made for a purpose and not for his 
own satisfaction as pictures. 

From this typical method of course, like all other men 
with original bent of mind, he has varied, experimenting 
with different methods, but never in 
quite the way one would ex- 
pect. Thus, for example, the 



rendering of the Ar- 
mory for the Second 
Battery, X. G. X. V., 

looks in a general way 
like a sepia drawing, but 
is in fact largely a pencil 
drawing with a few flat 
washes, and this par- 
ticular one is different 
from most of his draw- 
ings in that the building 
is treated with about 
the same tonal relations 
on all its parts and with- 
out marked accent. The 
suggestion of texture 
obtained by the use of 
the pencil is extraordi- 
nary and the ease with 
which light has been in- 
dicated by picking out 
the sides of the but- 
tresses with a rubber, 
and by Chinese white 
in the sky, is extremely 
interesting. The bird's 
eye view of the Stevens 
Institute of Technology 
is another drawing quite 
different from most of 
his. and is of all his pen 
drawings perhaps more 
like the common run of 
perspectives, although lifted from the generality by the 
sureness of its execution, and by the precision with which 
the architecture, and not the unimportant, although inter- 
esting entourage, is made the focal point. 

The drawing of the church interior ( see Frontispiece ), 
as well as being one of the most amusing drawings that 
Mr. Githens has ever made, is perhaps as excellent a piece 
of design of church interiors as we have often seen. It is 
of course reminiscent of very many Gothic churches, but 
is by no means archeological, and the treatment of the 
choir with a sort of masonry rood screen with openings to 
an ambulatory is certainly very unusual. It might be 







Competition Drawing for the Yale Memorial Library, New Haven, Conn. Charles C. Haight, Architect. 

Alfred M. Githens, Delineator. 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



29 



said that this drawing - was made by Githens in about two 
hours, and without anything' except the roughest sort of 
cross and longitudinal sections to guide him and is there- 
fore an excellent illustration of the precision and architec- 
tural knowledge with which he works. This is one of 
those drawings in which no line is wasted and every single 
thing which is put on the paper was made to count : the 
paper itself was gray tinted so that a solidity could be ob- 
tained by the use of a very few lines in a way impossible 
on white paper. The drawing is in a sense extremely 
tricky, certain things are very far from appearing as they 
would in an actual structure (as for example the silhouet- 
ting of the arcades between the nave and the side aisle at 
the left) , but these have been made to count in a way that 
is more real than reality ; and the manner in which the 
drawing progresses in strength of indication until at the 
choir screen the interest is brought to a focal point gives 
an impression of reality which is absent in even the best 
of photographs. The simple trick of reflections on the 
pavement relieves the floor from being a plain, bare, open 
space, without the trouble of drawing in miles of pews or 
chairs which would in a drawing distract the eye, as in 
reality they never would. Of color there is very little, the 
intersecting arches are brightened with Chinese white in 
such a way as to develop their form without the use of 
elaborate indication of vaidting, etc. There is a hint of 
color in the windows, also in the crucifix and pulpit, but the 
color is suggestive and not forced. It is a drawing which 



deserves far more study than many drawings of infinitely 
elaborate character by the man who is interested in the 
methods of rendering, since it is a very impressive piece 
of work although a very quick one. 

The drawing of the Church of the Holy Comfortor is not 
dissimilar in its methods, although the most part of the 
rendering was done with pen and brown ink instead of 
pencil, and slightly more elaboration was used in the indi- 
cation of trees and the entourage generally than was nec- 
essary in any part of the drawing of the interior. It is a 
drawing neither very good nor very bad, but selected be- 
cause of the facility with which it was done and because of 
its general excellence of quality. 

The drawing of the house at Englewood is carried to 
about the same distance, but there is a little more water 
color in this than in most of Mr. Githens' drawings. The 
background of trees as well as the foreground and terrace 
was done entirely in water color and the big trees across 
the front, indicated in pencil, are washed in with color. 
The building" itself has most of the pencil perspective made 
by the architect untouched, and only certain things like 
the shadows in the windows, under the cornice and por- 
tions of the trellis are picked out in brown ink. The 
bright side of the building is washed in with Chinese white 
and the color of the tinted paper serves as shadows. 

The illustrations together with these descriptions of his 
methods should indicate pretty completely the wide vari- 
ety of Mr. Githens' ability as an architectural Tenderer. 




Bird's Eye View, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 



Ludlow & Peabody, Architects. 



Alfred M. Githens, Delineator. 



3° 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




Q 



< D 
CO ffl 

H Z 

< o 

« 9 

a * 

z >■ 



-J 

< 

a: 

z 

o 
os 

Q 

-J 
O 
u. 
O 

< 

(3 



Old Iron Work of Baltimore, Md. 

ACCOMPANIED BY MEASURED DRAWINGS 
OF SELECTED EXAMPLES OF WROUGHT IRON RAILINGS. 



By RIGGIN BUCKLER. 



THE possession of richly 
wrought ironwork was 
much sought after in 
some of our older cities at the 
time when our forefathers 
were creating- the architecture 
of the Colonies. Baltimore 
has its share of examples 
which have survived, not- 
withstanding the ravages of 
time and the havoc of chang- 
ing" fashions. While the iron- 
work of Baltimore cannot be 
considered as beautiful or as 
varied as that which one finds 
in Charleston, nevertheless 
the visitor is well repaid for 
a trip through certain parts 
of the city. 

Unlike most southern cities 
Baltimore is not a city of gar- 
dens, the houses being built 
directly on the building line, 
and therefore there is not to 
be found the wrought iron 
entrance gates and lamps that 
are so characteristic of the 
South. The ironwork, except 
for shutter fasteners, foot 
scrapers, and similar examples 
of the craftsmen's art, is lim- 
ited to the ornamental land- 
ing panels that flank both 
sides of the broad marble step 
platforms. 

There is not much doubt 
but that the work illustrated 
herewith was either designed 
or executed by the same per- 
son ; the same motive in the 
center of the panel appears 





Entrance to 105 West Mulberry Street. 




again and again with varia- 
tions in the small side panels. 
The designs may be roughly 
divided into three groups : 
that with the lyre baluster in 
the center ; that with the 
' honey-suckle " ornament in 
the center, and that with va- 
rious combinations of geo- 
metrical designs. The scale 
of the ironwork is very deli- 
cate ; the ornamental iron 
ranging from 3 /m to Vi inch 
in thickness by not more than 
% inch in width, and the 
frames from % to % inch 
square. 

In days gone by, when the 
residential center was on 
Franklin street and lower 
St. Paul, the average Balti- 
morean spent the greater part 
of the summer in the city ; 
a month in the country or a 
visit to the Virginia Springs 
was considered an ample va- 
cation. So when the nights 
grew warm, chairs and cush- 
ions would be placed on the 
front steps, and the platforms 
with their broad marble steps 
reaching out hospitably be- 
came the summer drawing 
room. To-day these same 
steps, forgotten and neg- 
lected, with the iron rust 
staining" the marble, have be- 
come the entrances to tene- 
ments or, at the best, office 
buildings. 

Wrought ironwork is again 



C,| 




@\1 




- A 


WT 

■ J- mm 



Shutter Fastener. 



Entrance on East Mulberry Street. 
31 



Foot Scraper. 



3 2 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



oming much more appre- 
ciated by owners and the 
public generally. There is a 
demand for old ironwork 
which inevitably accompanies 
appreciation. It is to be re- 
marked, however, that when 
severed from its original sur- 
roundings and associations, 
the older specimens of the 
craft of the blacksmith hardly 
appear to have much real 
sentiment apart from the 
beauty of the design. The 
new work of to-day compares 
favorably with that which was 
done a century ago, and few 
experts can distinguish be- 
tween old and modern. 

There is a strong appeal to 
the artistic sense about the 
craftsmanship of the worker 
in wrought iron. This is ac- 
counted for. perhaps, because 




of one of the salient charac- 
teristics of the work. His 
operation must, by the very 
nature of his material, be hur- 
ried. He must strike while 
the iron is hot, while the 
sparks fly, and working under 
such conditions the result can- 
not fail to be more or less a 
work begetting a spirit of 
sturdy independence. 

In the past the designing of 
ironwork was as essential a 
part of the smith's occupation 
as working the metal. Of the 
design the architect did not 
then concern himself. To- 
day, however, he considers all 
elements of design, and in 
wrought iron, working upon 
and improving the old forms, 
he has made progress equal to 
that evident in greater prob- 
lems of modern architecture. 



Entrance on East Pratt Street. 



0^0-40 




10!>£ Frabkiih 5i 




mo" 



-"no -> T p AVL 5 V 



^a&a 




uS^EBS 






I HA Bit 3 Trr 




tOC *f .Saratoga 5t 



DETAILS OF OLD IRON RAILINGS AT BALTIMORE. MD. 
MEASURED DRAWING BY R1GGIN BUCKLER. 



Heating and Ventilating. 

I. OFFICE DATA FOR THE ARCHITECT. 
By CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



1200 



1000 



a 800 



eoo 



■400 



zoo 



IT IS intended to give in condensed form data relating 
to heating and ventilation prepared especially for the 
use of the architect. Work of this kind, as carried 
on in architects' offices, usually varies somewhat from that 
of the heating engineer, in that the architect deals more 
with quantities or capacity of apparatus than with details 
of construction. For example, proposals for a certain 
piece of work are submitted by a number of heating con- 
tractors, each furnishing his own plans and specifications. 
As these will vary more or less the architect must neces- 
sarily check up the various quantities and capacities, such 
as radiator and pipe sizes, boiler power, etc., before 
awarding the contract. Again, he 
wishes to prepare a uniform set of 
conditions for heating contractors 
to bid upon without going to the 
expense of preparing or having 
prepared a complete set of working 
drawings and specifications. 

The following data are intended 
for work of this kind, and should 
enable the architect to quickly 
check the work of ' others or make 
the more important computations 
for a heating and ventilating lay- 
out with a minimum of reading 
and study. 

Radiation. The following curves 
and figures apply either to ordi- 
nary wooden construction or 12- 
inch brick walls with lath and 
plaster inside. It is assumed that 
the workmanship is first class, 
the exposure south, and that an 
even temperature of 70 degrees 
is to be maintained within the building in zero weather. 

The curves in Fig. I are for direct steam radiation, the 
upper one gives the square feet of radiating surface for 
the wall exposure and the lower one for the glass exposure. 

Example (1). A room has 600 square feet of wall sur- 
face and 100 of glass ; how many square feet of radiation 
are required? Referring to Fig. I, the upper curve calls 
for 52 feet and the lower 32, making a total of 52 + 32 = 
84 square feet of radiation. 

Factors for Correction. When the building construction 
is not of the best, or the room has other than a southerly 
exposure, or there is a cold attic above or unheated basement 
below, the radiation must be increased accordingly by 
use of the factors given below : 

Best Construction X 1.0 

Good Construction X 1.1 

Fair Construction X 1.2 

Poor Construction - X 1.3 

North Exposure X 1.3 

East Exposure X 1.15 

South Exposure X 1.0 

West Exposure — X1.2 

Cold Attic X 1.10 

Cold Basement X 1.10 



Example (2). If the room taken in example (l) were 
in a house of fair construction, had a northerly exposure, 
and a cold attic above, what amount of radiation would be 
required ? 

The correction factor in this case is 1.2 X 1.3 X 1.1 = 
1.7, calling for 84 X 1.7 = 143 square feet of radiation. 

The curves shown in Fig. II apply in a similar manner 
to direct hot-water heating. 

Indirect Radiation. In the case of dwelling houses and 
similar work, the simplest way of determining the indirect 
surface for warming a given room is to first compute the 
direct surface and multiply by 1.5. 

This method is very convenient, 
as a building employing indirect 
heat commonly has a considerable 
amount of direct radiation also, 
hence, in making the computations, 
the whole system may be worked 
out on the basis of direct heat, and 
then the surface, in such rooms as 
are to be heated with indirect, may 
be multiplied by 1.5. The same 
relation between direct and indi- 
rect surface holds in the case of 
hot water as well as for steam . 

Pipe Sizes for Steam. The pipe 
sizes in steam heating are usually 
based on the allowable drop in 
pressure between the boiler and 
the last radiator at the extreme 
end of the line. In buildings of 
ordinary size a drop of one-fourth 
pound in 150 feet will be safe for 
all ordinary conditions. 

Table I has been computed on 
be used for all horizontal supply 
and for risers where the two-pipe 




40 60 

Squat? feet nf radiation. 

Fig. 1. For Direct Steam Radiation 

Upper Curve for wall. 
Lower curve for glass. 



100 



this basis and is to 
mains and branches, 
system is employed. 



TABLE I (Steam). 



Square Feet of 


Size of 


Size of 


Size of 


Direct Radiation. 


Supply Pipe. 


Dry Return. 


Wet Return. 


70 


1" 


1" 


%" 


120 


IV 


1" 


\" 


210 


1 %* 


IV 


1" 


430 


2" 


W 


IV 


800 


2H" 


2" 


IV 


1,300 


3" 


2V 2 " 


2" 


2,000 


3^" 


2%' 


2" 


2,800 


4" 


3" 


2X" 


5,000 


5" 


3" 


ZH' 


7,500 


6" 


3X" 


3" 


11,000 


7" 


3 l A" 


3" 



It will be noted that the " dry " or overhead returns are 
made a size larger than when they are sealed or below the 
water line of the boiler. This is because in the first case 
they contain both water and steam, and " water hammer " 
and surging are likely to occur if the pipes are not of good 
size and properly graded. Pipes of this kind should pitch 



33 



34 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



at least 1 inch in 10 feet toward the boiler. When the 
returns are sealed, no pitch is necessary, although it is 
customary to give them a slight downward grade toward 
the draw-off cock for purposes of drain;. 

When the single-pipe system is employed, that is, where 
the steam supply and return water flow through the same 
riser in opposite directions, larger sizes must be used than 
given in Table I. In cases of this kind Table II may be 
employed. 

TABLE II (Steam). 

Size of 

Riser. 

i" 
VA' 

2" 

When the circuit system of piping is employed, that is, 
where a main of uniform size is carried around the entire 
building and connects with both 
the supplies and returns from the 
radiators, the following sizes may 
be used : 

TABLE III (Steam i. 



Square Feet of 
Radiation. 

40 

70 
100 
160 



Square I< 




Radiation. 


R iser. 


240 




300 


3" 


500 


SX" 



Square 




Squi 




Feet of 


Si/o of 


Feet of 


Size "i 


adiation. 


Main. 


Radiation. 


Main. 


200 


2" 


1,200 


4" 


350 


2 l A» 


2,000 


5" 


600 


3" 


3,000 


6" 


900 


-'," 







For indirect radiation, count each 
square foot of heating surface as 
two of direct and use Table I. 

Pipe Sizes for Hot Water. The 
pipe sizes for hot-water heating de- 
pend upon the difference in tem- 
perature between the supply and 
return and upon the elevation of 
the radiator above the boiler. 
The frictional resistance due to the 
length of run is also an important 
factor. 

For the average conditions of 
gravity heating, where the farthest radiator is not more 
than 150 feet from the boiler, the following sizes may be 
used for the supply and return mains and branches : 

TABLE IV (Hot Water). 




Square Keet of 


s 




Square Feet of 


Si/e of 


Radiation. 


Supply 


and Return. 


Radiation. 


Supply and Return. 


20 




1" 


600 


m* 


50 




1'.." 


850 


4" 


75 




IV 


1,200 


5" 


150 




2" 


1,600 


6" 


250 




2',' 


2,000 


7" 


400 




3" 


. 





The vertical supply and return risers leading from the 
mains to the radiators on the upper floors may be made 
somewhat smaller, owing to the increased elevation and 
the higher velocity of flow. 

Table V may be used for conditions of this kind. 

TABLE V ( Hot Water). 



Size of 




Square Feet of Radiat 


on Supplied. 




K iser. 


1st Floor 


2d Floor, 




1th Flo 


1* 


30 


50 


60 


70 


\\v 


60 


80 


100 


120 


lVa" 


90 


120 


150 


180 


2" 


180 


250 


350 


400 




320 


430 


500 




3' 


500 


600 






3>2" 


800 









In the case of indirect radiation, each square foot of 
surface should be counted as two of direct and considered 
as being located upon the first floor, so that Table V may 
be used by taking note of these conditions. 

For example, 250 square feet of indirect surface is 
equivalent to 2 X 250 = 500 feet of direct, and from Table 
V is found to require a 3-inch pipe. 

Boilers. Heating boilers of the cast-iron, round, or sec- 
tional type are usually rated upon the square feet of radia- 
tion which they will supply. Boilers of this kind are 
frequently overrated in trade catalogues and it is usually 
better to compute the required grate area and select a well 
proportioned boiler having the required dimensions than 
to be guided wholly by the rated capacity. Tests show 
that the weight of coal burned per square foot of grate 
per hour varies somewhat with the size of the grate, and 
under ordinary conditions runs 
from about 3 pounds for boilers 
having 1 to 4 square feet of grate 
up to about twice that amount for 
those having from 16 to 20 square 
feet. 

This variation depends largely 
upon the care which they receive 
and the skill exercised in firing. 

Of the heat contained in the coal, 
about sixty per cent is utilized in 
the generation of steam, or in heat- 
ing the water in a hot-water boiler. 
Figs. Ill, IV, and V give the 
square feet of grate surface for 
both steam and water boilers for 
varying amounts of direct radia- 
tion. The first of these includes 
boilers having grate areas from 1 
to 4 square feet, and is based upon 
a combustion of 3 pounds of coal 
per square foot per hour. The 
second includes grates from 5 to 10 
square feet in area, with a combustion of 4 pounds ; while 
the third is for areas of 11 to 15 square feet, with a combus- 
tion of 5 pounds. It will be noted from an inspection of 
these curves that a given size of boiler will supply consid- 
erably more water radiation than steam. This is because 
of the lower temperature of the water, which causes less 
heat to be given off per square foot of surface. 

Under ordinary conditions a radiator supplied with steam 
at 2 pounds pressure will give out about fifty per cent 
more heat per unit of surface than a similar radiator filled 
with water at an average temperature of 170 degrees. 

In estimating the boiler capacity for any given case, a 
certain factor of safety should be applied to cover radiation 
losses from the piping, etc. Under ordinary conditions the 
square feet of surface contained in the radiators multiplied 
by 1.25, will provide for these losses and give the total 
radiation upon which to base the boiler capacity. 

Here, as in the case of pipe mains, each square foot of 
indirect radiation should be counted as two of direct. 

Example (3). A building contains 400 square feet of 
direct hot-water radiation ; how many square feet of grate 
area should be provided in the boiler ? 

400 X 1.25 = 500 total radiation, and from Fig. Ill we 
find that practically 3.5 square feet of grate are required. 



40 60 

Square feet of radiation. 

Fig. II. For Direct Hot- Water Radiation. 

Upper curve for wall. 
Lower curve for glass. 



100 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



35 



Example (4). A building; heated 
with steam has 1,000 square feet of 
direct radiation and 500 of indirect ; 
what should be the grate area of the 
boiler? 

[1000+ (2 X500)] X 1.25 =2,500 
square feet, total direct radiation to 
be provided for, and this, from Figf. 
V, calls for 15.75 square feet of 
grate . 

Similar curves for larger sizes may 
be plotted by allowing" 190 square 
feet of steam radiation and 280 of 
water radiation per square foot of 
grate area for sizes running - from 16 
to 20 square feet. Tubular boilers 
are given a horse power rating', which 
is commonly based on 15 square feet 
of tube and other heating- surface per 
horse power. Figf. VI gives the horse 
power rating of tubular boilers for 
different quantities of direct steam 
radiation. Boilers of this type are 
not ordinarily used for hot-water 
heating, except in connection with 
forced or mechanical circulation, in 
which case the water is usually 
warmed by steam in especially con- 
structed heaters. 

Centrifugal Fans . Fans of this type 
are commonly used for supplying air 
to halls, churches, schoolhouses, 
theaters, etc., where a certain stand- 
ard of ventilation is required. 

The capacity of a fan of given diam- 
eter depends upon its speed and the 
resistance against which it operates. 
The speed is limited in one direction 
by the required size of fan and the 
low pressure furnished to the air ; 
while the noise produced with a 
peripheral velocity much above 3,500 
feet per minute limits the speed in the 
other direction in buildings of the 
kind named above. Table VI gives 
data for fans of this type running at 
a peripheral velocity of approxi- 
mately 3,000 feet per minute. When 
necessary they may be speeded up 
from ten to fifteen per cent without 
undue noise when properly con- 
structed and mounted, the capacity 
increasing practically as the speed, 
within this range. 





TABLE VI. 




Diameter 


Revolu- 


Cubic Feet 


Horse Power 


of 


tions per 


of Air Moved 


of Motor for 


Fan. 


Minute. 


per Minute. 


Dri%'injr Fan. 


3" 


325 


4,500 


2 


4" 


275 


8,900 


3 


5" 


225 


13,900 


5 


6" 


175 


18,300 


7 


7" 


150 


24,600 


8 


8" 


125 


30,300 


10 


9" 


125 


42,900 


14 


10" 


100 


46,800 


14 





































/ 








































, 


I 








































/ 










500 






























/ 






































t 














.^ 




























/ 














■g 


























/ 
















■a 400 










































J3 










































> 




























/ 


















































S 300 
















' 
























9- 
















/ 






































/ 


























^r 












/ 




























ZOO 












/ 








































/ 








































/ 










































































100 











































1 Z 3 4 S 

Square feet of g rate area. 
Fig. III. For Determining Size of Cast-Iron 
Boilers. 

Upper curve for water boilers. 
Lower curve for steam boilers. 



1800 



1400 



•i 1Z00 



800 



6oo 





































/ 


































/ 




































































/ 
































/ 


































/ 














































































































































































































































































































































s 






























• 


' 










■ 






















/ 
































y 
































y 


y 
































/ 




































































































/ 


/ 
































/ 











































































































































































5 6 7 8 9 10 

Squarefget of grate area. 
Fig. IV. For Determining Size of Cast-Iron 
Boilers. 

Upper curve for water boilers. 
Lower curve for steam boilers. 

















1 














































































































vno 


































































/ 








































/ 






































/ 


' 






















■mo 
















/ 
























































































































































2800 
















































/ 








































/ 








































/ 








































?em 








































































































































































7400 










































































/ 






























































































2200 








































































































































































,000 












/ 


' 






































/ 








































/ 






































/ 


/ 




































woo 


/ 









































11 



16 



13 14 15 

Squarefeet of grate ami. 
Fig. V. For Determining Size of Cast-Iron 
Boilers. 

Upper curve for water boilers. 
Lower curve for steam boilers. 



Disk Fans. In the case of disk or 
propeller fans, Table VII may be 
used. These data apply to the aver- 
age conditions of exhaust ventilation 
where the fan is connected with a 
system of ducts of ample size. When 
the fan is placed in a wall or window 
opening, and discharges directly out- 
ward without the use of ducts, the 
speeds and horse powers for moving 
a given volume of air may be multi- 
plied by 0.7 and 0.4, respectively. 
TABLE VII. 



Diameter 


Re\ olutions 


Cubic Peel 


Horse Power 


of 


Oi An 


per 


Ml 


Fan. 


per Minute. 


M mute. 


Motor. 


18" 


800 


1,500 


% 


24" 


600 


2,500 


H 


30" 


500 


4,000 


% 


36" 


400 


6,000 


l 


42" 


350 


8,000 


1M 


48" 


300 


10,000 


2 


54" 


250 


12,000 


2X 


60" 


225 


16,000 


3 


72" 


200 


24,000 


4 



Main Heaters. The required depth 
of a heater for use with a fan depends 
upon the final temperature to which 
it is desired to raise the air. 

Table VIII is based upon an aver- 
age air flow of 1,000 feet per minute 
between the pipes, a steam pressure 
of 5 pounds, and the entering air at 
zero. 

TABLE VIII. 



Rows of 


F 


nal Temp. 


Rows of 


Final Temp 


Pipe Deep. 




of Air. 


Pipe Deep. 


of Air. 


4 




42° 


16 


125° 


8 




70° 


20 


135° 


12 




95° 







When the air is to be used simply 
for ventilating purposes, and is intro- 
duced at a temperature of 70 to 75 
degrees, heaters 8 to 10 pipes deep 
are commonly used ; but in the case 
of churches, halls, theaters, etc., 
where the warming is also done by 
the main heater, temperatures of 110 
to 120 degrees are called for, and 
heaters containing from 14 to 16 rows 
of pipe are used. 

The efficiency, or heat units per 
square foot of surface per hour, de- 
pends upon the depth of the heater, 
the velocity of air flow through it, 
the steam pressure, and the tempera- 
ture of the entering air. 

Table IX gives the efficiencies for 
heaters of different depths, with an 
air velocity of 1,000 feet per minute, 
steam at 5 pounds pressure, and the 
entering air at zero. 

TABLE IX. 



Rows Of 
Pipe Deep. 



12 



Efficiency in 
B. T. U 

per Sq. l-'i 
per I [our. 

2,100 

|, Ml HI 

1,700 



Rows of 
Pipe I 'rep 

16 
20 



Efficiency in 

B. T r. 
per Sq. Ft. 

per ll.iiii 

1,500 
1,300 



3<> 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



The amount of heat in B. T. U. required to warm a 
given volume of air through any range in temperature is 
given by the formula, 



H = 



V X T 

55 



in which 



H = 
V= 

T= 



the total heat required in B 
volume of air in cubic feet, 
rise in temperature in degrees 



T. U 



7000 



Example (5). A school building requires 1,700,000 
cubic feet of air per hour at a temperature of 70 degrees 
in zero weather. How deep should the main heater be, 
and how many square feet of sur- 
face should it contain, assuming a 
steam pressure of 5 pounds and an 
air velocity of 1,000 feet per minute ? 

Referring to Table VIII it is found 
that the heater should be 8 pipes 
deep to give the desired final temper- 
ature, while the efficiency for an 
8-row heater is given as 1,900 in 
Table IX. The total heat required 
per hour is found from the formula 
to be, 

1,100,000X70 



£4000 



55 



1,400,000 



2000 



1000 



Fig. VI. 



B. T. U., and this divided by the 
efficiency calls for 140,000 -*- 1,900 
= 737 square feet of heating surface. 

Practical Considerations. The fol- 
lowing points should be taken into 
consideration when drawing up a 
set of heating specifications or when 
passing upon those of others. 

The plant should be of sufficient 
capacity to maintain an inside tem- 
perature of 70 degrees in zero 
weather, without forcing the boiler 
beyond the point of economical operation to effect this. 

Two-column radiators are more efficient than deeper 
ones and should be used when there is sufficient space for 
them. Make the radiators of symmetrical proportions ; 
reduce the height for the smaller sizes instead of the 
length. Consider the furniture and the use of the room 
when locating direct radiators. While theoretically the 
source of heat should be placed in the coldest part of the 
room, a radiator or register in almost any part of a small 
or medium size room will produce an even temperature. 

Do not leave the gilding or painting of the radiators to 
the steam fitters' helper. This work is a part of the inte- 
rior decoration and should be done in a manner to har- 
monize with the special finish of the room. 

The single-pipe system of steam supply is the best for 
dwelling houses and similar buildings, as it reduces the 
number of risers and valves one-half, and prevents the 
flooding of floors and ceilings by neglecting to close the 
return valve. 

Hot-water systems operate nicely on a downward sup- 
ply, with the supply and return at the same end of the 




,3000 



ment does away with separate return drops and makes the 
system self-venting, thus doing away with air valves on 
the radiators. 

Place the expansion tank where there is no danger of 
freezing or else provide it with a special circulation pipe. 
Carry the vent from an expansion tank through the roof, 
and the overflow to a basement sink as a tell tale " to 
indicate when the tank is full. 

If it is arranged to add water at the tank, provide a 
gauge glass ; if the connection is in the basement, provide 
an altitude gauge. 

Carry up all risers in the corners of rooms, behind 
doors, and in closets so as to conceal them as much as 
possible. Never run a riser on a 
conspicuous wall. 

Grade all pipes in the right direc- 
tion and avoid pockets for the ac- 
cumulation of condensation in steam 
systems and of air in water systems. 
If it is desired to keep the base- 
ment cool, insulate the pipes with a 
good form of sectional covering. 
Heat radiated from the boiler and 
piping, however, is not lost, as it 
rises to the rooms above and also 
warms the floors on the first 
story. 

Floor registers are convenient for 
warming the feet, but are often in 
the way of carpets and rugs, besides 
catching a considerable amount of 
dirt. Baseboard registers avoid 
most of these objections and are 
easier to install, especially on the 
upper floors. 

In selecting a heating system the 
following points should be kept in 
mind. A furnace is the cheapest 
to install, easiest to regulate as to 
temperature, and furnishes fresh air for ventilation. On 
the other hand, it is quite likely to heat the rooms un- 
evenly in cold and windy weather, and its use should, 
in most cases, be limited to buildings of small and medium 
size. 

Steam, both direct and indirect, is well adapted to cold 
climates and exposed locations. It is also adapted to build- 
ings of all sizes. 

Direct steam furnishes no fresh air for ventilation, but 
this defect may be overcome by using indirect stacks for 
the more important rooms. The principal objection to 
steam is the difficulty of temperature regulation except by 
the use of expensive automatic devices. 

Hot water is especially adapted to the warming of dwell- 
ing and apartment houses on account of the ease with 
which it is regulated. It may also be used for ventilating 
purposes by employing indirect stacks the same as for 
steam. 

The principal objection to hot water is the danger of 
freezing in extreme weather, which makes it necessary to 
circulate the water to a certain extent through all of the 



For Determining Size of Cast-Iron 
Boilers. 



Upper curve for water boilers. 
Lower curve for steam boilers. 



radiator and connected with the same drop. This arrange- radiators, whether the rooms are in use or not. 



DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTYRE 




M O N 



A SERIES OF ILLVSTRATIONS 
. OF THE MOST NOTABLE 
WORK OF THE TEAR WITH 
APPRECIATIVE TEXT BY 
TGOMERT SCHVT 




L E R 



THE problem of the 
steel-framed, skyscrap- 
ing hotel is architectur- 
ally so serious that an archi- 
tect may almost be pardoned 
for abandoning it as insol- 
uble. The architecture is, 

equally with the architecture of the skyscraping office 
building, apiarian, for by far the greater part is an aggre- 
gation of single cells for which the honey-comb offers the 
only precedent among the organisms of nature. In the 
case of the new hotel, which offers one of the most con- 
spicuous and quite the most towering of the members of 
the group of which the new Grand Central Station in 
New York is the nucleus, the essential problem was, as 
we shall see, much complicated with special difficulties 
of adjustment and construction. For, like the other mem- 
bers of the group, the new hotel is reared above a net- 
work of railroad tracks. These it is obliged to straddle 
and in various ways cir- 
cumvent, so as not to in- 
terfere in the smallest 
degree with their reticula- 
tion or to obstruct their 
fair-leadings and clear- 
ances. Consider this con- 
dition and you will under- 
stand that the actual 
points of support of the 
building, which carry its 
weight to its foundations, 
must be put not where 
you would have them if 
you were free to put them 
where they "ought" to 
be, but where you must 
put them to prevent them 
from getting in the way of 
the traffic. This is the 
primary condition of the 
whole enterprise, that the 
tracks shall be unob- 
structed and have the 
right of way over all other 
construction and architec- 
ture whatsoever. Not only 
is this skyscraper a honey- 
comb like all the others ; 
it is a honeycomb set on 
stilts extending unusually 



The Biltmore Hotel 
Madison Avenue, New York 

WARREN & WETMORE, ARCHITECTS 




View of 43d St. and Vanderbilt Ave. Facades. 
37 



far below the visible struc- 
ture, and these stilts are set 
not where the designers 
would have chosen to set 
them if they had been free 
to choose, but where they 
could get them in in defer- 
ence to the paramount claims of structural necessities 
which had nothing to do with those of their building. It 
is true that the structural troubles of an architect have 
nothing to do with the critic of the finished product, whom 
it is the architect's business to make forget that there 
were any such troubles. They may and must be men- 
tioned in the case even of an exclusively architectural con- 
sideration of the Biltmore, because they have left their 
scars on the completed edifice, and produced dispositions 
unintelligible without reference to them. 

It is true that the architect of a skyscraping hotel has 
advantages over the architect of a skyscraping office build- 
ing. To follow the triple 
division which has im- 
posed itself upon all de- 
signers of skyscrapers 
whatever, and follows out 
the analogy of the division 
of the classical column 
into base, shaft, and cap- 
ital, again pursuing the 
Aristotelian precept that 
every work of art must 
have a beginning, a 
middle, and an end, is a 
much easier prescription 
to comply with in an hotel 
than in an office building. 
And this because in an 
office building it is diffi- 
cult, and in most cases im- 
possible, to give to the 
three members of the 
classic "order" propor- 
tions and relations which 
will be tolerable to the 
spectator habituated to the 
classic examples, without 
making the division arbi- 
trary, illogical, and un- 
founded in fact. The 
architect who attempts to 
retain classical proportions 



3« 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




>- 



u 

ui 

£ 

3 



Z 

_)' 
pd 

- 

I 

ul « 

a: 7 

O 2 

S a: 

* 5 

CQ f* 

U 

I 

h 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



39 



in a tall office building comes in- 
to collision with a rule founded 
quite as much in the nature of 
things as Aristotle's precept, 
and that is the rule formulated 
by Mr. Louis Sullivan, " Where 
function does not vary, form 
does not vary." For, in fact, in 
an office building it is only the 
single story containing the shop 
fronts of the street level that 
demands or justifies a separate 
treatment. Above this, the su- 
perstructure is all honeycomb, 
until we arrive at the very top, 
where there may be another 
single crowning story devoted 
to the operative machinery of 
the structure. Proportions ne- 
gotiably classic, in the case of 
a building say of twenty stories, 
would require a base of three 
stories at least, and a capital 
of as many. It is one of the 
distinctions of the Woolworth 
Building, the latest and tallest 

of the office buildings up to date, that the classical con- 
vention has been ignored and the base is only the single 
high story which can be logically differentiated from 
the shaft by the character of its uses and its occupancy. 
But, of course, it is much more convenient and comforta- 
ble for the architect if the practical uses of his building 
allow him a base and a capital which bear a more conven- 
tional relation to the shaft of small and single cells ; and 
this is the case when the building is an hotel. 

We find that the architects of the Biltmore, if they 
have not succeeded in dissembling all their misfortunes, 
have at least made the most of their advantages. The 
bulk of their building, the many storied brown brick shaft, 
consists like the office building of single cells, only sleep- 
ing rooms instead of working rooms, without even so 
much distinction as exists among those of the honeycomb, 
where one finds that the queen cells are at least larger 
than those of the 
workers, and each 
cell, in the case of the 
hotel, having a subor- 
dinate slit alongside, 
denoting the invari- 
able bath. There is 
no help for this, and 
indeed the architects 
are entitled to no 
sympathy on account 
of it, provided only 
they can find plausi- 
ble occasions for dif- 
ferences in the treat- 
ment of what may be 
called the public 
rooms of their build- 
ing. The architects 
of the Biltmore have 




Models of Terra Cotta Ornament. 




Hotel Lobby, looking toward 43d St. Entrance. 



managed to find it, insomuch 
that they have made of their 
architectural base a seven-story 
building, complete in itself, 
upon which they have concen- 
trated their architectural ef- 
forts, and the spectator is 
expected to concentrate his in- 
spection, kindly ignoring the 
great brick shaft above as more 
or less a necessity which he 
need not look at unless he likes. 
The separate treatment of the 
base as a complete architectural 
entity has been carried further 
in this case than in that of any 
other of the sky-scraping hotels, 
and constitutes the chief dis- 
tinction of the building. 

It is easy for the spectator to 
follow the implicit injunction 
given to him by the architects 
to look at the base and look at 
nothing else. The total area 
of the hotel is about 40,000 
square feet. The streets arc 
narrow ; even Madison avenue, which is the widest of 
them, is narrow compared with the enormous height of 
the total structure. They are narrow even compared 
with the base, so that from any one of the opposite side- 
walks the spectator has to look up quite as steeply as is 
comfortable to the crowning member of the base. The 
angle must be 60 degrees or steeper, and the base would 
be, quite as lofty as would normally be built facing such 
streets if the construction were composed, as it appears to 
be of walls capable of carrying themselves. It is, how- 
ever, not solid masonry but the usual steel frame with a 
facing of limestone, excepting the crowning member, 
which is a frieze in architectural terra cotta. As is the 
case even in the most commercial of skyscrapers, the 
architects " have their exits and their entrances." They 
have also a tall arcade, which is counted as three stories 
in the above enumeration of the total height as seven, 

which is continued on 
all four sides, and 
which often justifies 
itself by opening up- 
on great apartments, 
dining rooms and the 
like, which occupy the 
total height, else- 
where subdivided in- 
to lower rooms ac- 
cording to the exi- 
gencies of the " lay 
out." Below it is a 
story of square open- 
ings level with the 
sidewalk. Above are 
two more stories of 
normal dimensions, 
and a transitional 
story between two 



4° 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



molded "cordons." The arcade, 
however, is really ' ' the thing, ' ' and 
may be said to comprise the architec- 
ture of the base, the story below and 
the stories above being subordinate 
appendages to it. It is, by its scale 
and generally speaking by its treat- 
ment, entitled to its preeminence and 
its conspicuousness, having in fact a 
stately effect and being a valuable 
addition to the street architecture of 
New York. It has a defect which 
detracts from the effect to which it is 
entitled, and that is the failure to 
mark the impost of the arches by 
some emphatic horizontal band. A 
vigorous molded course at this level 
would relieve the openings of the 
arcade of that uncertainty of deter- 
mining just where the jamb ceases and the arch begins, 
which is always unpleasing even with a single arch and 
still more with a continuous arcade. How much it de- 
tracts from the potential effect of the feature may be 
seen in those places where the lack of emphasis which 
comes from the omission of a vigorous horizontal mem- 
ber is partly supplied by the well designed metallic lan- 
terns which are so placed as to indicate the points at 
which the arcade needs the invigoration which such a 
member would supply. The well meant punctuation 
given by these ornaments, good so far as it goes, ought 
clearly to be carried further. On the other hand, the 
light iron balconies under the windows of the story 
just over the great arcade have an excellent effect, and 
upon the whole the base of the Biltmore is a success. It 
is an earnest of even greater successes hereafter, when 
the method that has been followed here of treating the 
base of a skyscraper as a complete and separable structure 
has excited imitation and emulation, as one would say 
that it is quite sure to do. 

On the east side, the side towards the Grand Central 
Station, there is more room and a freer outlook than on 
the other three sides, where the narrow streets shut off 
the main bulk of the building from effective observation. 
This advantage has been utilized to the utmost. The sepa- 
rateness of the base is 
on this side emphasized 
by an actual recession of 
the superstructure from 
the plane of the wall of 
the base — a recession 
emphasized by convert- 
ing it into a platform. 
available at the right 
season as an open air 
lounging place, crowned 
with a pergola and 
fronted with the frieze 
in architectural terra 
cotta, which is one of 
the best things in the 
building as a piece 
design and also of exe- 
cution. One would be 




1% 




Gentlemen's Lounge and Cafe. 



at a loss to mention any other piece 
of decoration in terra cotta more 
readily distinguishable from cut 
stone, and this by employing the ad- 
vantages which burned clay has over 
cut stone, in conveying the sense that 
before it was burned it was plastic 
and even fluid, and by retaining the 
sense of plasticity and fluidity in the 
burned product as an instance, so to 
say, of arrested motion. This frieze 
is really a delightful piece of work. 

This cast side is otherwise nota- 
ble as being the side from which 
the superstructure may be best seen 
— the side, moreover, in which is 
sunk the open court, which is a vital 
necessity to a skyscraper of this form 
and area. It is considerably wider 
here titan either of the wings it separates, which does not 
prevent them from offering rather puzzling questions, not 
soluble in the exterior view with which alone these re- 
marks are concerned, as to how the middle suites of apart- 
ments are effectively illuminated. , But one sees from here 
that a logical basis has been found for a lofty capital as 
well as for a lofty base. The "capital," a close arcade 
equal perhaps in height to three tiers of the cells which 
constitute the shaft, occupies the space with single apart- 
ments sometimes of its full height. What is to the point 
is to observe how the columns of this upper arcade are so 
queerly placed as to impend sometimes over voids, instead 
of over what seem to be, but of course are not, solid piers 
of brickwork. It appears that this anomaly is one of the 
results of having to place the feet of the stilts away down 
among and beneath the trackage, not where they ought to 
be, but where they can be placed. Fortunately, to appre- 
hend the anomaly from near the building involves some 
eye strain, to say nothing of the risk of cervical disloca- 
tion ; while at a distance across the city roofs, from which 
the upper stories of the Biltmore become effectively visible, 
the irregularity seems not to be apprehensible at all. The 
general effect of the arcade is pleasing, and without being 
too unacaclemic we can safely credit it as a successful 
termination to the building. The richest decoration of the 

entire facade is concen- 
n '.rated on this feature. 
and not without logical 
reason, for within this 
space is located the 
ballroom and the larger 
apartments of the hotel. 
The execution of the 
detail in architectural 
terra cotta is particu- 
larly free, and the light- 
ness and grace of the 
forms reproduced in 
this material will make 
the tipper portion of 
the Biltmore a notable 
addition to the diver- 
sified sky line of New 
York. 



VOL. 23, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 17. 




THE BILTMORE HOTEL. NEW YORK, N. Y. 
WARRE.N & WLTMORE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 18. 




PALM COURT 




MAIN RESTAURANT 



THE BILTMORE HOTEL, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
WARREN & WETMORE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



T H E BRICKBVI L D E R . 



PLATF. 19. 





. l- . k . . a. . m. . . M.. :\£. A. -JJL . . A~ .4- --■-- - * t ,-1 

'RZCCPT/O/Y I, I ' T 

«- -» , . r • t •▼--»■ »--w • X- ■•»■-■▼• - w ■ - 4 • ■ tt V 1 

nil reA/aeomTia* . |fc ocs/£ML \ocjVO!al I § I r*aU>C*T I f 

' WPTS SUPT \\ fa"' "■' ' ' 



t :>■-; 



THIRD OFFICE FLOOR PLAN 







T 



WIT 

lis II 

1.1.: 



—4 



•t.r.i, ■■■ - 

* — p — ■ — T^tniT 9 "! — " — " — 

tor auditors 'SWi,,' £3 13, lw/e '.•• 



' I SQ I AUDITOR AUDITORS 'cS^lJ 1 S ' ^ ICft/O tJtOlrtF! 

, Ss FKIVATf BOOK Kf.t f't-R |tjy. ^5 I S^ I '' 

~ — lid LJlMi±^__ 



«17 

■ ■ 
■ l 




MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



FOURTH OFFICE FLOOR PLAN 



UNION STATION, NORFOLK, VA. 
STEM & FELLHEIMER, ARCHITECTS 



VOL 23 NO 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 20. 




< </) 

> H 

2 5 

Ll - a: 

a: < 
O 

Z o: 

z 2 

o a 

H -J 

1— Ll. 

"> « 

Z 5 

O LJ 

? •- 



VOL. 23, NO. 2. 



THE BR1CKBVILDER. 



PLATE 21. 




MAIN WAITING ROOM 




DETAIL OF CARRIAGE PORCH 



UNION STATION, NORFOLK. VA. 
STEM «< FELLHEIMER. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 22. 




c/5 

in 
< 

ui 

_j 

-J H 
> ul 

i i 

2 u 

° S? 
</i < 

I g 

D J 

m g 

>• 5 

-J 

y 
j 

CQ 

0. 



VOL. 23, NO 2. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER 



PLATE 23. 




'CFNTTJZ^Nm \ 



PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDING, SOMERVILLL. MASS. 
EDWARD L. T1LTON. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 24. 




U 

d 

z 

o 

H 

o 

Z 
I 
< 

< 

CO 

D 
_i 
O 

u 

u. 
O 

(- 
y 

5 

H 
crt 

Q 

uj 

I 

F 

cc 
O 

Ll. 
Ul 

to 

O 

I 



-M 



VOL. 23, NO. 2. 



T HE BRICK B V 1LDE R 



PLATE 25. 




SECTION-ON-CENTER-OP-Blit:""" ^CT.ON ■ ON ■ CeNTEQ • 
• OP * DQDRWAY3 ■ 



DETAIL OF ELEVATION AND SECTION THROUGH FRONT WALL 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



FIRE HOUSE FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. WASHINGTON, DC. 

GREGG & LEISENRING, ARCHITECTS 
SNOWDEN ASHFORD. MUNICIPAL ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 26. 




VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 27. 




CARDEN 



HOUSE AT SOUTHAMPTON. LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
F. BURRALL HOFFMAN, JR., ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 28. 




ENTRANCE HALL 



HOUSE AT SOUTHAMPTON. LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
F. BURRALL HOFFMAN. JR., ARCHITECT 



VOL. 2', NO. 2. 



THE BRICK B V I LDKR 



PLATE 29. 




PL/I A 



HOUSE AT NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Pl.A'II 10 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS. MO. 
MAURAN, RUSSELL & CROWELL, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 31. 




O 

UJ 



D O 

o ts 

< ^ 

O I 
o o 

p I 

< 

UJ 

I 

H 



VOL. 23, NO. 2 



THE BRICKBVILDE R 



PLATK. i2 




cc 

o 
>- 

ul 

z 



u. 
O 

O 
H 
< 

Qu 

ul 

I 
H 



O 

z 
2 

o 

s 

UJ 

5 



A City House of Unusual Plan. 

ITS WELL LIGHTED INTERIORS ACHIEVED 
BY THE INCORPORATION OF A PATIO. 



By M. K. STAPLKY. 



ONE of the most interesting and artistic city homes 
built in recent years is that at 33 East 69th street, 
New York, Howells & Stokes, architects. All it has 
exteriorly to proclaim this fact is a twenty- five-foot facade, 
for the lot is not a corner one. This facade, redolent of some- 
little late Renaissance palace in Rome, promises an inte- 
rior of good taste ; but it cannot prepare one for what is 
the real triumph of the planning - , viz., an interior flooded 
with light and sunshine. 

How to secure this result on a typical city lot of twenty- 
five by one hundred feet becomes steadily more difficult, 
for adjacent buildings are usually higher and deeper than 
they were some years ago, even 
to the entire suppression of the 
rear yard ; while present-day 
clients are no longer 
satisfied with insufficiently 
lighted and monotonously 
planned rooms. They want in- 
stead large light rooms, foyers, 
and impressive stair treatments. 

The solution in this case was 
to build the house around a 
patio, Spanish fashion, which 
patio practically divides it in 
two laterally, with the staircase 
and hall as connecting link be- 
tween front and rear portions. 
At the top of the second story 
the patio is glazed over ; mean- 
while it serves as the nucleus of 
the first and second floor plan, 
and besides, the chef-d' ivuvrc of 
the whole house. 

To reach it one passes through 
an outer vestibule treated in 
sgraffiato work, an inner in Is- 
trian marble, and reminiscent 
of the charming stair landings 
of the Palazzo Mattei, and a 
reception room even more typi- 
cally Italian, with vaulted plas- 
ter ceiling in low relief. All 
these rooms are three steps be- 
low the patio level. Between 
them and it there is structurally 
no separation ; neither is there 
at the opposite end where the 
dining room adjoins. Instead, 
privacy is obtained in each in- 
stance by means of wondrously 
carved and gilded open screens, 
which on one side are hung with 
heavy velour curtains. Between 
such a demarcation and the usual Street Facade 



solid paneled doors or wall there is no comparison for 
illusiveness and decorative effect, while the degree of ex- 
elusion is the same. 

Passing through the gilded screens the dining room 
presents a study in decorative color - paneled wainscot 
and an elaborate wooden beamed ceiling, gilded and pat- 
terned, studded here and there with lapis lazuli blues. Its 
outlook, aside from its juxtaposition with the patio, is onto 
the little garden yard which has been made attractive by 
means of a Florentine wall fountain and some planting. 

The two principal rooms of the second story are the 
drawing room and library, both of which have casemented 

windows looking down into the 
patio — an idea both romantic 
and effective. As a study in 
plaster work, and by this is 
meant the real stucco-duro of 
the Italian Renaissance, there is 
little in this country to surpass 
the drawing room. Although 
spoken of as stucco-duro, the 
style is really 1 iatterned alter the 
work of the Adam Brothers; that 
is to say, it is distinguished by 
an arrangement of circles, ovals, 
octagons, vases, wreaths, 
sphinxes, and medallions, con- 
taining mythological subjects. 
As an example of twentieth cen- 
tury modeling it is incredibly 
fine. The library, approached 
by a charming old Spanish door 
and postern, is treated in dark 
woods. A room with a northern 
exposure, it would ordinarily be 
cheerless, but is enlivened in 
this case not only by the sun's 
rays filtering in from the patio, 
but by the view into the patio 
below, with its trickling little 
fountain and the darting gold- 
fish in the old Roman sar- 
cophagus basin. 

Returning to the patio, a 
number <>f features combine to 
make it an extraordinary 
achievement lor so limited an 
area— its feeling of space, its 
tone, and the quality of work- 
manship put into its material. 
This does not refer to the rich 
marbles, mosaics, etc., that all 
play their part and play it well, 
but to the dominant material, 
I low^lls & Stokes. Architects terra cotta. 




41 



4 2 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Before selecting it, 

much thought had been 
given to finding a sym- 
pathetic treatment of the 
walls. To create a 
novel effect was never 
the actuating motive ; 
simply to make a cheer- 
ful, beautiful room that 
could be lived in and 
enjoyed daily, just as 
the Spanish patio is. 
The house being Italian 
Renaissance in inspira- 
tion, marble was first 
considered, especially as 
there were several very 
fine antique Pavanazzo 
marble columns to be 
worked in ; but after 
several kinds of marble 
had been assembled and 
tried, it had to be ad- 
mitted that its hard sur- 
face failed to impart the 
right warmth and inti- 
macy. To carve it into 
a warmer play of light 
and shade would have 
been prohibitive in 
price : and straightway 
those who had the mat- 
ter in hand dropped from sumptuous marble to plain, 
workaday terra cotta. That its texture was the respon- 
sive, sympathetic one sought for, was apprehended from 
the start. Its varied and sparkling surface played in a 
fascinating way with the steady white light filtering 
through the glazed roof of the court. 

Perhaps the greatest charm of the room — its greatest 
charm certainly to one who understands the scope and the 
limitations of this material — is that it was all actually de- 
signed for terra cotta. No end of research was made 
through a mass of old time terracotta ornament ; classic, 
of course, for the patio was to be harmonious with the ad- 
jacent dining and reception rooms. Vet in the wealth of 
classic examples that have come down to us, nothing 
seemed quite delicate and haunting enough to stand the 



Reception Room Looking Toward Inner Vestibule. 



strong unvarying flood 
of light from the patio 
roof. It was all too 
positive, too assertive; 
and so small figures 
and medallions were 
designed, as delicate in 
spirit as those Wedg- 
wood and Flaxman de- 
signed for their im- 
mortal pottery, the 
modeling kept very flat 
and the drawing in 
places incised in a way 
that completely ex- 
pressed the plasticity 
of the material. The 
success of these brings 
up the question why is 
it that, being perfectly 
familiar with this fugi- 
tive sort of delicacy in 
pottery and in the 
smaller expressions of 
Greek art, no one has 
recognized sooner how 
it may be made the 
keynote of beauty in 
treating a room ? 

In this room there is 
an ivory-tinted band 
eight inches high in 
the architrave of oval medallions, enclosing cameolike 
figures, alternating with highly conventionalized flowers, 
that is an unusual bit of well-studied, unobtrusive deco- 
ration. Above in the lunettes the design and relief be- 
come bolder — amorini supporting heavy wreaths. With 
the exception of some dry leathery tones in the back- 
grounds no variety of color has been introduced in the 
terra cotta ; but due to the strong coloration in the Alex- 
andrinum pavement and in the mottled and veined Pav- 
anazzo columns, there is a feeling of polychrome treat- 
ment in the room. The modeling is of course all very 
Hat — so light that when the glaze was added the patterns 
became in many cases fascinatingly vague. It makes one 
think of those only half breathed designs in terra cotta on 
the facade of the Orotorio of San Bernadino at Perugia. 




House in New York City. 



First Floor Plan. 



Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



The Lighting of Public and Semi-Public Buildings. 



SIXTH AND CONCLUDING PAPER. 

By L. B. MARKS. 
Consulting Illuminating Engineer, New )<>;/■ City. 

GAS LIGHTING. 



RECENT improvements in the control of gas lighting, 
that is to say, the lighting and extinguishing of in- 
dividual burners or groups of burners by pressing 
a push button conveniently located, have opened up a 
more extensive field for gas lighting than heretofore, 
especially in public and semi-public buildings. 

Mr. Thomas Scofield comments on the methods of 
ignition and extinguishing of gas lamps as follows : 

With the advent of the incandescent mantle burner 
came the development of the pilot ignition system. This 
consists of a small by-pass around the main gas cock, 
allowing a small stream of gas to pass through a small 
tube, terminating in a small open flame tip located close 
to the mantle. This tip or pilot remains lighted when the 
gas is turned off from the burner, and on again turning 
the main gas cock it ignites the gas issuing from the 
nozzle, thus lighting the lamp. These pilots consume but a 
very small quantity of gas, ranging from one-tenth to one- 
eighth cubic foot per hour, depending somewhat on the 
pressure and adjustment. 

Several systems have been developed for the distant 
control of gas lights which do not depend upon the pilot 
light for ignition. Two of these will be described briefly. 
The first is one application of the magnet valve and the 
principle of the spark ignition. Each burner is fitted with 
a sparker, a device similar to the spark plug used in auto- 
mobile work, consisting of a porcelain armed sparker con- 
taining two spark points, binding posts,, and device for 
attachment to the lamp. For a single lamp, this sparker 
is connected to the secondary circuit of an induction coil, 
the primary circuit of the coil being connected to the 
terminals of a group of dry batteries or storage battery. 
On this primary circuit are also connected the magnet valve 
and push buttons, while the secondary circuit carries a 
push button for operating the sparkers. In the case of a 
number of lamps, the sparkers are all connected in series. 
To operate this system, both the white button opening the 
magnet valve is pushed and the button operating the 
sparker — the former causing the opening of the gas way, 
and the latter causing the generation of a spark at the 
lamps and the ignition of the gas. To extinguish, it is 
only necessary, of course, to close the magnet valve. In 
making this type of installation, all the wiring in the 
secondary or ignition circuit must be carefully insulated 
and all the burners carry insulating nipples. 

The second system employs the magnet valve and a 
filament igniter. This filament igniter consists essentially 
of non-conducting body with binding posts and a short fila- 
ment of a platinum alloy. The operation of this device 
depends on the heating of this alloy by the passage of an 
electric current to the temperature at which catalytic- 
action takes place, about 500 degrees P., from which point 



this catalytic action causes the filament to be heated, by 
the stream of gas, to the kindling temperature of the 
gaseous mixture, about 1500 degrees F., at which point 
the ignition of the gases takes place. The method of 
installation on one burner is as follows : 

From the source of electrical energy, storage battery, 
dry cells, or motor generator set, one wire is run direct to 
the fixture and grounded on it at a point below the insulat- 
ing joint, which is placed between the fixture and the ceil- 
ing drop or side bracket gas outlet — from the other pole of 
this source a connection is run to the filament on the lamp, 
and from the other binding post of the filament to the white 
or opening binding post of the magnet valve. From the 
black binding post of this valve a connection is then run 
back to the black button of the switch, thus completing 
the circuit. In other words, the filament and magnet 
valve are connected in series through the opening side of 
the switch, and on the other side the closing side of the 
switch and magnet valve are in series, the ground wire on 
the fixture furnishing a common return. To operate this 
system, therefore, all that is needed is to press the white 
button which opens the valve, actuates the filament, and 
lights the lamp, and a pressure of the black button closes 
the magnet valve and extinguishes the lamp. A number 
of lamps may be connected to the same switch, the method 
of connection being the same as in the case of a single 
burner. 

This system has many advantages, some of which are : 
the use of a single two button switch, small amount of 
electrical energy needed for operation, positive action, 
unlimited number of combinations of ignition and ex- 
tinguishing possible, and the impossiblity of turning on the 
gas to a burner or fixture when ignition would not take 
place due to a faulty filament, since in that case the 
magnet valve would not operate. Past experience has 
shown' that this system can be operated at slight expense, 
and that by carrying the wiring for ignition in conduits in 
connection with call-bell wires, telephone wires, etc., the 
compactness is very complete and extremely practical. 
By the use of a master switch and a revolving contact, 
similar to that used in flashing signs, the ignition and 
extinguishing of a large installation, comprising many 
fixtures, can be made absolutely automatic and extremely 
rapid in operation.' ' 

The development of fixtures for gas Lighting has followed 
along the general lines of progress for electric fixtures, 
and there are now available many types of gas lighting- 
fixtures for direct, indirect, and semi-indirect lighting. 
Figs. LV and LVII show types of such gas fixtures 
used by the gas company in New York City; Fig. LV 
shows a fixture containing one standard reflex lamp 
consuming about $Vi cubic feet of gas per hour at a pres- 



43 



44 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Fig. LV. 



Night View of Exhibition Floor, Consolidated Gas 
Company, New York City. 

77/A" above illustration shows a night view of an illumination 
proi ided entirely by gas and where direct and ' ' semi-indirect ' ' 
lighting ft vtures arc used. The lights about the columns arc lighted 

and extinguished by push tuitions after the fashion o>~ electric lamps. 



/ 


/ 




i 

i 

i 


: 




■HHiH 


S.^ 



Fig. LVI1. 



sure of iVz inches. The spherical globe 
on this fixture is open only at the neck. 
Fig. LVII shows a fixture equipped 
with 1-' junior reflex gas burners, having 
a total consumption of 18 cubic feet per 
hour at 2%-inch pressure, Fig-. LYIII 
shows a 6-cluster gas fixture with the 
individual burners supported by chains. 
The lighting and extinguishing of the 
gas in these lamps is controlled from a 
distance. Fig. LIX shows an indirect 
lighting fixture containing three upright 
burners with standard mantles, hidden 
from view and consuming 11 'j cubic 
feet of gas per hour at a pressure of 2} a 
inches. The interior of the opaque 
bowl is finished in a special white 
enamel. Fig. LX shows a recently de- 
signed high power semi-indirect lighting fixture, having a 
14-inch translucent bowl and a reflex lamp. The con- 
sumption of gas is s :! i cubic feet per hour at a pressure of 
2V-> inches. The mean spherical candle power of the 
lam]), equipped as shown in the illustration, is 173. 




Other types of semi-indirect gas light- 
in;-; fixtures are shown in Figs. LXI 
and LXII. 

Pendant gas lighting fixtures are 
usually equipped with pipe stem sus- 
pension, but with the growing intro- 
duction of indirect and semi-indirect 
lighting units, the chain suspension is 
coming into more extensive use. For 
fixtures with chain suspension exclu- 
sively the gas may be piped to the burner 
either directly through the chain, which 
is the usual way, or by means of a thin 
flexible tube attached to the chain. 
This tube may be made quite as incon- 
spicuous as is the wiring of the average 
electric chain suspension fixture. 

With modern improvements in effi- 
ciency and life of mantle gas burners, in quality of the 
light, in push button and automatic control, and in fix- 
ture design, there is a vast field for the modernization of 
existing gas installations, to say nothing of the equipment 
of new buildings. 




Fig. LIX. 



Fig. LXI. 



Fig. LXII. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



45 



OFFICES, EXHIBITION ROOMS AND BANKING ROOMS. 




Fig. LXI1I. Direct Lighting Installation in Clerical Offices. Fig. LX1V. Semi-Indirect Lighting Installation in Private Office. 

OFFICES OF CARNEGIE STEEL COMPANY, PITTSBURGH, PA. 



/N the above direct lighting installation in a large office no 
desk lamps are required, the general illumination from 
the ceiling pendants being sufficient for all working purposes. 
The units are spaced on approximately 9 ft. centers and an in- 
vestigation in the room has shown that the resultant illumina- 
tion is much more satisfactory when the lamps are hung high, 
as indicated in the picture, than when the lamps are hung low. 
The reflectors are of light density opal glass. 



r l'i 1 1 ':' illumination in the room illustrated be/ore is obtained 
-L by tungsten lamps enclosed in diffusing shades open at the 
top to permit a considerable percentage of the light to reach the 
ceiling directly. This "semi-indirect" lighting installation 
can be converted into a direct lighting installation by mounting 
the diffusing shades with the opening facing the floor instead of 
the ceiling. The shades are specially designed for I his con- 
vertible feature, and are 17 inches in diameter and 8%. inches 
deep. Each shade houses a 250-watt lamp. Data for the entire 
building are as follows : 

Total Floor Area 76,800 sq.ft. 

A verage Watts per square foot F4 

Average Fool-candles 4 to 6 



/X the installation illustrated above the fixtures are arranged 
slightly closer than at centers of equal rectangles which pre- 
vents the upper portion of /he walls at the ends of a narrow 
room from receiving direct lie hi from the lamp bulb, 'licit 250 
-watt tungsten lamps were found sufficient for the lighting of 
this room. Fata for this room are as follows . 

Ceiling Height l-'ft. 

. Irea of Room. 480 sq. It. 

Watts, 500 Walls per square foot , 1 .04 

. I verage Foot-caudles 3.5 

( 'eiling Tint Light ( 'ream 

Wall Tint Dark Buff 

Distance to C 'eiling 3 ft. I ins. 



r'HE glass bowls of the type shown in the illustration below 
are made deep enough to sufficiently hide the lamp bulb 
either horizontally or vertically placed. The glass is sufficiently 
dense to prevent uneven illumination oj the bowl whii li has been 
found to be a bad fault when using lamps that necessarily must 
be clustered and placed close to the interior surface. The 
design is also such as to minimize ceiling shadows caused by 
the supporting chains. 




Fig. LXV. Night View of Exhibition Room, Buffalo General Fig. LXVI. 

Electric Company. 



Semi-Indirect Lighting Installation, First National 
Bank, Chicago, III. 



46 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



TX the illustra- 

tion of the bank- 
ing room at the 
right direct light- 
ing through diffus- 
ing glass plates and 
semi-indirect light- 
ing are i omhined. 
On the ceiling are 
mounted direct 
lighting units, the 
la mps of iv h ich 
are enclosed in 
diffusing globes. 
. I round the inner 
edge oj the light 
well is a line oj 
diffusing plates and 
outlining the ven- 
tilating register 
boxes on I he ceiling 
are diffusing glass 
troughs of special 
design. 

The illumination 
in the hanking 
room shore n beloiu 
at the left is carried 
out by lamps en- 
closed in prismatic 
glass spheres sus- 
pended from the 
ceiling. This form 
of direct lighting 




Fig. LXVII. Direct and Semi-Indirect Lighting Installa 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



n Union Trust Company 



installation has I he 
advantage of suffi- 
ciently diffusing 
the light and at the 
same time com- 
pletely hiding the 
object ional direct 
view of the lamp 
itself. 

The illustration 
below at the right 
shores a modern 
banking room il- 
luminated by indi- 
rect lighting in 
which the fixtures 
have been designed 
to harmonize with 
the architectural 
treatment of the 
ceiling and col- 
umns. There are 
men large fixtures 
on the upper ceiling 
of the room shown, 
and each fixture 
contains U 100- 
watt lamps. There 
are eleven fixtures 
under the mezza- 
nine fioor. Each 
fixture is equipped 
with 4 60 -watt 
lamps. 




Fig. LXVIII. Direct Lighting from Lamps Enclosed in Prismatic 
Diffusing Glass Spheres. 

IN conclusion the writer desires to acknowledge the 
kind and valuable co-operation of the manufac- 
turing interests in supplying information, data of 
tests, and photographs relating to lighting installa- 
tions. The limits of the article have made it impos- 
sible to use all of the illustrations and data submitted. 
Grateful acknowledgment is made of contributions 
from Messrs. Tims. Scofield. Engineer, Consolidated 
Gas Co., New York City; A. I). Curtis, President, 
and II. B. Wheeler, Illuminating Engineer, National 




Fig. LXIX. Indirect Lighting Installation in hirst National Bank, 
Denver, Colo. 

X-Ray Reflector Co., Chicago; W. D'A. Ryan, Il- 
luminating- Engineer, General Electric Co., Schenec- 
tady ; V. R. Lansingh, Gen. Mgr. Holophane Works, 
Cleveland; Ceo. S. Barrows, Illuminating Engineer, 
United Gas Improvement Co., Philadelphia; S. G. 
Hibben, Illuminating Engineer, Macbetlt-Evans Glass 
Co., Pittsburgh; R. F. Pierce, Illuminating Engineer, 
Welsbach Co., Gloucester, X. J. ; and W. S. Kilmer, 
Illuminating Engineer, II. \V. Johns-Manville Co., 
New York. 



The Business Side of an Architect's Office. 

THE OFFICE OF GEORGE B. POST & SONS. 
By D. EVERETT WAID. 



THE late George B. Post will live 
in the memory of architects as a 
giant in the profession. Some 
men are regarded by their fellows as 
artists, others as promoters and con- 
structors, who have failed to command 
a high degree of respect as designers. 
Mr. Post possessed that rarely symmet- 
rical development of abilities which won 
him recognition as an all-round archi- 
tect. He could analyze engineering 
problems and study the structural suit- 
ability of building materials. He could 
talk to the directors of a financial corpo- 
ration on the economic and investment 
aspects of their project, and he could 
find time even when doing millions of 
dollars' worth of work to render a water 
color competition drawing with his own hand. The men- 
tion of his name recalls a list of important buildings which 
are notable as to design and at the same time reflect the 
exceptional structural and executive control exercised 
directly by the architect. Hence it is probable that many of 
the profession will be interested in the office of George B. 
Post & Sons, which carries the traditions of the old office, 
in which many present-day prac- 
tising architects served their 
time, even though Mr. Post, 
Senior, had to a large extent 
retired from active work three 
years before his death. 

The volume of work passing 
through this office is very large 
and demands corresponding 
space and a large organization. 
The printed forms used 
in the conduct of the 
office are many, and 
express the " follow - 
through" business 
methods which charac- 
terize the firm. Several 
of these forms are re- 
produced on the next 
page, and the following 
notes are intended to 
explain their uses. 

Memo-Record. One of 
the most important doc- 
uments is familiarly re- 
ferred to as the ' ' Memo- 
Record." It does not 
follow any rigid form, 
but is simply a series of 
concise notes made up 
from interviews with, or 




Entrance Lobby. 




Plan. 




letters of instruction from, clients, type- 
written in triplicate. The original black 
copy remains in the outer office, a car- 
bon copy goes to the superintendent, 
and a red copy to the drafting room 
for the information and guidance of all 
concerned. These "Memo-Record" 
notes are referred to by draftsmen and 
specification writers, and may be the 
origin of " Work Slips " and " Change 
Slips." 

Record Cards — History of Drawings* 
Record cards shall be filled in as to 
name of building and job number for 
each new job, and a number of cards 
placed on file in numerical sequence 
for record of prints issued or loaned. 
The original drawings or sketches 
should not be loaned, unless office copies are made, with- 
out special instructions from a member of the firm. 

Blue guide cards are to contain names and commission 
numbers of the buildings. Salmon guides are to contain 
the names of constructive materials used in the building. 
Buff guides indicate the general character of drawings. 
White cards are to contain the history and location of 

drawings made in this office. 

These cards are arranged as 
shown in Fig. 9 for the subject 
and title of drawing to be type- 
written, with its scale, num- 
ber of drawer in which it is kept, 
a record of the number of copies 
issued, and to whom, with the 
dates for same, together with a 
list of other drawings to which 
it refers. Buff cards are 
similarly arranged to 
give the history of draw- 
ings made outside the 
office. 

Order for Prints* 
The printer's supply 
" ( )rder Blank " shall be 
filled in according to 
form and a carbon copy 
kept in the book on file 
in issuing department. 

When the prints are 
received, the size of each 
print shall be carefully 
noted on the space on 
the duplicate order 
blank, by which the bills 
when rendered shall be 



ooaooo 

UQUUi 

zzk 

ZZI 

tzzi izzi 




•Quoted from office instruc- 
tions. 



4« 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



• • 



ceo s 

| 



2f«** ; 






U.K. ;-. 



p*-r ("■ 









, ■ 






^, ,., 



CtO B PC. T V 



. * *«4«rt.«.» 







hi 


■all 








1 




H i 


if.. 


T 






' 






I 
























fc 






Office V i;nO. IV POST & SONS. Architect f 9 
oCatify, thai ._; 



i ■ 



/. Credit Memo. 

_'. ( 'hange Slip. 

3. Order for Extra Work, 

I . Report Blank. 



5. Superintendent's Report. 
ik loi)u of Proposal. 
7 . Typical Drawing Title. 
S . Loan Slip. 
'>. Recotd Card. 
TO. Drawing Received Slip. 



DRAWING* (.O... 






I 

l > 






4%. 



//. Sample Received Slip. 
/_'. Form of ( ertiftcate. 
13. Issuing Blank. 
II. Work Slip. 



T HE BRICK B VILD E R 



49 



checked, after which the blanks are 
filed in the issuing- department for at 
least one year. 

Loaning Draieiiigs* " Loan Slips " 
(shown in Fig. 8) shall be filled in 
according to form and a carbon copy 
kept in the book. The yellow ' ' Memo. 
Return Tag " shall be placed on the 
upper left corner of each print loaned 
separately, or on the first of a set of 
prints bound together. 

The loose slip is then attached to 
the record cards for the drawings of 
which prints have been loaned, the 
record of which is then typewritten 
upon the record cards and the card 
filed in the index case and the loan slip 
filed in the front office. When draw- 
ings are returned, the loan slips should 
both be filled in according to form. 

An office copy of every print loaned 
for estimate, upon which a contract is 
to be based, must be 
made at the same time 
and carefully wrapped 
up and marked and 
filed in the drafting- 
room. If several sets 
are loaned for esti- 
mate, one of these, 
when returned, may 
become an office copy. 

If the contractor to 
whom the contract is 
awarded has returned 
his set, it is then 
" issued " to him as 
the contract set of 
drawings (usually the 
contractor prefers to 
use the copy loaned 
him for estimate) . 

"Issuing Blanks" 
(shown in Fig. 13) 
should be filled in ac- 
cording to form, the 
blank then attached to 
the record card for 
these drawings, a rec- 
ord of which is then 
typewritten on the 
card and filed in the 
index case, and the 
issuing blank filed in 
the front office. A 
drawing may be re- 
called and re-issued 
with revisions, etc., 
in which cases a new 
blank is filled in and 
filed as before ; the 
old blank remaining 
as a record. 




The Desk and particular C 


lair whi 


ch Mr. 


Post used for many years 


as he 


left it 


shortly before his death. 








In the Specification Room. 



Corner of the Library. 




Drafting Room. 



Drawings Received* " Drawing 

Received Slips" (shown in Fig. In) 
are to be filled in according to form 
and a carbon kept in the book. The 
drawings or prints received should be 
stamped on the back of the lower left- 
hand corner, with the "Receiving 
Stamp " and " D.R.S. number" filled 
in according to form. The loose slip 
is attached to the drawings which are 
sent to the drafting room for exami- 
nation and the result noted thereon. 
The loose slip is then filled in fur- 
ther as to returning and filing of the 
drawings, and then attached to the let- 
ter and forwarded to the front office, 
giving the data for answering the 
letter submitted with the drawings. 

The loose slip is next filled in as to 
the notifications to the submitter and 
returned to the issuing desk, the car- 
bon copy in the book is made to agree, 
and the loose slip is 
filed. 

" Sample Received 
Slips" (shown in Fig. 
11) should be filled in 
according to form 
(with no duplicate 
copy). For each new 
job a number of sam- 
ple slips are stamped 
and kept in numerical 
sequence in a box on 
theissuingdesk. Tags 
should be pasted on 
the back of the sam- 
ples and filled in as 
to material, submitter, 
date, with " S.R.S. 
number." These slips 
are then attached to 
the letter accompany- 
ing the sample and 
records made after the 
manner of " Drawing 
Received Slips." 

( )ther forms in con- 
stant use are the 
" Change Slip " (Fig. 
2), which originates 
Usually either in the 
drafting room or in 
the superintendent's 
office, and the " Work 
Slip" (Fig. 14), a 

follow-up card which is 

considered one of the 
most important instru- 
ments of tlie business 
system in the office. 

loted from office in- 
structions, 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D*N O T ES * «? 
FOR.* THERMO NTH 




i 



ARCHITECTS shoulder a grave responsibility in the 
matter of fire prevention. All over the country 
members of the profession have come to realize this 
and are exerting their powerful influence in co-operation 
with those who have made the subject a specialty. A 
special committee has been organized in the city of New 
York, composed of architects and members of the National 
Fire Protection Association. In a recent report this com- 
mittee declares that the " existing constitutional preroga- 
tive of the property owner " is one of the serious obstacles 
in the campaign for fire prevention. The report continues : 
' The architects of America can and should take the 
initiative responsibility to the limit of their influence with 
clients by advising that reasonable fire resisting methods 
of construction be observed, not alone upon their merits, 
but because of the ultimate economy that must result by 
anticipating a tidal wave in the form of a sudden popular 
demand for stringent laws that will fix the standard so 
high as to require costly alteration in the best, and prohibit 
the occupation of all buildings under the ban of condemna- 
tion issued by duly constituted authorities. The process 
of evolution is ever active, and it is only a matter of time 
when landlords will be obliged to submit to humanitarian 
equalization. Only justice is desired, but do not force it. 
Let us advise ways and means whereby a composite per- 
spective may be voluntarily accepted by the owner as an 
inevitable matter of course." 

IT IS gratifying that so many of the designs submitted 
in our recent competition for a small brick house — a 
selection of which will be published in The Brick - 
BVILDEK for March — should possess many of the charac- 
teristics which differentiate the home from the house. 

While these designs will show an exceptionally virile 
grasp of those elements which characterize the better 
American homes of moderate cost, a mere drawing fulfilling 
arbitrary conditions laid down in a program, no matter 
how effective or how beautiful the composition, cannot be 
said to represent a home. The perfect home can only be 
evolved by an architect who is in direct touch with his 
client and who has imbibed something of that client's per- 
sonality before he makes his design. The value of the pres- 
entation of the designs is but the first step. It brings 
together the architect who creates and the client who 
requires the expression of a particular idea. 

The design of a house is much more than the mere 
arrangement of several rooms fulfilling various func- 
tions or of the disposition of architectural features 
to form an attractive and pleasing exterior, either in a 
formal or picturesque manner. Something more than 
this is needed to render a house a home. In order to be 
called a " home," it must be a house consonant with the 
habits and mode of living of the man who resides beneath 
its roof and a definite expression of his individuality. 



HOW discouraging it is to be constantly confronted 
with the " nothing under the sun new " theory. 
How unfortunate that the wings of modern en- 
deavor should be clipped by so-called savants, who con- 
tinually bob up with the report that the ne plus ultra of 
everything was attained when the world was in statu pupil- 
lari. Did it encourage Watt to be told that the ancients 
were past-masters in the use of steam ? Did Stevenson 
work with renewed vigor in his attempt to harness steam 
when he was informed that sometime B. C. steam, gen- 
erated beneath the altar fires, was used to open the temple 
gates? No doubt he felt more chagrin, from the knowl- 
edge that he had been anticipated two thousand years, 
than pleasure in the explanation of what seemed a miracle. 

We have, almost in our own day, another example of 
this muckraking of the past. Hardly had Bouscaren con- 
trived what we had supposed was the first suspension 
bridge, than along comes a mildewed antiquary, with the 
news that " flying bridges were common in China in the 
days of Confucius." We are expecting daily that some 
one will discover that aeroplanes were as common in the 
Pleistocene age as are London omnibuses. 

We for our part believe neither in the fact nor in the 
policy of the elevation of ancestors. We see the bad 
effect of this religion in the Chinese people of to-day. It 
is a pleasure to note, however, that we are progressing in 
spite of these raconteurs. For example, consider archi- 
tecture. Time was when we felt bound to the three orders 
of Greece or the five orders of Rome. Indeed, even to-day 
do we find most of capitols and railroad stations Doric, 
our churches and prisons Gothic, and our residences com- 
posite, very composite. But quietly, modestly, persistently, 
we are developing a new order. Is it the sky-scratcher ? 
No ! Is it the subway ? No ! It is the eggandart ! 

It is true that some architects have already employed 
the egg-and-dart in the treatment of their objects, but only 
to a limited extent. It is now used only on cornices, col- 
umns, pilasters, frames, mouldings, architraves, panels, 
wainscot, mullions, lintels, sills, jambs, baseboards, etc. 
But in no distant future we will have the pure egg-and- 
dart. No longer will this beautiful and rare design be 
violated by being placed in proximity to spiral volute, 
astragal, cartouche, or acanthus. The building of the 
future, such as no ancestor might boast of, stands re- 
vealed. From top to bottom, within and without, it will 
be covered with a tracery of eggandart that will delight 
every architectural eye that beholds it. — Contributed. 

In an article in the January, 1914, issue of The Brick - 
bvilder treating of the drawings of Mr. O. R. Eggers, 
credit for the design of the U. S. Post Office, Denver, 
Colo., and for the Washington Armory, was given to Tracy 
& Swartwout, architects, when as a matter of fact the work 
was that of the firm of Tracy, Swartwout & Litchfield. 



50 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXV 




A Word to Architects, Engineers, and Builders 



After you have provided for foundations, steel structures, 
masonry, flooring, heating, wiring, and the thousand 
other things that demand your attention when planning 
for skyscraper, office building, factory or warehouse, you 
should top off" the good work with a Barrett Specifi- 
cation Roof. 

Your experience has taught you that metal roofings are 
very costly, both in first cost and for maintenance. 
They require painting every so often, and easily corrode 
under the action of smoke and acid fumes. Slate can- 
not, of course, be laid on a roof that is comparatively 
flat. A ready roofing is out of place on a first-class per- 
manent building because of the danger of damage from 
leaks and because of the frequent paintings that make it 
by far the most costly you could use. 

BARRETT MANUFACTURING 

New York, Chicago, Philadelphia. Boston, St. Louis, Kansas City, 

Cleveland. Cincinnati. Minneapolis, Pittsburgh, Seattle. Birmingham 

THE PATERSOX MFG. CO., Ltd.— Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, 

Vancouver. St. John. N. B., Halifax. N. S., Sydney. N. S 

Warehouse of Louisville 
Lead & Color Co., Louis- 
viile. Kv. Architects — 
McDonald & Dodd. Louis- 
ville. Ky. Roofers — J. L. 
Strassel Paint & Roofing 
Co.. Louisville. Ky. 



To any one who will investigate the subject, it will be 
apparent that a Barrett Specification Roof is by far the 
most economical and satisfactory. 

The five layers of Coal Tar Bitch insure its being really 
waterproof, the five plies of tarred felt give it strength and 
body, and the gravel or slag or tile which forms the wear- 
ing surface bears the brunt of the weather. 
There are many cases of roofs built along lines of The 
Barrett Specification which are doing good service at 
the age of twenty or even thirty years without any ex- 
pense for maintenance. 

Underwriters always accord these roofs the base rate of 
insurance. 

Send to our nearest office for a copy of The 
Barrett Specification in full. It specifies a 
roof which will always stand as a proof of 
your good judgment. 



COMPANY 




We advise incorporating 
in plans the full wording 
of The Barrett Specifica- 
tion, in order to avoid 
any misunderstanding. 
If any abbreviated form 
is desired, however, the 
following is suggested : 
ROOFING — Shall be a 
Barrett Specification 
Roof laid as directed in 
printed Specification, re- 
vised August 15, 1911, 
using the materials sped 
Bed, and subject to the 

inspection requirement. 



XXVI 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 
























"TARGET-AND-ARROW" Roofing Tin 




T 



'^SSSSKSSSSS-. 



CURTIS HOTEL. LENOX, MASS. 

'HIS well-known hostelry, established in 1 829, and recently rebuilt, is located in the center of the 
Berkshire Hills at an elevation of 1 ,300 feet. It has come to be known as a famous stopping 
place for automobile tourists, particularly those following the Ideal Tour through New England. 

William D. Curtis, the proprietor, tells us that the oldest portion of the building was roofed with 
our Target-and-Arrow brand of roofing tin thirty years ago. The roofs of the additions made in 
1898 and in 1913 are also Target-and-Arrow tin. These roofs are all in good order at the present 
time and bid fair to last as long as the building stands. 

The recent roofing work was done by W. B. Bull, of Lenox. 

We have been supplying this durable roofing tin to American sheet metal workers for more than 
sixty years. It costs a little more than other roofing tin, so you are not likely to get Taylor quality 
if you write a specification that permits substitution. 

Architects can get from us on request a useful little reminder of our Target-and-Arrow roofing tin in the form of a six-inch celluloid 
edge boxwood scale, also a standard tin roofing specification form, and some instructive literature telling about this old product. 
Our catalog is in " Sweet's, " pages 546-549, of the 1913 edition, and pages 498-499 of the 1912 issue. , 



N. & G. TAYLOR CO., Philadelphia 

Headquarters for Good Roofing Tin since 1810 



II 



II 



% c. 









THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXVll 



'/s '//. 



II 



II 






I 



# £ 
% *; 



Eco?tomical 



Easily Applied 




Rapidly Mixed 



Dutch Boy 

Pure 

Red Lead-in-Oil 

"Stays Soft Like White Lead" 




Durable 



Pure Red Lead Ground in Pure Linseed Oil 
is a Big Step Forward 

When white lead was first put on the market ground in pure linseed 
oil a most important advance was made in the painting business. Now we 
are ready to supply this other valuable lead product in this convenient 
paste form. 

It marks another big step forward. 

Architects and engineers have long recognized the great protective 
value of red lead when used to paint skyscraper skeletons, steel bridges, 
and other structural iron and steel work. Sometimes, however, because 
workmen told them paint made from old style red lead required special skill 
in application, and because of its propensity for setting quickly, its advan- 
tages were foregone and a less effective paint used instead. 

Dutch Boy Red Lead-in-Oil overcomes even the semblance of objec- 
tion and supplies a long felt want — a red lead paint as easy to handle as the 
old reliable Dutch Boy white lead-in-oil. 

To insure every architect and engineer an opportunity to inspect 
and test red lead in its new, convenient form we will send a sample 
of Dutch Boy Red Lead-in-Oil, with details of its advantages, 
upon application to our nearest branch. Use the coupon, 
please. 

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 



*° 



New York 
Cincinnati 



Boston Buffalo 

Cleveland St. Louis 

(John T. Lewis & Bros. Co., Philadelphia) 
(National Lead & Oil Co., Pittsburgh) 



Chicago 

San Fran 



> 



Jf * 



|| _™ .. ,,,. 

' „.^^>»»v^v»»^^^^^^ « » SfcaSSSSSSSSS^SSSSSsSSS^^ 



AT V 















I! 

! 















■% V/ ^^^^^msm^ms^mms^mmsss^ms^msm^^mmsmm^mmsmm^ 



XXV11I 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



II 



% '/. 










rU*1:M:«aB | 
HARDWARE 



T 



KINNEY BUILDING 
NEWARK, N.J. 



CAsS GILBERT An I 



HE building here shown was equipped with 1 



locks and hardware. 

It is inconceivable that an architect capable of designing such a structure would permit 
the selection of anything but the best for its equipment. The conclusion is obvious. 



MAKERS OF SERVICEABLE. DURABLE. 
APPROPRIATE HARDWARE 



SARGENT & COMPANY 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. NEW YORK BOSTON PHILADELPHIA 

SARGENT HARDWARE is obtainable through representative hardware merchants in all cities 



(I 



CHICAGO 









II 






i 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXIX 



)* sj ss 



. — ™^^ . —s^^ 



*^ SSS ^ S;! *«S^ ! !»»«^^^ 



% % 



mmmsmm^ 



If 









1 



i 

! 

ii 

II 

II 
II 



II 



PI 



ii 

i 



i ^ 




&w Specific 
Information about the 
Bi/tnt ore's Elevators 
of Special Interest 
to Architects 

The public is interested 
only in the final effect, 
but the Architect cares 
more about the individ- 
ual items of equipment 
that make the new Bilt- 
more one of the greatest 
feats in hotel construc- 
tion and an example 
worthy of closest study. 

The Otis Elevator Company installed in the new Biltmore Hotel — 



wffy'M. '~i..\i . ■■..- 









r.«%,"'*>J| 



■■ & 



Hotel Biltmore, New York 

ARCHITECTS, Warren & Wetmore 

CONTRACTORS, George A. Fuller Co. 



Eight G earless 1:1 Traction Elevators 

— located in two banks, for the exclusive use of guests and serving all floors. 

One Electric Passenger Elevator 

— drum type — travelling from Main Waiting Room level of Grand Central 
Station, beneath the Hotel, directly to presidential suite on fourth or first 
bedroom floor. 

Five Service Elevators 

(Combination Passenger and Freight) 

— of geared traction type for the handling of baggage and freight. 

One Electric Service Elevator 

— drum type for employees' exclusive use. 

Sixteen Electric Dumbwaiters 

— connecting main with secondary kitchens on all upper floors, bars with 
wine cellars. 

Otis Elevator Company 

Eleventh Avenue and Twenty-Sixth St., NEW YORK 

Offices in All Principal Cities OJ the World 



iBE^3 



^gjpril 



:3^3SK2ffS) 



Ii 






II 



If 

II 

'/. '/. 

II 



II 

I! 






xxx THE BRICKBVILDER. 






%% 


















GUARANTEED UNSTAINABLE 






FOR PERMANENTLY NEW WAINSCOTINGS 
SANITARY INSTALLATIONS 



INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR FINISH, Etc. 



Is made in white, black and 12 colors. From 5-16" 



to 1 3-16" thick and in slabs up to 85 x 135 inches. 



To assure the delivery of the best structural glass obtainable, speci- 
fications should eall for absolutely non-absorbent structural "lass, 



ground and polished to a plane surface, and should also REQUIRE 



to J 



THAT THE MATERIAL BE TESTED ON THE JOB FOR 
NON-ABSORBENCE. Test to he with red ink or some similar 
coloring agent. Any glass showing stain after the coloring matter 
has been allowed to dry for 24 hours to be considered absorbent 
and defective. We guarantee our glass. 



Samples and information on request 



Semon Bache and Company 









II 

II Argentine Structural Plate Glass 



(Oi>a<iue Polished Plat.-] 













ir\ in,murt ainu LAifiwun niNisn, n,tc. 







to 3-1 rV ! hint and in tdans nn tn R^ v 13.^ inr»n^s 
|j " GUARANTEED UNSTAINABLE " 



and detective. We guarantee our glass. 



WEST and HUBERT STREETS NEW YORK CITY 

II 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXXI 



^ 'f S5S:SSSSJS!SSSSiS ^^^^ Si SS SSSSSSiSSiSi«&^iS5«SiS!*^^ 2 '/a 

II 

1 






II 









I 

§.'§ 



I 



il 



I 

II 






1 

11 



II 



1! 



t 

I! 









li 



I 



The Architects' Bureau of Technical Service 

AN EXPLANATION FOR BOTH ARCHITECTS AND 
MANUFACTURERS OF THE PLAN AND SCOPE OF 
THE BUREAU AND ITS METHODS OF OPERATION 



t: 



^HE consumer in the industrial field of building, the man 
who foots the bills, being, with but rare exceptions, a lay- 
man without the technical knowledge requisite to making 
a selection of such materials, devices, and methods as seem best 
adapted economically and practically to produce the desired 
result, delegates his initiative in making this selection to the 
architect. The architect's judgment is interposed between the 
producer and his market. The architect's position makes him a 
potent and influential factor in a conglomerate industry of enor- 
mous scope. The architect may be pictured, with but a slight 
stretch of the imagination, as a funnel fitted at the neck with a 
strainer of technical knowledge and experience. Into this funnel 
those industries contributing to the actual work of construction 
must pour their products that they may pass through into the 
building. Those products which for any reason fail to pass the 
strainer clog the funnel and prevent those that might pass from 
doing so. The vital fault with this situation is that the area of 
the strainer in the funnel — the breadth of the architect's knowl- 
edge and experience — is ordinarily too greatly restricted. The 
strainer should be forced upward to the top of the funnel, giving 
it the maximum area and efficiency and a reasonable opportunity 
to properly perform its duty. 

In the practice of the technical side of his profession the archi- 
tect is surrounded by a swarm of manufacturers all thrusting 
their products at him, loudly acclaiming their alleged fitness and 
excellence. Meanwhile the architect is using his utmost en- 
deavor to distinguish the notes of truth in the tumult ; for the 
very information that these manufacturers are trying to get 
across to him is essential to the intelligent and efficient per- 
formance of his function. 

The architect's problems must ultimately be solved in terms of 
materials, devices, and methods. Through the use of these only 
can he give concrete expression to his design. His professional 
efficiency and the value of his services to his client are neces- 
sarily measured by the scope and accuracy of his knowledge of 
the tools and media with which he may work. Knowledge is 
born of experience or of investigation. Few architects may 
claim the enlightening benefit of wide experience, and still fewer 
have the time or the facilities or even the aptitude for adequate 
research and investigation. In the effort to solve their problems 
under such conditions, the majority of architects faces two alter- 
native lines of procedure : either to employ those things with 
which they are not familiar and gamble on the results, or resort 
to the use of standards with which they are familiar though fre- 
quently obsolete and economically unfit to serve the purpose. 

We can not increase the breadth of the architect's experience, 
but we can increase the scope of his knowledge by furnishing 
him with accurate information on the materials, devices, and 
methods which he may use, and by telling him in his own lan- 
guage how to provide for their use and how to use them. This 
is precisely the fundamental purpose of the service rendered the 
architect by the Bureau. 

The benefit to the architect, to the owner, and to the manu- 
facturer of such a medium for the distribution of information 
can not be fully understood without a realization of the fact that 
the present insurmountable limitations placed upon the archi- 
tect's practical and technical knowledge deprives the owner of 
the economic advantages of development and progress and robs 
the manufacturer of the just fruits of his industry and enter- 
prise. While we acknowledge the injustice to the owner grow- 
ing out of this condition, we must also recognize the right of the 
manufacturer who is actuated in business by the desire to pro- 
duce an article of value and merit, to receive in his restricted 
market fair consideration of his product. 

The manufacturer's problem of developing a market and the 
architect's constructive problems both contain the basic factor 



of information on products and methods. The solution of one 
of these problems is also the solution of the other. The service of 
the Architects' Bureau of Technical Service to the manufacturer 
and to the architect is that solution. 

The gulf of skepticism, misunderstanding, and misrepresenta- 
tion which now separates the architect and the manufacturer is 
bridged by the Bureau and its service. The manufacturer has 
tried to force communication across this gulf with oral and 
printed talk. Ninety per cent of his circular matter is economic 
waste. It becomes a daily contribution to the architect's waste 
basket, frequently unopened and unread. This waste runs into 
enormous sums of money every year and is charged to the cost 
of building. The consumer always pays all the cost of selling 
the commodity he buys. The Bureau, as it increases the scope 
of its service, will gradually eliminate this waste and should 
secure the corresponding reduction in the cost of building. 

The manufacturer's literature, catalogues, pamphlets, broad- 
sides, house organs, and circular letters fail in their mission be- 
cause they do not contain the kind of information the architect 
needs ; because they reach the architect when he is not inter- 
ested, and because they are of such a variety of sizes and shapes 
and frequently embrace so many topics that it is impossible for 
the architect to -1 evise a filing system which provides for future 
reference. 

The manufacturer's oral talk, or, more truthfully, his inability 
to talk through demonstrators and salesmen, also represents 
economic waste — also charged to the cost of building. Repre- 
sentation by salesmen is at best haphazard shooting, with an 
accidental hit now and then. Occasionally, by sheer luck, the 
salesman drops on an architect at the moment that the archi- 
tect's and the salesman's interests are one and the same, and 
at such times the architect succeeds, provided both he and the 
salesman know their business in extracting the information 
required. 

The Bureau is the distributor of the manufacturer's literature. 
Through the Bureau's service this literature goes to the archi- 
tect when, and only when, the architect is interested. The 
Bureau co-operates with the manufacturer in the effort to pro- 
duce literature of the kind that will serve the architect's pur- 
pose. It is economic stupidity to persist in the production of 
something which is of no value and fails to secure results. The 
Bureau also speaks to the architect for the manufacturer, as 
does the salesman when he succeeds in securing an interview, 
but with this advantage, — the Bureau has the prestige of the 
architect's confidence, and it gives him the facts he wants and 
without cross examination in such form that he may use them 
with the minimum amount of personal effort. 

The Bureau accomplishes results where other media fail, be- 
cause it is performing the architect's function for him. The 
Bureau is an active adjunct of every architect's office, respond- 
ing to every need, as would his own organization. This the 
Bureau does with better tools than the architect can ordinarily 
acquire, and far more thoroughly. The Bureau's technical staff, 
composed of experts of technical training and wide experience 
in building construction, devotes its entire time to investigation 
and research in the field of production, combing out the facts 
from the mess of information and misinformation that clogs the 
market ; assimilating these facts, formulating them, and trans- 
lating them into standard specifications that may be transcribed 
verbatim into the architect's specification. 

The Bureau accepts for registration only those products and 
methods which are honestly marketed and which have " made 
good " under actual service test. The architect is therefore se- 
cure in the use of any material, method, or device which bears 
the Bureau's hall mark. In brief, the Bureau's service short 
circuits the reputable manufacturer's present wasteful selling 

[over) 















V, 



li 

■//. ■'/. 

II 



II 



1 1 

if 






XXX 11 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



% ■'/, 

N 






is ssssssss*sss<sss$s!sssss<ss*ssm^ 



I 



i\ 






methods and places his product in competition only with its 
equals. 

The Bureau's service is national in its scope, offering every 
reputable manufacturer of an excellent article and every pro- 
prietor of an efficient method a national market if he desires it. 
To facilitate the service to the architect and to restrict the man- 
ufacturer's market as may be required, the United States has 
been divided into six service zones as indicated on the zone map 
I Fig, I). The manufacturer may register his product in one or 
more zones as he wishes to extend or restrict his market. There 
is, however, a complete interchange of data between the six 
zone offices of the Bureau, so that the architect may, upon 
special request, receive information on any material, method, or 
device, even though it be not registered in his zone. Thus the 
architect in Seattle may secure information on a material manu- 
factured in zone No. 1 and in general use in the East, but not 
registered in zone Xo. 6. 

Products are registered under two grades, " A " and " B." 
Products of grade " A " are those which are suitable for use in 
work of the highest standard. Products of grade "B" are 
those which are honestly marketed, perform satisfactorily their 
intended function, but are obviously inferior to products of 
grade " A." 

The Bureau's service to the architect relieves him of the obli- 
gation to investigate before he uses a material or device with 
which he is n"t familiar, posts him on the relative merits of 
various products and methods which he may use, instantly in- 
creases the breadth and scope of his practical knowledge so that 
he may in writing his specifications draw upon a national mar- 
ket instead of a local market as is now the case, and removes the 
necessity of his attempting to save and file for possible future 
reference the mass of miscellaneous literature which now enters 
his office. The Bureau's service gives the architect in the 
small city the same advantages which now belong to him who 
practises his profession in the large centers of building activity. 

The Bureau's information goes to the architect only on re- 
quest, and to insure the utmost efficiency the Bureau's service 
has been devised to operate as nearly automatically as possible, 
demanding the minimum effort on the part of the architect. 

The Bureau places in the office of each registered architect an 
index to the Specification Register. The index contains over 
2,000 topics cross indexed so as to facilitate reference. The archi- 
tect is furnished with stamped post cards addressed to the 
Bureau, on which he notes the index numbers of the topics 
on which he requires information and standard specifications. 
The post cards bear his registration number, dispensing with the 
necessity of his signing them. Upon the receipt of one of these 
cards the Bureau forwards immediately to the architect data and 
standard specifications on all similar products or methods of the 
grade required which are registered. In addition to the data 
and standard specifications the Bureau delivers to the architect 
specification sections providing for preparatory and coordinate 



work when the same is necessary in connection with the topic, 
thus reducing the chances of omissions in the architect's specifi- 
cation. The architect may have as many copies of the Bureau's 
data and as frequently as his needs require. The Bureau asks him 
not to save the data. Its destruction affords the Bureau the op- 
portunity of keeping the information up to date and of rejecting 
registered articles which show evidence of degeneration. 

The Bureau's service answers another insistent demand from 
the architect, contractor, and the manufacturer — the demand 
for a standardization of the specification. At present it is an 
extraordinary coincidence to find two architects who will de- 
scribe the same material in the same language. Many specifica- 
tions are ambiguous and unintelligible, due to the author's im- 
perfect knowledge of the subject. A little knowledge is nowhere 
so dangerous as in the writing of a specification. 

As the architects of the country form the habit of "asking 
the Bureau " and as their growing confidence in the thorough- 
ness and fairness of the Bureau's service stimulates patronage, 
the Bureau will become the recognized clearing house for tech- 
nical information, and as such is destined to become that indis- 
pensable instrument of cooperation for their mutual benefit 
between the reputable manufacturer and the architect. The 
Bureau will therefore ultimately acquire vast power in this great 
industrial field. The centralization of the control of this power 
holds many elements of danger. In the hands of a few individ- 
uals it might be improperly used in any one of many ways that 
immediately suggest themselves. The fundamental purpose of 
the Bureau is to serve efficiently the architect and the deserving 
manufacturer, and in order to prevent any possible abuse of its 
power, the control of the Bureau has been offered to the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects through a majority representation on 
its Board of Directors — directors that will direct and control — 
or control by any other means that the Institute may select as 
most effectual. To disarm those skeptics who will insist that the 
Bureau cannot withstand the temptation of being influenced by 
consideration of pecuniary gain, it makes the solemn declara- 
tion that it is not operating and will not operate for profit. Its 
revenues will be gauged and fixed so as to meet expense only. 
There are no outstanding bonds or stocks upon which dividends 
or interest will have to be paid. Indeed, if this were not the 
financial basis upon which the Bureau operates, the declaration 
on the cover of the Index would be a hollow platitude. 

The architect, as a beneficiary under the Bureau's service, 
should unquestionably bear his equitable share of the expense of 
operation. There is ample evidence that he recognizes this obli- 
gation, and ultimately some practical scheme for the complete 
mutualization of the bureau will be worked out. The rates now 
quoted to the manufacturer have been carefully computed to 
meet the expense of operation and to provide a small margin for 
development. 

The Bureau enters the field of building as the exponent of 
efficiency. 



ZONE OFFICES 

Zone No. 1 . Boston 

Zone No. 2. New York 

Zone No. 3. Cleveland 

Zone No. 4. Chicago 

Zone No. 5. Denver 

Zone No. 6. San Francisco 




ZONE MAP 

Architects' Bureau 

of 
Technical Service 



v. v. 

I 

I! 



II 






3 V. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXXlll 






If 



I 



ll 






II 









The following is a specimen of the specification data delivered 
to the architect under the "Specification Register" service: 

Architects' Bureau of Technical Service 

101 PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 
SPECIFICATION REGISTER 

Topic No. 951-1. DISAPPEARING AND TELESCOPIC ASH HOIST — HAM) POW KK 



I 



Grade A. 
HOIST : 

The contractor shall furnish and install complete and 
ready for operation, in the area (describe location), a 
" G. & G. Telescopic Hoist " * as manufactured by Gillis 
& Geoghegan of 537 West Broadway, New York City. 

* Gillis & Geoghegan also manufacture a telescopic hoist 
with an overhead crane attached to the hoisting head and 
designated as the " G. & G. Telescopic Overhead Crane 
Hoist." This type may be used. to advantage where trucks 
can be backed up to the hatchway, avoiding the necessity of 
handling the barrels after they arc landed on the side- 
walk. Both of these hoists may be operated by electric 
power, and provision for such power in the specifications 
may be obtained by inserting the -words " with electric 
motor" after the designation of the hoist. 

INSTALLATION : 

The hoist shall be set with the post plumb and secured 
to the area walls with heavy, wrought iron clamps ex- 
pansion bolted to the walls. The heel of the post shall 
be bedded solidly in the concrete of the area bottom, 
and shall rest on a footing to be set by the mason 
contractor. 



Under the specifications for mason 
vide that : 



•ork ' ' Footings ' ' pro- 



The contractor shall place a concrete footing below the 
bottom of the area (describe location), 12 ins. thick and 
not less than 12 ins. square, to receive the heel of the 
post for the hoist to be furnished and set as elsewhere 
provided for. 

If the hoist is to be installed outside of New York City, pro- 
vide under the painting specifications that : 

All parts, except gears, of the Telescopic Ash Hoist in 
the area (describe location) shall be thoroughly cleaned 
of oil, rust, and scale, and shall be given one coat of red 
lead and linseed oil, mixed in the proportions of 28 lbs. 
of red lead to 1 gal. of oil, thoroughly brushed out ; and 



SIDEWALK 



i 




BUILDING WALL 



after this coat lias dried, an additional coat of white lead 
and oil, tinted as may be directed. 

Note: Hoists to be erected in New York City will be painted 
by Gillis & Geoghegan alter erection as part of contract, 
and no provision for field painting is necessai v. 

/><) NO T FORGE '/' to provide under the miscellaneous and 
ornamental iron specifications for an iron ladder leading from 
the area bottom to the sidewalk, and for hinged hatchway 
doors or eratings. 

FINDINGS: 

Telescopic hoists as above specified have been installed 
and are operating successfully in over 200 buildings, the 
majority of which are in or near New York City. Many of 
these installations have been inspected by the Bureau and 
have proven satisfactory and efficient. Repairs have not 
been required on any of the installations inspected. 

Among the architects who have used the G. & G. Hoist 
and have reported satisfactorily on it are : Messrs. Clinton 
& Russell ; C. P. H. Gilbert ; Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker ; 
Hill & Stout ; William H. Gompert, and Hunt & Hunt. 

The hoist is well and sttbstantially constructed. The 
defects which developed in the early installations have been 
overcome. Conscientious study has been given by the 
manufacturers to the perfection of the device. In the 
opinion of the Bureau it is capable of further development 
to increase its efficiency and sphere of usefulness. The 
Bureau's suggestions to that end are now under considera- 
tion by the manufacturer. 

COSTS : 

G. & G. Telescopic Hoist, without can, erected complete 

in New York City $125.00 

The same F. O. B. cars New York City 115.00 

G. & G. Telescopic Overhead Crane Hoist, without can, 

erected complete in New York Citv 175.00 

1 he same F. O. B. cars New York City 165.00 

Prices on motor driven hoists will be furnished on appli- 
cation. 

A slight additional charge is made if the distance between 
the area bottom and the sidewalk exceeds 15 ft. 

The Telescopic Hoist has a maximum working capacity 
of 500 lbs., which load it raises 
at a speed of 30 ft. per minute. 
The overhead crane hoist has a 
maximum working capacity of 300 
lbs., which load it raises at a speed 
of 30 ft. per minute. The motor 
driven hoist raises the load at the 
speed of 60 ft. per minute. 

The cut herewith indicates the 
minimum clearances required. 
These clearances may be regarded 
as referring to the hatchway open- 
ing and not to the area walls. Post 
clamps of proper length will be 
furnished to meet any reasonable 

conditions. GILLIS& GEOGHEGAN, 

537 to 530 West Broadway, New 
York Citj . List of agents on next 
page. 

1 ovei I 




Scalr ' 1 " I foot. 

Plan and Elevation showing arrangement of 
G. & G. Telescopic Hoist in area of usual size. 

Note. — Area, above shown, is large enough for Overhead 
Crane Hoist or Hoist with Electric Motor. 






I 









11 

II 



II 



I 



I 















II 



XXXIV 



THE BRICKBYILDER 






li 












II 



II 



I 




Not in Use. 

Showing the G. & G. Telescopic Hoist with 
Hoisting Head telescoped below sidewalk. 



Atlanta, Ga., 1307 Third Natl. 
Bank Bldy., George R. Argo, 
Tel., Ivy 3876. 

Minneapolis, Minn., 747 Ply- 
mouth Bldg., Averv Supply 
Co., Tel.,N.W. Nicollet5229. 

Louisville, Kv., 110-112 S. First 
St., F. A. Clegg&Co., Tel., 
2149. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 14 Wood St., 
Dempsey-Degener Co., Tel., 
Court 923. 

Providence, R. I., 49 Exchange 
Place, Dudlev Hardware Co., 
Tel., Union 4561. 

Cleveland, Ohio, 1214 Scho field 
Bldg., Queisser-Bliss Co., 
Tel., Bell, Main 4224, Cuv 
Cent. 4223. 

Omaha, Neb., 1727 Leaven- 
worth Bldg., Shields & 
Standish, Tel., Tyler 1597. 

Scranton, Pa., 309 Republican 
Bldg., Chas. S. Teal. 

Indianapolis, Ind. , Vonnegut 
Hardware Co. 

Detroit, Mich., 301 Penobscot 
Bldg., Geo. T. Wallace Sales 
Co., Tel., Cherry 2800. 

Kansas City, Mo., 514 Kansas 
City Life Bldg. Jos. G. Walsh 
&Co., Tel., Home 9485 Main. 

Chicago, 111., 301-303 Stock 
Exchange, Webster Engr. 
Co., Tel., Franklin 1330. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., 619 The 
Gilbert, Fredk. H. McDonald, 
Tel., Mich. State 2458, Citi- 
zens 2458. 

The accompanying cuts are those 
which would ordinarily he for- 
warded to the architect with the 
Bureau's data. 




In Operation. 

Showing the G. & G. Telescopic Hoist with 
Hoisting Head raised above sidewalk. 



A LL practising architects are invited to enroll with the Bureau 



and to avail themselves of its facilities absolutely without cost 
or obligation of any sort. Just fill out the coupon, pin to your 
letterhead, and mail to us. We will then forward a copy of the 
Specification Register and the Inquiry Cards. 



Architects' Bureau 
of Technical Service 

101 PARK AVENUE 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Gentlemen : 

Please enroll name and send copy of Specification Register 

OKI 

and Inquiry Cards. It is agreed that this involves no financial or 

other responsibility on • part. 
■ our 

Name / 

li - :£ z 

Fill out, pin to your letterhead, and mail to the Bureau. 



INDEX foffe 
SPECIFICATION 
W&m REGISTER 

THE ARCHITECTS' 

BUREAU OF 
TECHNICAL SERVICE 



Jy? declaration . 
fffie^ftrcfiiiects' fittreuti of c9ec/Tnicaf 
zferUice is dedicated to tGh 'flrtfTitecturaf 
^Profession and to tlie^/Jianuu^cturer tiliosc 
professional attitude foiiard Gusiness metres 
production a creatine art; to estaGlhff Get- 
-tieen ftiese tub ffiat franf and tympatGetic 
understand ina and spirit of cooperation 
vbfuch? 'ma/fcs /or suGstanfiaf progress f and 
to secure a GlgGer degree of efficiency 
in ffib Yield of Guild itia. m M m m 



Fac-simile of Cover to Index. 






ii 









ii 

i 

'A '//. 
■//. '/. 

II 









li 



ij 






II 

ii 

1 1 



II 

■'/, '/, 



Bffli 



'■■» ■ __ ■" " ~ 7t — -j-'na 

HEBRTCKIWILDER5 




' ' " ». X \ ^q.tfii mt 1 I . rjiijlf 



MARCH 1914 



\rchitecl 


Plate 




33-35 




36, 37 


Cope & Stewardson 


38. 39 




10, 11 




12 


Howard Shaw 


13, 1 1 


la Beaume & Klein 


15 


ring, Okie &■ Ziegler 


16 


ring. Okie &: Ziegler 


17. 18 




HOUSE, .1. LIONBERCER DAVIS. ESQ., ST. LOUIS, MO. 

HOUSE, F. ('.. THOMPSON, ESQ., ST. LOUIS, MO. 

HOUSE, .). I). DAVIS, ESQ., ST. LOl IS. MO. 

HOUSE, R. S. BROOKINGS. ESQ., ST. LOl IS. Mo. 

HOUSE. MRS. V. \. \\ \LL\CE. ST. LOUIS, MO. 

HOUSE. C. H. HERMANN. ESQ., GLENCOE, ILL. 

HOUSE. J. F. SHEPLEY. ESQ.. ST. LOl IS. MO 

HOUSE. GEORGE MILLER, ESQ., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Di 

HOUSE, MRS. M. E. WILLI WISOY \\ EST CHESTER. PA. 



LETTERPRESS 

CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE. NEW YORK. N. Y. DRAWING 
OF INTERIOR. RALPH ADAMS CRAM. CONSULTING \RCIIITECT. 

E. DONALD ROBB. DEL. Frontispiece 

MODERN FARM BUILDINGS Alfred Hopkins 

A Treatise on Their Design, Plan, and Equipment 

Illustrated from Drawings and Photographs 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECT RAL RENDERERS Ed. Review 

III. The Work of E. Donald Robb 
Illustrated from Drawings 

SOME OLD A M » I NFAMILIAR SI" WISH Bl II. DINGS Arthur G. Byne 

Illustrated from Photographs 

BUSINESS SIDE OF W ARCHITECT'S OFFICE, THE.. D. Everett Wavd 

The Offices of Mr. Howard Greenlov and Messrs. Taylor & l.'\ i 

Illustrated from Photographs and Plans 
SOME MODERN ENGLISH INTERIORS R. Randal Phillips 

Illustrated from Photographs 

COMPETITION FOR \ BRICK HOI SE TO COST $7,500 
Report of the Jnr\ of Vward 
\\ inning Designs 

EDITORIAL COMMENT WD NOTES OF THE MONTH 



"pvbmske: monthly • by "• 



I'aj^e 



3<) 



62 



65 



69 



73 





»2 -■ i 



II B» 



T - 









!j>THVfc»»GERS- - RALPH- REINHQLD- E „L- F-WHITEHEAC !^ 

R.Eil3 !: N T -S.TR.EAJVRE2.- VKE-PRESIDENT-MJVSINESVMAKACEIl- SECRiTAiiVi/MMClNCEDlT'R' g 
' :3 . AT .T 1 »B.fl05TON-/AA5S-p057-OFFICE-A5-5KOr<D-CLft557WIL'NWTTER.-WR.CH-l2-18Ci^ 
' cOPYWOHT-lQl^BY-SPGERS-ANB-fMNSON-COrAPANV- 
■ SVftSCR-iPTLON ' R.AT. ES • 

.ro4trPWPPnRvaY-TrlE'AIAZ!lICAN-NEWS-COMPANY-AND-lT.5-?.R.ANCHr:.S- 3 






fMDMVmiEP-BY.TrlE.AWEWWN M ^ itED 



-/- 







[i 



J'l^i; 



£ 



HTTi 



MB 



.^ii j r! ' i -Y M W 't O t' 







Copyright by The Churchman Co., New York 

THE CHOIR, CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE. NEW YORK. N. Y. 

RALPH ADAMS CRAM. CONSULTING ARCHITECT 
F.. DONALD ROBB. DELINEATOR 



THE BRICKB YILDER 



VOLUME XXIII 



MARCH, 1914 



m \im.n \ 



Modern Farm Buildings. 

A TREATISE ON THEIR DESIGN, PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT. 

By ALFRED HOPKINS. 
Architect and Author of the Work, ■Modern Farm Buildings." 



THE architectural possibilities of the farm group are as 
varied as they are interesting-. There is scarcely 
a problem in building- which lends itself to such a 
diversity of treatment. This phase of the work, however, 
shall be touched upon but briefly as every architect is un- 
doubtedly more interested in maturing his own style than 
in reading of the possibility of treatment suggested by his 
confreres. It may be remarked, however, that simplicity 
should be the keynote of this class of work, and that usu- 
ally it is better to give up the symmetrical arrangement 
of the plan for the rambling happy-go-lucky working out 
of the buildings. This type of plan can be treated with 
enough symmetry to answer all purposes demanded by a 
symmetrical composition. As a matter of fact, the differ- 
ent wings of farm buildings are usually so varied in their 
uses that perfect symmetry of plan can seldom be carried 
out without great sacrifice of practical requirements. 

The first practical requirement with which the architect 
has to concern himself is the site. A selection should be 
made with a view of obtaining good drainage, a southern 
exposure, and if possible woods or high lands at the north 
to give protection during the winter months. The build- 
ings themselves can generally be arranged in their relation 
to each other, to give this protection in a very satisfactory 
manner to the portions of the group where it is essential. 
It is usual to place the hay barn at the north so that its 
great bulk will give protection to the other buildings, and 
this arrangement lends itself well to an effective architec- 
tural treatment. 

Of the individual units the cow barn is perhaps the 
most important of the farm group. For the most satisfac- 
tory exposure, it is best placed on the site with its long 
axis northwest and southeast. This places the building 
so that it will receive the most benefit from the summer 
breezes and the winter sun. It should be filled with nu- 
merous windows, large in size, so as to be effective in both 
seasons. Care should also be taken to place other struc- 
tures of the farm group in all cases so that they will not 
deprive the animals, whether cows or horses, of the sun 
and air which they need. 

The cow barn of the usual type should be approximately 
36 to 40 feet in interior width for a double row of cows 
and 18 feet in width for a single row of cows. Stables for 
two rows of cows have been made as wide as 42 feet, but 
for practical purposes this is too great a width ; it makes 
a cold stable in winter and the extra space involves a need- 
less expense. The two sections, Figs. I and II, show 
typical arrangements for both types of stable, and give the 



widths desirable for the passageways, troughs, gutters, 
etc. The ceiling may vary in height from 9 to 1 1 feet; in 
colder climates the lesser dimension is practical and in 
warmer the greater one. 

For the double row of cattle it is generally conceded 
that placing them face to face is the best as it is the most 
sightly arrangement. It has the advantage of simplifying 
the process of feeding, it brings the gutters next to the 
windows where the sunshine will sterilize them, and it 
gives the milker more light for his work — a decided advan- 
tage on dull days. It is frequently convenient, however, 
to put the young stock or dry stock, tails together, as 
this arrangement generally simplifies the tracking for 
the manure trolley. The passageway between the cows 
when they are placed head to head should always be kept 
wide enough to prevent one cow from breathing in the 
face of the one opposite. This distance should therefore 
never be less than 8 feet, and in order not to pocket the 
air in front of the cattle, the front of the feeding trough 
should be low. High feeding troughs or mangers are un- 
desirable as they do not afford an unrestricted circulation 
of air at the animal's head. 

It is the usual and always the better custom to separate 
the young stock and dry stock from the milking cows. The 
milking cows have to be kept in a state of perfect cleanli- 
ness that is not required for the animal which gives no 
milk. For this reason provisions for the young stock and 
dry stock should be made separate from the compartments 
for the milking cow-;, though they may be in the same 
building. 

In planning for a given number of animals it is neces- 
sary to know approximately what relation exists between 
the milking cows and the dry stock and young stock so 
that there may be proper accommodation for each. This 
ratio is variable according to conditions. The owner may 
not desire to raise his young stock, though in this case he 
loses one of the most attractive and interesting occupa- 
tions of the farm ; but if he does wish to raise his own 
cattle and the natural conditions prevail, from 30 to .so per 
cent of the entire herd will be young stock or dry stock. 
Or if he starts with a number of milking cows accommo- 
dations for from 50 to 75 per cent of that number will be 
required for his future voting stock and dry stock. 

The usual type of cow stall, shown in the accompanying 
illustration, is made up of pipe with the stanchion sus- 
pended from the top rail and fastened at the bottom in the 
concrete. This is the most practical way of fastening the 
cow and is entirely humane. It gives sufficient liberty to 



5^ 



T II E B RICK BY ILDER 



SHINS. l-ES 

SHINGLt 



ROOF PITCH 
e'-o' CM IZ-O" 




• Fig. I. Section through a Cow Barn 18 feet wide 



the animal to be comfortable, and 
the stanchion is considered gen- 
erally better than the cow tie, 
which requires a collar on the 
cow and chains from the sides of 
the stall to make an adequate 
fastening. Both the collar and 
the chains are hard to keep clean 
and in order to fasten the cow 
with the tie, the herdsman has to 
reach over the animal to make 
one side fast. His eyes and face 
arc always in danger from the 
horns, and when the cattle have 
been out in the rain his clothes 
are likely to become wel. The distance in width from 
stall to stall should be 3 feet 6 inches for average cows, 
and 3 feet for young stock. For the mature animal the 
stall floor should measure 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet in length. 
and from 4 feet to 4 feet 6 inches for young stoek. For 
Jerseys and Guernseys the stall length is 4 feet 6 inches 
to 4 feet X inches, and for Ilolsteins 4 feet 8 inches to 5 
feet, the length being considered the distance from the 
edge of the gutter to the stall side of the concrete ridge 
which separates the stall from the feeding trough. It is 
always desirable in a long row of stalls to have them 
4 feet 6 inches in length at one end of the row and 4 feet 
8 inches or 4 feet l > inches at the other, slanting the gutter 
and giving stalls of vary- 
ing length where animals 
of different sizes or indi- 
vidual habits may be 
accommodated. This 
slanting of the gutter is 
especially desirable for 
the young stoek where 
the stalls may vary in 
length from 4 feet to 4 
feet 6 inches. 

The stall floors must be 
of some sanitary material. 
Concrete in the past has 
been generally used, but 
it has the objection of 

being very cold in winter and damp at all times. To 
cover the stalls with temporary wooden floors is possible 
but not desirable. Wooden blocks creosoted have been 
used, but these are porous and when worn absorb the 
moisture, swell and usually break the concrete ridge at 
the gutter. For fulfilling all the qualifications cork 
brick is considered to be the best material. These bricks 
are warm and sanitary and their use has been so satisfac- 
tory as to entirely justify their expense. They are practi- 
cally non-absorbent and some which have been in constant 
use for two years, when sawed through the center, have 
shown only the thinnest film of absorption on the wearing 
surface. They should always be laid upon a concrete 
foundation and embedded in cement, colored black to give 
the best finish and with the long joints running lengthwise 
of the stall. They may be used not only on the floors of 
the standing stalls but in all box stalls and in the calving 
and bull pens with equally good results. An important 
advantage of this kind of a floor is the safe footing it gives 



CONCRETE. 



SHINGLES 

.SMINQLL LATH 

RAFTER* 2.* 

2.V o.c 




fig. II. Section through a Cow Barn 36 feet wide. 



the animals because of its non- 
slippery surface. 

The stall floor should pitch an 
inch and a half in length from 
the stanchion back to the gutter. 
This pitch is necessary for quick 
drainage. At the side of the out- 
side stall, that is, the end stall 
adjoining the passageway, there 
should be a ridge of concrete 5 
or 6 inches high to hold the bed- 
ding within the stall and to pre- 
vent wetting it when hosing down 
the passageway. 

The old fashioned way of feed- 
ing the cattle was from their mangers and to let them 
drink from buckets. About fifteen years ago there came 
into the market a separate watering trough put on or near 
the stanchion and controlled by a central leveling tank. 
This device for watering the cows took away from the 
freshness of the water. These troughs were invariable 
filled with the dust and dirt of the stable, and were hard 
to clean. The object of this trough, however, was to give 
each animal a separate watering device and to keep water 
contaminated by the saliva of one animal from being used 
by another. This object was accomplished. Latterly it 
has been the custom to feed and water the cattle in one 
continuous trough running the whole length of the line of 

cows. This process of 
feeding and watering is 
convenient, the long 
trough is easy to clean, 
and its use has become 
general. Still it must be 
admitted that cows so 
watered are more liable to 
infection, one from the 
other, than when they eat 
and drink out of separate 
receptacles. In high 
grade cattle or for small 
herds, it is undoubtedly 
well to take precaution 
against possible infection 
at the feeding trough and to feed and water in the trough 
divided into separate compartments. No doubt this type 
of trough increases, though not materially, the labor re- 
quired in keeping it clean. This idea of separate feeding 
and watering may be less rigidly carried out by dividing 
the general feeding trough so that two cows eat from the 
same compartment. If this method is used the outlet is 
best placed in the center between the cows where the water 
and (va\ will be drained away from each animal. For the 
commercial herd a continuous trough is preferred. 

There are two types of the continuous feeding trough, 
one about 1 feet in width and nearly level with the floor 
(Fig. Ill) and designed with the object of sweeping back 
the feed which the cows invariably- push out in the process 
of eating ; the other (Fig. IV), 3 feet 6 inches in width, 
its front well extended above the floor and constructed 
with a view of retaining the feed in the trough as much as 
possible. The latter is the better, both in principle and 
in practice, although it necessitates a wider building than 



UNDlR.Pl»JiM<; 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



53 



^ 



? ..... ?:„ .. r 



IV. 



the lower trough. The cow's feed 
should be kept off the floor and the 
dust and dirt out of the trough. 

Accommodation for the young- 
stock should be made apart from 
that for milking cows, and calving 
pens should be provided in the ratio 
of one pen for every four or five 
milking cows in small herds ; but in 
larger herds this may be reduced to 
one pen for every ten cows. The 
smallest dimension of the calf pen 
or calving pen is 8 feet wide by 1 1 
feet in length ; it may be larger if 
convenient to make it so, but no 
smaller. This pen may be sub- 
divided by a movable partition when 
two calves are to be kept in the one 
pen. The calf pen partitions are 
best solid and should be 3 feet 8 
inches high. The pipe partitions are 
not generally liked by herdsmen 
because they are drafty. The doors 
are usually of iron, and upon the floor below them, at the 
opening, a ridge of concrete should be formed as in the 
case of the end stall before mentioned. The calf pen par- 
tition should preferably be of concrete. Wood is hard to 
keep clean, and the calf pen enclosure is one which needs 
constant attention in regard to cleanliness. Provision 
should be made for draining these pens, but never by a 
bell trap in the center, which invariably becomes clogged 
and foul. The drainage should be led through the front 
wall of the pen and out into the passageway, where the 
same bell trap may answer for draining two pens and a 
portion of the passageway. The calf pen should always 
be drained so that one pen may be hosed out and cleaned 
without wetting the adjoining ones. The calf pens should 
always have a sheltered exposure, and in large stables 
where many young stock are to be provided for, nothing 
is better than to give them Dutch doors opening into little 

yards or runs of their own. A separate yard for young 

stock is always an advantage. 
The bull is better kept 

with the rest of the cattle 

than by himself, as he is 

always better natured 

and more tractable when 

he can see the other 

animals. His pen, 

usually with a post in 

the center, should not 

be smaller than 12 by 

1 4 feet ; where space 

permits a 14-foot square 

pen has decided advan- 
tages. It is always well 

to give the bull a yard 

and arrange his quarters 

so that he may go in or 

out as he pleases. He 

appreciates the privilege 

of the latch key. The 

partitions of his pen, 



trough g) 



^ 



STALL 
LOOR 



•■■■■£) \ 



III. 




Sectional Drawings of Typical Feed 
Troughs. 




always solid, and the more substan- 
tial the better, are best increased a 
foot over 3 feet 8 inches in height, 

and this may be done by putting a 
2-foot pipe rail on top of the wall. 

To raise the solid partition to that 
height would shut out too much air. 
The floors of the cow barn should 
never be of wood. They are invari- 
ably of concrete 4 inches thick. It 
is very important that the floors of 
the stable be first class in every 
way, and none but competent and 
first class masons familiar with con- 
crete should be employed upon 
them. The concrete floors where 
the animal walks are always made 
with a float finish to avoid slipping, 
and this finish can hardly be made 
too rough at first, as it has a ten- 
dency to wear smooth. The gutters, 
on the other hand, the feeding 
trough, and the passageways where 
the animal does not walk, are troweled smooth, that they 
may be easily cleaned. An important matter in the com- 
fort of the stable is the floor drainage, always devised with 
as few bell traps as possible and all floors draining so that 
the water, after hosing down, will run away and leave the 
floor to dry quickly. In order to do this a pitch of :! i<; inch 
to the foot is necessary, and this is a minimum grade - 
l 4 inch to the foot is frequently better. It is impossible 
to lay a long run of concrete floor to a pitch of 's inch per 
foot in such a manner that hollows will not be formed 
where the water will remain. For short runs, however, 
';-; inch will do, and for certain places as much as Yz or 
Yz inch to the foot is not objectionable. On the whole, it 
is better to err on the side of too much pitch rather than 
too little, for there is nothing which shows lack of care on 
the part of the architect more than to have the concrete 
floors retain the water in pools, instead of readily conduct- 
ing it away. 

It is better to leave the bell trap out of the feed room 

and to drain this room 
into the cow barn or 
young stock barn, as the 
case may be. A bell 
trap in the feed room is 
very liable to be clogged 
by the feed, but if one 
is put there it would be 
better to place it in some 
out-of-the-way corner 
than in the center of the 
room. It is always best 
in a double row of cattle 
to place a bell trap in 
the central passageway 
between the troughs. It 
is always undesirable to 
drain the central pas- 
sageway into the feed- 
ing troughs. The rear 
and side passageways, 



Fig. V. Cow Stable Interior Snowing Stalls. 



5 + 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



however, drain into the gutter, which should not be less 
than 7 inches deep at the end and not over 9 or 10 inches at 
center. It is wholly ii e to make the gutter pitch 

to such an extent that the urine will always run out of it, 
the dropping from the cows prevents this and a pitch of 
nch to the foot or less is sufficient. The watering 
trough need not drain 
as quickly as is neces- 
sary for the floor. A 
pitch of ' inch to the 
■ or less is sufficient ; 
if a little water remains 
in the trough after 
watering, it is of no 
consequence. In a long- 
row of cows, twenty or 
more, the pitch of the 
gutter must necessarily 
be made less, but it is 
better to have a less 
pitch than to try to over- 
come the difficulty by 
putting in another bell 
trap in the gutter or a 




* Fig. VI. Plan of Farm Buildings at Framingham, Mass. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



side on the passageway will allow the manure when drop- 
ping to splash against the outside walls. 

A yard in which cattle may exercise is just as necessary 
as any of the other primary requirements of the farm barn 
which we have been considering. The buildings are fre- 
quently arranged so that they form a protected and shel- 
tered enclosure, in 
which it is usual to con- 
fine the cattle. In 
general, this is a satis- 
factory solution of the 
problem, though the 
cow yard adjoining the 
milking barn is not 
desirable from the stand- 
point of the bacteriolo- 
gist. It is better for 
winter use only. It is 
quite feasible to locate 
the cow yard at a dis 
tance from the cow barn, 
and such an arrange- 
ment is advised in 
preference to all others. 
Fig. VI shows a very 



second outlet in the 

trough. It is well to have as much drainage above the practical plan for a small herd of twelve cows and two 

floor and as little beneath it as possible. The gutter should bulls, with their various yards conveniently disposed and 

be as high on one side as the other, a low gutter at the meeting all requirements. 

Reproduced from " Modern Farm Buildings." by Alfred Hopkins. McBride. Nast & Co.. Publishers. 




Farm Buildings at Islip, Long Island, N. Y. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




Chapel of the Intercession, New York, N.Y. 



Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 
E. Donald Robb, Delineator. 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

III. THE WORK OF E. DONALD ROBB. 



DONALD ROBB'S best work has been done in 
his rendering's of interiors, and in this there is 
hardly a man in the country who has done such 
exquisite work ; although his renderings of exteriors have 
been of uniform high quality, and also of considerable per- 
sonality, they do not stand out above the mass of other ren- 
derings as do these of his ecclesiastical interiors. Like Mr. 
Githens, the most of his training has been in offices where 
Gothic architecture was the predominant style, and it is 
in his renderings of Gothic work that we most clearly per- 
ceive his ability and his imagination. Perhaps the most 
interesting aspect of his work from the personal side, as 
it is in the case of any man's, is his training, how he got 
it, and where his technique was developed. We find in his 
case, as we do with most of our other successful Tenderers, 
that it was largely self-developed ; his only school train- 
ing was in Drexel Institute, aside from a few lessons in 
oil painting in the Woodstock Summer School ; but one 
cannot imagine that either of these two experiences in 
school work have been very valuable to him. On the 
other hand, his office training was long and thorough, and 
with the exception of a short time was confined to the 
offices of two firms,— T. B. Chandler, of Philadelphia, and 
the New York office' of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. Mr. 
Chandler was, of course, a well known church architect of 
the old school and a man of considerable taste and ability ; 
but it is probable that the years which did most to de- 
velop and improve Mr. Robb's taste and ability were 



those which he spent under Mr. Goodhue in New York. 
It is also an interesting commentary on Mr. Robb's per- 
sonality that, while the design that he now does as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Brazer & Robb is at least somewhat 
reminiscent of his training in Cram, Goodhue & Fergu- 
son's office, his methods of rendering show little of Mr. 
Goodhue's influence, even his medium being different. 
This is the more surprising since Mr. Robb not only 
entered Mr. Goodhue's office as a comparatively young 
man and in the most impressionable time of his life, but 
worked there for a considerable number of years, and one 
would have expected him therefore to follow to some ex- 
tent at least Mr. Goodhue's wonderful and exquisite pen 
renderings. Mr. Robb is by no means without ability as 
a pen draftsman, although perhaps not Mr. Goodhue's 
equal in that medium ; but his deliberate differences in 
method must have been caused by a strong personality in- 
stinctively seeking (and finding) natural expression, and 
even while he was in that office many of his most exquisite 
drawings were made in the style which he has made par- 
ticularly his own. He was still a draftsman there when he 
made the magnificent drawing of the interior of the choir 
of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine for The ( kurchman, 
but the almost equally beautiful drawing of the interior of 
the Cathedral of the Incarnation at Baltimore, of which Mr. 
Goodhue is the architect, was made after he left that 
office and had been engaged in independent practice for 
some time. It is these two drawings among the five illus- 



55 



56 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



trated in this number that the writer finds most wonderful, 
and it is very greatly to be regretted that they cannot be 
shown in full color, for they arc as extraordinary pieces of 
real painting of church interiors as any of the old Dutch 
masters ever made from the executed work. The painting, 
for one can only call it that, of the choir of the Cathedral 
of St. John the Divine, is one of the most magnificent 
things which the writer has ever had the good fortune to 
see : rich and mellow in color, wonderfully lighted through 
the stained glass windows, glazed and varnished, it has 
the quality of the old masters without the inaccuracy in 
perspective and in architectural detail most usual in their 
work ; and it is very truly a picture as well as an archi- 
tectural rendering, since it fulfils the painter's idea of 
composition as well as the painter's idea of a painting as 
an interesting pattern in color. The way in which the 
perspective and the lighting alike focus on the high altar, 
as well as the pictorial element introduced by the proces- 
sion, is more than architectural rendering and approaches 
genius ; and had Mr. Robb not been a successful architect 
we could have fancied him a modern painter of master- 
pieces in miniature, so much patience, attention, and skill 
has he displayed in working- out every detail of the pic- 
ture, without for an instant getting out of his composition. 
The quality of the drawing for the Cathedral of the In 
carnation is hardly inferior, 
and is in a way as wonderful 
as the painting of St. John 
the Divine, because while 
we can believe that Mr. 
Robb has perhaps in the 
former example been able 
to verify from the executed 
work the impressions he had 
formed from the architect's 
drawings, one knows that 
the Cathedral of the Incar- 
nation is at present only in 
sketch stage, and the won- 
derful impression of reality 
which Mr. Robb has created 
must be due to his exquisite 
perception of the results 
which would be produced 
from an assumed case. The 
wonderful thing about all 
architectural rendering is 
that the renderer is able so 
graphically to transmit in 
pen or pencil or color sensa- 
tions that he has never ex- 
perienced, and which he can 
hardly approximate from the 
observation of other sensa- 
tions perhaps entirely dis- 
similar. When one has seen 
one cathedral one has by no 
means seen all cathedrals, 
and when we consider how 
heavily the landscape 
painter leans upon his field 
notes to correct and deter- 
mine his imagined impres- 




Cathedral of the Incarnation, Baltimore, Md. 

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Architect. 

E. Donald Robb, Delineator. 



sions, the work of the architectural renderer seems still 
more extraordinary, especially when he is confronted with 
a problem so intricate and so confusing as that of a church 
interior lighted from many sides and from many angles, 
never by direct sunlight, and never by light of unbroken 
color quality, but always transmitted through many colored 
-lasses. These two interiors have been spoken of at such 
great length, not because they are the only things which 
Mr. Robb is able to do well, but because they are works in 
which he is incomparable. 

His renderings of exteriors are as a matter of fact of 
great excellence, executed in a very personal way, and 
with a considerable variety of effect. Most architects 
who have seen some of the recent architectural exhi- 
bitions will remember the rendering shown here which he- 
made for Mr. Goodhue of the Chapel of the Intercession ; 
it is not represented as a bright sunshiny day, with a 
clear sky and sharp and definite shadows, but as April 
weather, the pavements shining with water, the sky filled 
with a sort of clear mist, the shadows less important than 
the shades. t It is not perhaps the best rendering that 
Mr. Robb has ever done, but is nevertheless exceedingly 
interesting because it pictures conditions very rarely 
chosen by the architectural renderer, and which faithfully 
portray his subject in an unfavorable light and show it 

as still beautiful. Of some- 
what the same quality is his 
rendering of the ' ' Approach 
from the River of the United 
States Military Academy" 
at West Point. This again 
is no bracing autumn day, 
but is misty and poetic, and 
still the great fortress-like 
towers and battlements of 
West Point arise with a 
power and dignity that the 
veritable buildings more 
than possess. Vet it is done 
without tricky effectiveness 
at the expense of veracity, 
and the buildings are in no 
sense dissimilar in that pic- 
tured representation to the 
impression of strength and 
stability that West Point 
gives when one views the 
academy from the evening 
boat, transfigured by the 
same dreamy glow that Mr. 
Robb has so successfully 
transcribed in his rendering. 
There must be some ren- 
derings done in a few hours 
and of subjects not so in- 
spiring as a national military 
academy or a great cathe- 
dral, but which are still use- 
ful in gaining a client, or in 
illustrating to a client won 
how his building is to ap- 
pear. The rendering of the 
small church is illustrative 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



57 




of Mr. Robb's quicker 
renderings, in which 
his outlines are sketched 
in with ink and his color 
applied in flat tones. 

The use of Chinese 
white in the skies is, it 
may be suspected, 
reminiscent of the draw- 
ings of Henry Horn- 
bostel, published many 
years ago, when Mr. 
Hornbostel showed us 
all how to get value by 
abrupt contrasts. Of 
all the drawings shown, 
perhaps the one of the 
Delaware County Court 
House is the most com- 
mon-place, and yet at 
the same time is one of 
the best, since the ordi- 
nary every day problem is approached in the ordinary 
every day fashion and is solved with dignity, seriousness, 
and good taste. Like many of Mr. Robb's drawings, this 
is made on colored paper with the high lights and marble 
thrown out by using Chinese white, a simple, quick, and 
effective method of presentation, and one which gives 
some solidity to the drawing with the least effort. 

A few words may be said about the color schemes which 
Mr. Robb chiefly enjoys using. We very seldom find in 
his work the brilliant lighting of most of our architectural 
Tenderers ; in his interiors, of course, there is a little, 
since most of them are lighted with colored glass, but in 
his exteriors he seems to prefer the unfavorable to the 
favorable lighting conditions. His color scheme is there- 
fore usually low, soft blues or grays in the skies, occasion- 



Sketch for Reformed Dutch Church, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 
Brazer & Robb, Architects. 
E. Donald Robb, Delineator. 



ally even mauves ; the 
buildings themselves 
are rendered in quiet 
tones and not those 

under which they would 
appear most definite. 
Nor, on the other hand, 
can we believe that he 
has deliberately picked 
color schemes of the 
greatest difficulties, for 
the reason that the 
buildings would under 
those circumstances ap- 
pear the best, but rather 
that his drawings are 
sincere and convince us 
that the buildings would 
look equally well under 
all circumstances. The 
architectural renderer, 
especially the man who 
has been employed for a long time as a draftsman in 
some one's else office, is not permitted, however, by 
either his conscience or his employer to subordinate 
the actual to a pre-conceived color scheme, as may 
be the privilege of a painter, and while the result may 
pictorially suffer, and the man for that reason lose in 
reputation as an artist, he unquestionably succeeds as 
a designer, since he is faithful to conditions as they 
are. 

Now, as was said before of Mr. Robb, his metier is 
unquestionably the rendering of the Gothic interior, but 
he is an architect rather than a painter, and is therefore 
able to set forth fully and honestly not only such work as 
falls within his metier, but also the common, every day 
necessities of his office. 




Alteration and Addition to Delaware County Court House, Media, Pa. 



Brazer & Robb, Architects. 



E. Donald Robb, Delineator. 



THE BRU'KBVILDER. 




BHwr 

DETAIL OF CENTRAL MOTIF 



CASA DE LAS MUERTES. SALAMANCA 



Some Old and Unfamiliar Spanish Buildings. 

By ARTHUR G. BYNE. 

Illustrated from Photographs Specially Taken by the tttthor. 
CASA DE LAS MUERTES, Salamanca. 



THE Casa de las Muertes was built in the early XVIth 
century for Archbishop Don Alonzo de Fonseca, 
but the architects and sculptors are unknown. 

This little palace, barely nine meters wide, is one of the 
handsomest in Salamanca ; but owing to its evil reputation 
(as indicated by the name) has long stood untenanted. 
Other buildings now crowd it so closely that an adequate 
photograph of the facade with its very tranquil disposition 
of units is impossible ; from a window opposite, however, 
the central motif may be secured, although the simplicity 
of the composition is slightly disturbed by the intrusion of 
corners of the adjacent window treatments. 

This balconied opening of the principal floor is framed 
by two high pilasters, which support an arch motif con- 
taining a finely sculptured bust of the ecclesiastic mentioned 
and underneath it his escutcheon. Beside each pilaster 
is a portrait set in a medallion. In the arched band is 
some exquisite carving that in its conception and execu- 
tion eloquently explains the term " plateresque " or silver- 
smith's art. One almost expects to find it set with gems. 

The facade of the Casa de las Muertes shows plainly the 
hybridism of plateresque. The distinction between old 
and new forms is much less carefully drawn than in Italy, 
yet the result is full of charm. When the stone carver 
took up the fantastic ornamentation formerly peculiar to 
the metal worker, his supply of ideas was equally inex- 
haustible, and each example of plateresque offers a fresh 
field for study. In this instance he has introduced the 
novelty of two stone candelabra in relief, one at each side 
of the balcony, which are really nothing more than an 
adaptation of the huge wrought iron candlesticks used in 
the churches. This felicitous transposition from a mallea- 
ble material to a chiseled one once accepted, the further 
transposition to a plastic substance can be easily demon- 
strated. It can be seen at a glance that this ornamentation 
of the Fonseca facade could be carried out as appropriately 
in terra cotta as in Salamantine sand stone. 

HOSPITAL REAL, Santiago in Galicia. 

THE Royal Hospital was founded by Ferdinand and 
Isabella and built from 1501-10 by the architect 
Enrique de Egas. 

The portal here shown is one of the most successful 
combinations of Gothic and Renaissance to be found in 
Europe. De Egas was of the Flemish family of Van der 
Eyken, all noted Gothic builders. He never renounced 
the style utterly but sought to blend it with the incoming 
Renaissance. Being a man of excellent taste the results 
were invariably beautiful, as may also be seen in Toledo, 
Valladolid, and Granada. He kept the freedom of Gothic 
motifs, was not afraid of the prodigality of the Mudejar 
period, yet knew how to make these subservient to the 
systematized forms of the Renaissance. It is the alliance 
of these three elements that the Spanish call plateresque. 

In this instance we have the classic round arch, but still 



retaining, in section, the receding Gothic reveals; these 
are ornamented with Renaissance repetition, marked at 
intervals with Gothic canopies which are in turn treated 
in Renaissance detail. The superimposed pilasters flank- 
ing the opening are Gothic in their many-storied composi- 
tion, but are moulded and embellished in the new style. 
Even the Gothic row of twelve saints has been convention 
alized into a somewhat Renaissance aspect ; while the 
crowning motif, a blaze of Gothic pinnacles, has been in- 
terspersed with Roman candelabra and other Renaissance 
touches. This doorway and the cornice above it concen- 
trate in themselves all the ornamentation of the facade, 
leaving the patios for the greater embellishment. 

The surface treatment of this impressive portal with its 
myriad of little forms constantly repeated, its freedom 
from long unbroken alignments in mouldings, and its ab- 
sence of large sections or difficult stereotomy, make it an 
excellent inspiration for terra cotta. 

COLEGIO DE SAN GREGORIO, Valladolid. 

THE College of San Gregorio, of which the patio is 
shown, was built between 1488-96 for Don Alonzo 
de Burgos, bishop of Palencia. The architect is unknown. 
Shortly before another great prelate, Mendoza, had built 
a hospital of severe design in Valladolid ; this determined 
his rival Don Alonzo upon the other extreme — the most 
exuberant mood of which plateresque was capable. The 
architect has, fortunately, been able to keep this wealth of 
ornament within bounds ; in no case does it interfere with 
the structural form. One might consider this statement 
contradicted by the lunette treatment in the upper tier of 
arches ; unorthodox it certainly looks, but it must be re- 
garded, not as a part of the arch itself, but merely as a 
screen to reduce the size of the arch opening, as is often 
done in semi-tropical climates. It is of Arabic origin, but 
the Arab screen is of carved and interlaced cedar. 

In fact, one sees on all sides the infinite fantasy of the 
Moor translated into Renaissance, and applied to real 
structural forms as it never was applied by the Moors 
themselves, for they seldom attempted a serious structural 
problem. Also it is counterbalanced by large flat undeco- 
rated areas, which was never the case in a Moorish inte- 
rior, where seldom an inch of surface escaped decoration. 

These naive and imaginative forms suggest terra cotta 
as the material in which they could be best interpreted ; 
for even were the labor of reproducing them in stone less 
costly, it is safe to say that not a modern stone cutter 
could be found who could put any of the original spon- 
taneity into the task. These qualities are more likely to 
be obtained in a plastic material. In this Valladolid 
example are several points worth noting by the designer, 
— the ornament is restricted to unstructural parts; it is 
low in relief, and the sky line is left absolutely uninter- 
rupted. By losing sight of these rules, one could have a 
restless result even with much less ornament. 



59 



6o 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




MAIN PORTAL 
HOSPITAL REAL, SANTIAGO 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



61 




DETAIL OK PATIO 
COLEGIO DE SAN GREGORIO. VALLADOLID 






The Business Side of an Architect's Office. 

THE OFFICES OF MR. HOWARD GREENLEY AND MESSRS. TAYLOR & LEVI. 

Hv D. EVERETT WAID. 



THE office of Mr. Howard 
Greenley in the new Archi- 
tects' Building is an example 
in which the private sanction and 
the approach thereto are quite 
spacious, while the drafting and 
business quarters are somewhat 
condensed. The esthetic advan- 
tage of this arrangement is evident, 
and the efficiency question is an- 
swered by tlie fact that every foot 
of filing space and working room 
is kept " alive " and dead files and 
other "junk" are shipped off to 
the storage room. Architects, of 
all professional men and of all 
artists, need a large 
amount of space ; and 
in days of advancing 
rents and uncertain 
commissions we may 
well take lessons from 
the intensive principles 
of operating a Pullman 
dining car. This little 
observation by the way. 
When one enters Mr. 
Greenley 's office he 
finds himself first in the 
entrance vestibule, 
which is treated in gray 
with a red tile floor, 
and which may serve as 
a waiting room 
if other parts of 
the office happen 
to be busy. The 
reception room is 
likewise in gray 
with an Oriental 
rug covering the 
red tile floor. The 
cornice is in part 
reproduction and 
in part the origi- 
nals of some de- 
lightful old 
carved w o o d 
mouldings from 
Europe . The 
door head seen 
in illustration 
under the Delia 
Robbia figure is 
an old original 
except the con- 




Plan, Office of Howard Greenley. 




Drafting Room. 




Reception Room. 
Office of Howard Greenley. 

62 



soles. The white plaster ceiling 
is a reproduction of casts of panels 
from Broughton Castle, Oxford- 
shire. 

Mr. Greenley's office or confer- 
ence room has a red tile floor 
covered with a solid blue rug. 
wal's of tobacco-brown burlap, and 
white ceiling and frieze. The door 
and window hangings are case- 
ment cloth of a golden color with a 
changeable sheen of green. 

The illustration shows the fine 
XVIth century Spanish Renais- 
sance table. Beyond it is a Bargeno 
desk. One of the treasures in 
sight ( next the tapestry I 
is the original pencil 
sketch of the project by 
Paul Bigot, which won 
the Grand Prix in 1900. 
Some of his own Paris 
studies Mr. Greenley 
modestly permitted the 
draftsmen to tack up 
around their walls. The 
plan and photograph 
speak for the drafting 
room, including the 
fence around the exit 
door, which is the dead 
line for the blueprinter's 
boy who is allowed to 
appear there. 

The illus- 
tration of the re- 
ception room af- 
fords a glimpse 
of the cases 
which house the 
working library 
in the private 
drafting room, 
which is M r • 
Greenley's sanc- 
tion sanctorum. 
( >ne can even 
find there, not 
far from his de- 
signing board, a 
screen ready for 
use when oppor- 
tunity permits, 
to amuse himself 
with an etching 
plate. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



63 



Turning to the mundane as- 
pects of the office, we note that 
Mr. Greenley's skilled secre- 
tary has in his compact office, 
within easy reach, an orderly 
arrangement of vertical corre- 
spondence and card files, 
catalogue files, and all busi- 
ness records. A large amount 
of business can be handled 
because all the space is given 
to current work — old material 
being stored away — and not 
least, because of the efficient 
man. Two or three inexpert 
stenographers might do the 
same work in larger space. 
Conundrum — would it pay ? 
The competent secretary who 
actually does the work in this 
case knows how to economize 
effort by the use of convenient 
printed forms. He is pre- 
pared also to devise methods 

to care for new conditions. For example, his account 
records are worthy the inspection of any architect who has 
a special call to spend large sums of money for a client as 
Mr. Greenley has been called upon to do in some instances. 
Tn such cases he has placed funds in a special bank account 





Mantel in Reception Room. 
Office of Taylor & Levi. 



Private Office. 
Office of Howard Greenley. 

and disbursed them not only to sub-contractors, but in 

wages to workmen and in petty expenditures such as 

general contractors usually care for. 

In this office as in many others a record pad is kept on 

the telephone table. It is not to check up the telephone 
company, but for convenience in distributing 
the expense of the service. It has four 
columns — "Called by," " Number," " Per- 
son wanted," and "Job No." — and this 
easily enables the accountant to charge up 
individuals for personal calls and clients for 
disbursement calls. 

Payday in Mr. Greenley's office comes 
once a week, and, as payment is not made 
by check, each employee signs a receipt at 
the bottom of his time card when he receives 
the cash. 

Since architects often have occasion now 
to see that fire and liability insurance are 
kept up, they will be interested in knowing 
that this office has a file of 3 x 5 inch cards 
showing amount of policy, rate, premium, 
term, names of company and assured, and 
date of expiration. The cards are kept 
behind dated guides and thus easily remind 
one to look after renewals. 

Inasmuch as architects are sometimes 
trustees if not investors, another file of 
cards shows in a fascinating way how to 
keep on each card the essential facts con 
cerning a mortgage, with entries of all the 
interest payments. 

Messrs. Taylor & Levi have exercised 
their particular taste and ability in giving 
an impressive artistic effect to those portions 
of their office which clients are permitted 
to sec. The entrance hall and clients' 
room are nooks almost too cozy for the 

camera to show. But they are designed SO 



6 4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



ingeniously with a feeling of mystery 
and suggestive of still more interest 
ing things beyond, that one emerges 
from the dim religious light of the 
quaint fixtures, the leaded glass, the 
wrought-iron hardware, and the old 
oak walls of the tiny waiting room, 
and passes through the private lobby 
where a trickling fountain attracts 
one's eye to a sculptured turtle and 
real goldfish, and enters expectantly 
the medieval library and reception 
room. An ambitious client could be 
educated here for hours at a time, 
and visiting fellow architects can find 
many artistic suggestions for their 
own use. The illustration scarcely 
suggests the fine casement windows 
(inside the regular wire 
glass sashes) of hand made 
reproductions of antique 
glass in flat leads with a 
low toned touch of color in 
the border. Four pairs of 
bookcase doors in glass 
correspond, while the fifth 
door is solid to balance the 
door to the sample room. 

The wall surfaces are 
covered with chestnut 
hoard culls, rejected in the 
mill, which are stained to 
a fine old oak effect. The 




Plan, Office of Taylor & Levi. 




Drafting Room. 



ceiling is in modeled white plaster 
after the fashion of old Tudor ceil- 
ings. The prosaic concrete floor was 
given a four coat treatment, which 
has stood so exceptionally that, after 
four years of hard wear and no repair, 
it has the soft gray of an old stone 
floor which needs no rug. The 
genuine old Italian table and real 
antique chairs make it unnecessary to 
speculate whether or not the mantel 
is a reproduction — the mantel which 
scrupulously conceals the last ugly 
steam radiator in the room. 

The instrument in the telephone 
booth has one extension in the stenog- 
raphers' room, which can be handed 
through the partition to one of the 
firm at his desk, and a 
second extension in the 
drafting room. 

Messrs. Taylor & Levi 
are careful and exact in the 
conduct of business for 
their clients and in keeping 
their accounts, and at the 
present time their business 
system and printed forms 
are undergoing a reorgani- 
zation to promote still 
greater efficiency and con- 
venience in their business 
arrangements. 




Reception Room. 
Office of Taylor & Levi. 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 33. 




O 

s 

23 

D 
O 

_) 

I- H 

a 



O 
<0 

UJ 

vi 

> 
< 

a 

cc 

UJ 

O 

s 

m 
O 



O 
uJ 

o 

I 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 34. 




D 
O 

_I 

t_: <« 
t— H 
</) u 

m* < 
Z 

o 

Q 
£ 

< 

u 
h 
</i 

41 

id 

CL 

o 
(J 



> 

< 

Q 

QJ 
UJ 

U 

a: 

UJ 

z 

g 



Ll. 

o 

UJ 
</) 

D 

O 
I 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 35. 




B — ir~a — a 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF J. LIONBERGER DAVIS. ESQ.. ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 36 




D 

O </> 

-J H 

. U 

_ UJ 

a < 



Z 

o 

o 

I 

u 



u. 
O 

U 
<s> 

D 
O 

I 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 37. 



. ■ 

V 


L 


^ 


s 






: a 


- 


« 
! 


W&&f*H 








1 




Mp 


~^Cii 


f: ; - J 


Ii 


A. ^5£i **^ 


■ 


^l J 




mwzw m 










HH?.. 


' i J/: .><$r;\ ^ . 


' -a 










1 « 

; 








F"3 




w- Z S" '"''-f 


' " *■' < 




!s fl 


I 1 «# 


£r iK.'* V 


ItNkIB 


JE*SL 


■' '.™ ■ 


.: 




o 

r I 

en 5 



z 

o 

</) 

o 
I 
(- 

u 



O 

id 
in 

D 
O 

I 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 38. 




o 



o 

_1 
in 

CO 
Id 



U 

LU 
- 
I 

u 

< 

2 


in 

a 
2 

< 

id 



> 

< 



UJ 

O 

I 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 39. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HOUSE OF J. D. DAVIS. ESQ.. ST. LOUIS. MO 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 40. 




DETAIL OF LIVING ROOM WING AND GARDEN 



HOUSE OF R. S. BROOKINGS, ESQ., ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE 6c STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 41. 










ENTRANCE FRONT 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




GARDEN FRONT 



HOUSE OF R. S. BROOKINGS. ESQ.. ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBYILDER 



PLATE 42. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF MRS. A. A. WALLACE. ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 43 




_! 
_] 



UJ 

o 
u 
z 



Z < 

z 

< 



a 
I 



u 

u. 
O 
ui 

o 

O 

X 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICK B V I LDER. 



PLATE 44. 



mssa^mmaBsmmi 

vM liii! r I .J 

b* iinin i h^0 g 



ttm 





-J 

UJ 

o 
u 
z 

UJ 

- 1 H 

O u 
. u 

<*£ 
u 
a: 

Z < 

^ < 



a 



s 



-1 

. o 
u x 
u. 

o 

UJ 
CO 

D 
O 

I 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 45. 




STREET FRONT 



HOUSE OF J. F. SHEPLEY. ESQ.. ST. LOUIS. MO. 
LA BEAUME & KLEIN. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBV1LDER. 



PLATE 46. 




< 
Q. 



X 
a. 
_i 
ui 
Q 
< 
_j 

X 
a. 

<y 
£3 



_i 



S 3 



3 
at 

Q 

a 

a 



u. 


■J 

_j 


X 



VOL. 23, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 47. 






0. 






(X 






LU 






H 






[1] 






u 












u 


I 




i> 


U 






rr. 


z 




7 


< 


o 


DC 


H 


t/5 


UJ 


< 
> 

UJ 


2 




< 


UJ 


_1 


_I 


N 




_J 


«i 


U 

Q 
5) 


£ 


UJ 

2 




UJ 


o 




2 


a 
z 




CO 


^ 




rr 


X 




2 


Q 




u. 






O 






UJ 






t/5 






D 






O 






I 





VOL. 23. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PI-ATE 48. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HOUSE OF MRS. M. E. WILLIAMSON, WEST CHESTER, PA. 
DUHRING. OKIE & ZIEGLER. ARCHITECTS 



Some Modern English Interiors. 



Wv K. K VNDVI, IMIII.I.II'S. 



THERE is no doubt whatever that 
a successful exterior of a house 
is easier to achieve than a suc- 
cessful interior. Not that the exterior 
design is a simple matter — far from 
it ; but, Speaking broadly, the archi- 
tect is able to carry out his work with- 
out the interference of a score of 
things which he is not responsible for, 
and which very often mar, if they do 
not utterly ruin, the original effect of 
his scheme ; whereas the exterior may 
be said 'to be left to itself, free from 
the movables which a client not infre- 
quently considers to be improvements. 
On the other hand, it is (mite a 
common thing for the architect to 
select the furniture of a house, or at 
least to advise in its selection, and 
sometimes he has the opportunity of 
actually designing it — as, in 
one instance which the writer 
calls to mind, where an archi- 
tect designed the entire furniture 
and fittings of a house, down to 
the cupboard turns, with the 
object of securing a harmonious 
result. That, however, is an 
extreme case, and it is doubtful 
whether the idea is to be com- 
mended, for the simple reason 
that it requires an exception- 
ally gifted architect to carry out 
such a scheme, and most archi- 
tects arc not prodigies of bril- 
liance with a resourcefulness 
that would put their furniture 
design on a higher plane than 




Fireplace in Living Room. 
" Tilehurst," Bushey, Herts. 
C. F. A. Voysey, Architect. 




Fireplace in Sitting Room. 

' The Stocks," Wittersham, Kent. 

W. A. Forsyth, Architect. 



some of the models of the best peri" ids. 
Still, in this branch of architectural 
work as in all others, there lias been 
in England a vast advance since the 
mid-nineteenth century Swept its artis- 
tic horrors over the country. That 
period, indeed, will surely always 
draw forth a slashing criticism. Even 
admitting that it is impossible to sa] 
what phase of design will next be 
brought into fashion, with a cone 
sponding wave of appreciation, it can 
hardly be thought that mid-Victorian 
models will ever be put forward for 
anything but ridicule and assault, 
because of their utter stylclcssncss. 
The only feature about Victorian 
houses which we can possibly admire 
is the size of the rooms in comparison 
with those in ordinary houses of the 
present daw They certainly 
^ possess a virtue in this particu- 
lar. Already we hear references 
to ' ' the spacious days of 
Victoria." The reason is. thai 
with the increasing cost of land 
and building, and the desire for 
more than can be reasonably 
expected on a certain outlay, 
houses are built too close to- 
gether in suburbs and towns, 
and with rooms too small. This 
is partly the outcome of a mixed 
idea of what we ought to expect, 
as well as of an irrepressible 
love of doing something un- 
usual, or at least something in 
the fashion. With the spread of 





The "Solar" or Upper Chamber, "Alston Court." 
Restored by Charles J. Blomfield, Architect. 



Corridor, " Bibsworth," Worcestershire. 
E. Guy Dowber, Architect. 



65 



66 



THE BRICK B VI LDER 




Dining Room. 

" Hengrave Hall," Suffolk. 

J. L. Davenport and Walter J. Tapper, Architects. 

social ethics, and the preaching of a new gospel of house- 
building, there has been a wild searching among the 
villages and the countryside ; with the result that in our 
newer garden suburbs and garden cities we see a type of 
house and a style of furnishing which are quite unreal. 
Zealous reformers have seen the beauty of the English 
village, the cottages nestling amidst trees, with ramblers 
climbing around the simple 
doorway and over the white 
washed walls, and they have 
transferred this type to their 
garden suburbs. The area 
has been plotted out on the 
basis of a maximum of houses 
to tlie minimum of ground, 
and the pseudo-cottages have 
been set up nicely side by 
side, with a patch of ground 
in front, and a smaller patch 
behind : all so diminutive that 
it seems more like playing at 
house-building than a reality 
of expression. The architects 
have been set an impossible 
task — that of providing de- 
tached houses, with all the 
charm of their country proto 
types, on a wholly inadequate 
outlay. The result is that the 
rooms are ridiculously small, 
and those on the upper floor 
have frequently the added dis- 
advantage of a sloping ceiling 
on one or more sides, because 



of the type of roofing which lias been adopted. If these 

cottages and suburban houses could be blown out to 
double their size, and set in the midst of a piece of ground 
which could be called a garden without bringing discredit 
on that old name, the result would be excellent; because 
the planning of the houses displays a great amount of skill, 
and it must be said, in fairness, that the houses themselves 
are well built with sound materials. They are indeed ad- 
mirable of their type, but. as has been asked, are they the 
right type? The writer thinks decidedly that they are not. 
And the practical protest which a certain architect of abil- 
ity has made by erecting a .group of four brick houses of 
Georgian character, with sash windows, shutters, and a 
comparatively flat roof, in the midst of a shoal of houses 
of the cottage type, has a .great deal of point in it. Un- 
doubtedly these Georgian-type houses have cost more, 
because, for one reason, it is cheaper to build low walls and 
a high sloping roof than it is to build high walls and a low 
sloping root'. But the point is, people can expect too much 
for their money, and the attempts at building houses at 
$2,500 and $3. <><>(), and soon, prove that the thing cannot be 
done effectively. It means tiny rooms, low rooms, and 
rooms in the roof which are hot in summer and cold in 
winter. Hence, with such a fervor about us, it is time 
to quench it when we see that the results are meager, if 
not foolish. It simply conies to this, that a man should 
not attempt to build a house unless he lias what may rea- 
sonably be called a proper sum of money to do it with. 
The garden city promoters, however, are ever chanting 
the glories of their schemes, leaving people to play at 
building' houses and to play at art when they get inside 
them. Emphasis on this newest phase of work in the 
matter of small houses has thus been made because a similar 
fashion has spread to the larger houses, wherein are seen 
a mixture of architectural fittings and client's furniture 
which arc often whollv incongruous. 




Dining Room. 

Barton St. Mary," East Grinstead, Sussex. 

E. L. Lutyens. Architect. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



67 




DINING ROOM, "WELBECH ABBEY." 
ERNEST GEORGE AND YEATES. ARCHITECTS. 




LIBRARY, " HENGRAVE HALL." SUFFOLK. 
J. L. DAVENPORT AND WALTER J TAPPER. ARCHITECTS 



68 



T H E BRICKBVILDER 



The' examples which accom- 
pany this article bear on tin's 
matter, as they show, from the 
writer's point of view, what is 
desirable and what is not. and 
they range over a variety of 
treatments which may he con- 
sidered as very fairly represen- 
tative of modern English houses. 
Taking them together, they 
might roughly be divided into 
two classes, those based on 
farmhouse or Tudor originals, 
and those based on Renaissance 
models and the culture which 
those models are supposed to 
embody. In the sitting-room 
fireplace at ' The Stocks," 
Wittersham, we sec a purely 
cottage treatment of the simplesl 
and roughest character (this 
was, indeed, an old cottage re- 
stored by Mr. Forsyth for Mr. 
Norman Forbes-Robertson); yet 
the writer can see no sort of 
association between the rough 




' Minterne House," Cerne Abbas, Dorsetshire. 
Leonard Stokes, Architect. 



very modern need for bookcases 
and easy chairs ! Not that the 
others are ill done : they are. on 
the contrary, admirably done. 
and they display an abundance 
of skill and taste : but, to the 
writer at all events, there is 
much more propriety to such 
interiors as the gallery at 
" Ditton Place." There is an 
air of mellow refinement and 
unaffected culture about such 
an interior which is absent in 
many of those derived from the 
rough farmhouse type: and 
this quite apart from the fact 
that the one is a far more elabo- 
rate and costly scheme than the 
other. At Hen-rave Hall. 
where the architects carried out 
a restoration of an old house (as 
also "Alston Court," of which 
the "solar" or Upper chamber 
is here shown), we see the 
sumptuousness of oak paneling, 
while at "Minterne House - ' 



brick fireplace and the delicate glass and silver ware and especially at Welbeck Abbey, for the Duke of Port- 
which is set on the mantel-shelf: it is an utterly incon- 
gruous association, based, as the writer thinks, on a wholly 
wrong outlook. In Barton St. Mary, East Grinstead, a 
somewhat similar juxtaposition of the crude and the 
highly-finished is noticeable, though one must confess the 
charm which Mr. Lutyens infuses into all his work. This 
is essentially- a modern treatment of farmhouse type, but 
there seems to be a simplicity about it which is too pal- 
pable to be real: one imagines such a house, judging by 
the fireplace and the timbered corridor, to be inhabited by 
some old yeoman, but the Persian carpet and the table 
glass bring us heavily down on modern earth. But in the 
corridor hall at " Bibs- 



worth " Mr. E. Guy 
Dawber certainly gives 
us glimpses of another 
age, wherein we really 
live. and the living- 
room at ' Tilehurst,' ' 
Bushey, by Mr. C. F. A. 
Voysey, helps us a step 
further. Bui it is not 
until we see the ex- 
am] ilcs by Messrs. Smith 
a n d I! r e w e r . Mr. 
Leonard Stokes, Messrs. 
George and Yeates, and 
Messrs. Davenport ami 
Tapper that we actually 
become alive to the fact 
that we are not yeomen 
but citizens of refined 
tastes, with a love of 
such things as good 
paneling and finely 
carved woodwork, and a 



^_ 


^^^ 






— 

1 PR 


n 

H * ' F^ 


1 



land, are displayed the charms of richly carved woodwork 
in conjunction with modeled plaster ceilings. Such 
schemes as these latter are of course only possible where a 
large expenditure is available, but they serve to point away 
from the cottage and the farmhouse, whereon architects 
have latterly set their eyes so absorbingly. It is to the 
rooms of Wren, of Georgian days, even of the English 
Empire period at the commencement of the nineteenth 
century, that we may turn with greater profit, and it is to 
be hoped the next tide of fashion will set in that direc- 
tion. Popular talk of "the home beautiful" and "the 
quaint" has led people too far astray, into a realm of 

affected simplicity and 
picturesque absurdity' : 
so that, with so many 
examples at hand, we 
may well turn aside fr< mi 
such a phase of work 
and take upon us a cul- 
ture of taste to which 
we are more truly con- 
nected and which will be 
more consistent with our 
present mode of living. 
The rough timbered 
cottage and simple fur- 
niture of earlier times 
may attract us, and the 
wealth of styles which 
confront us may make a 
choice difficult, but we 
must cultivate an intelli- 
gent discrimination if 
our work is to stand the 
searching test of time 
and usage. 



The Gallery. 

Ditton Place," Balcombe, Sussex. 

Smith & Brewer, Architects. 



Competition for a Brick House to Cost $7,500. 



REPORT OK THE JURY OF \\\ \KI>. 



THE problem was a detached house, faced with brick, 
to be built complete at a cost not to exceed $7,500, 
which would provide for the usual accommodations 
and conveniences of a small American family of moderate 
means. It was especially desired that the designs should 
show generous appreciation of good brickwork and to this 
end the program covering this competition called for 
originality in the treatment of the wall surfaces and brick 
details. It was the aim of the competition to encourage 
the further development of a 
wholesome brick architecture in 
America. 

It must be remarked that the 
difficulty of selecting the designs 
to receive prizes and mentions 
was great. There were nearly 
four hundred designs submitted 
and the task of elimination was 
one of no easy matter. Some in- 
teresting bits of real feeling" in 
design were lost to recognition 
through weak presentation . The 
predominance of bitten off gable 
ends gave a notable evidence of 
striving for a feature at the ex- 
pense of taste. A striking fea- 
ture was the prevalence of the 
Dutch Colonial entrance hood — 
some eccentric, some weak, but 
most of them obvious and mere- 
tricious. 

The jury gave first considera- 
tion to the design and its fit- 
ness to the material employed. 
Special attention was given by 
the jury to the plans. In sev- 
eral instances an other- 
wise acceptable design 
was passed by because 
of weakness in the study 
of the plan. It was rec- 
ognized by the jury that 
good draftsmanship was 
essential to a good pres- 
entation of the subject, 
and therefore the ren- 
dering of the sheet was 
considered. Obvious 
copies of published work 
or of winning designs 
in previous competitions 
were rejected with some 
adverse comments. 

The rendering and 
lettering of the design 
given a Mention and 
shown at the bottom of 




Mention Design. 
Submitted by Alfred Cookman Cass, New York, N. Y. 




this page is notably charming and unusually meritorious. 
First Prize. While the jury in making this award found 
minor defects of plan, notably in the access to the stair 
case from the service portion, the small, picturesque mass 
of the design seemed best to fill the requirements of the 
program, while ample opportunity is offered for the inter- 
esting development of texture in the brickwork under 
careful study of its fine wall surfaces. The fenestration 
is interesting and consistent in plan and elevations. 

Snout Prize. A very consis- 
tent, well ordered plan, although 
not as adequately provided with 
porch room as is desirable. The 
elevation, charming in its sim- 
plicity, does not do justice to the 
brickwork as shown on the scale 
drawing. This well thought 
out scheme if shown on the per- 
spective would have relieved 
this drawing from the first im- 
pression that it might be for 
stucco as well as for brick. 

Third Prize. This design has 
a delightful plan and a happy 
scheme of composition which 
might be made most attractive 
in execution. 

Fourth Prize. The greatest 
merit of this design is in its 
admirably balanced, well con- 
ceived plan and in a certain origi 
nality of design which is com- 
mendable and which would have 
placed it higher had it not gone 
a step too far in destroying the 
simplicity of the charming bal- 
conies with clumsy cor- 
beling and the attendant 
evil of this feature 
i n ter f erin g s er iou s 1 y 
with the fenestration 
below. 

Tlie six mention draw- 
ings are presented as of 
equal merit. 











A HOUSE of IIVTrx'-miICK to'co/r7500dollar3 

/in,/: l,i-i u f . i„ li„/< /,' ii-i.,r. /...•■■ i'-r.k i.-l.-i„.,l .'■ ■ 



•,r.„„,:, a .„.,.. 4- tavtturtife frr **-- - • I . 



\,'\ -1^,1--! ; 
i 



-ni»T m«n ii a" 



Mention Design. 
Submitted by Richard R. Stanwood, Boston, Mass. 

69 



Artiii'k I [EUN, 

Chicago. 

Edwin 1 1 . I [ewitt, 

Minneapolis. 

John L. MAURAN, 

St. Louis. 

Prank B. Meade, 

Cleveland. 

\v. I). Wight, 

Kansas City. 
/in v of . \ward. 



7° 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 




HY-TEX BPICOOVy'F; COMPETITION 




MJCXWOIIO-WIXLD zoiau 
tOV&4+4IY-TtX-r)OCAtA^ FLOM 
LIG«T LED T-HLVTHL MAILOONy Aft» 
COIItl/ TO MtTAUIC 
DLVL&UCIC PATTUNr 
TO M, ONU^LlffHTLY 
ACCLTOD 



THE: CVftAGE 

LENGTH- OY U-0\SL 50-0." 

&£Pth •■ rr-b 

ur njiiT- MCLA&-E. le'-o - 
HOtyt M&NtitD IT 22CtNTy 
A-ODIG fOOT EaiA-LV6?OS 
DOL-LOa/" POfcCtt 352O0 DOl7 
D*Y WINDOW lO^OQ DOLUky 
TOTAL CO/T 7444.CX) 




FIRST PRIZE DESIGN. 

SUBMITTED BY I. P. LORD, BOSTON. MASS. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



7' 




7 2 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 







i&Tt m Mmmt3 i 








8r,c* Vr°. 



TSTWrlTE 



ICO 

. STorjt 15CC 

P/ar/eriBg 

Pamfuir S-G/o„„f 3S0 

T/ec/r,. ■ 2S0 

P/ u m6,na&-<»ra.',na l.'dO 

7iWffvs/ 74B0 

i _ff <,/ J J cAi 74B0 







_»r»W Fit; "P'- 



FOURTH PRIZE DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY LELAND H. LYON. NEW YORK. N. Y. 




fcv 













m 



WOXRlAU 



CVDACt 
IXttXSlA 

6X39 WS 















AVlJgSiP 


(pitifal 


Kfq 


pP 


i__ti_ 


L_i 


■ ■ * *a *; ! 


BH1CK.BVILDEL 
COMPETITION 


fOU A HOV1L or 

ma »l,ici» 


■ *lt t COJT 


IB »J 6 tt* - lllU. 00 
J"" TlCLkCl 40° 00 
- -- 7»0 tfANTlLS t20 00 
•■*» HUWT. tlfl'k, DOOUtfAY 1 09 M 

■" VjB 4 poo. oo 


pfr 



MENTION DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY ANTONIO di NARDO. NEW YORK. N. Y. 



MENTION DESIGN. 

SUBMITTED BY DOUGLAS RITCHIE. MONTREAL. CAN. 



ED1TOR.IAL COMMENT 
AN D*N OTES * * 

FOR.*THE*MO NTH 




Tradition vs. Election. 

THE divergent tendencies in modern architecture have 
never anywhere been more divergent than they are 
in these United States at this day. On the one hand 
there is the tradition of the Beaux Arts. Increasingly it 
is the rule for American architects to seek instruction 
there. The Beaux Arts is without doubt a great school. 
We may even grant to its enthusiastic graduates that it is 
the greatest that exists. We might even grant that it is the 
greatest that ever did exist, if we did not remember those 
schools of the Middle Ages in which practice went hand in 
hand with theory, and in 
which freemasonry, not 
as a secret society pri- 
marily, as it is to-day, but 
as a course of practical 
instruction in ' ' opera- 
tive masonry," pro- 
duced the astounding 
and unprecedented and 
unrepeated architectural 
triumphs of the Gothic 
minsters. Those tri- 
umphs were won by the 
straightforward archi- 
tectural treatment of the 
actual structural facts. 
Nothing in the way of 
tradition or theory was 
allowed to interfere with 
this primary requisite of 
the art of building. 
Thirty and forty years 
ago there was an at- 
tempt, on the part of 
many earnest and artis- 
tic architects, to revive 
the mediaeval way of 
working, which did not 
allow the direct expres- 
sion of the structural 
facts of any particular 
case to be hampered or 
controlled by the ' ' dead 
hand ' ' of tradition or by 
the Procrustean applica- 
tion of precedent, but 
under which, as Tenny- 
son says of the govern- 
ment of England, 
" Freedom slowly 



broad- 
ened down 
From precedent to prece- 
dent." 



This movement mainly affected architects in England, 
.South Germany, and theUnited States. It was the " Gothic 
Revival." The root of the modern matter was unques- 
tionably in it. It took mediaeval work as a point of de- 
parture. It failed, in spite of the many beautiful and 
admirable monuments it has left, because, having chosen 
a point of departure, it did not depart. It either became 
as slavishly subservient to precedent as the architecture 
of the Beaux Arts against which it was arrayed, or else, 
throwing precedent overboard, and undertaking to treat 
every problem on its own account, it produced work which 
was untrained and " unscholarly, " and which mankind 

refused to admire or ac- 
cept as a solution of 
modern problems. The 
traditional ' school ' 
asserted itself more defi- 
antly than ever. The 
architectural protest em- 
bodied in actual build- 
ings, the literary pro- 
tests made in the interest 
of structural logic by 
Viollet le Due, in the 
name of romantic senti- 
ment by John Ruskin, 
were alike unavailing. 
The verdict alike of the 
profession and of the 
public was an echo of 
Burke's saying, " We 
are afraid to put every 
man to live and trade on 
his own private stock of 
reason." There is in 
this country, to be sure, 
a propaganda of the tra- 
ditions established in 
< ireeee and Rome in the 
form of a zealous and 
efficient .Society of the 
Beaux Arts, which aims 
to propagate Parisian- 
ism in American archi- 
tecture as it has been 
propagated all over 
Europe. But it may be 
questioned whether its 
efforts have not been 
s u pe r f 1 u OUS , a !i d 
whether its objects 
would not have been 
equally attained if it had 
never been brought into 




Mention Design. 
Submitted by Olaf William Shelgren, Buffalo, N. Y. 




SfcJt ttjii-.IHI 



'*..""' 



Mention Design. 
Submitted by Duncan McLachlan, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

73 



74 



THE BRICK B VI LDER. 



existence. At any rate, the clear fact is that no American 
architect who has an intelligent appreciation of the adap- 
tation of means to ends in the landing of " the job " would 
to-day submit to the expert jury, which it has become the 
judicious custom to invoke in the case of an important 
public building', any project at variance with the tradition, 
lie would be a bold man if he even ventured to omit an 

' ' i >rder . ' ' 

There are those who think this an admirable and satis- 
factory state of things. There are others, numerically no 
doubt a minority, who find it deplorable, and hold that the 
use of the conventional training is not to enable him who 
has profited by it to do " the regular thing," but to enable 
him to do something different. But it is to be noted that 
such of the dissenters as have made successes have been 
architects who had the training' of which they availed them- 
selves to produce something" very different from the " clas- 
sical " examples of their art. 11. H. Richardson among 
the dead, Louis Sullivan among the living, had acquired 
" the learning' of the Egyptians " before they undertook to 
launch out on their own accounts. Their successes may 
fairly be claimed as tributes to the training inculcated by 
the Paris School and its numerous American branches 
and offshoots. Richardson by his power of simplification 
and his inherent "bigness," Sullivan by his unequaled 
decorative talent, have succeeded in doing- things which no 
instructed Beaux Arts artist would presume to maintain 
could safely be ignored or put out of court. 

At present there are in divers quarters, more particu- 
larly in the Middle West, most particularly on the north 
side of Chicago, manifestations of an increasing impatience 
with the results of the training of the Beaux Arts, and of 
an intention to recur to the more straightforward and less 
conventional expression of the facts of the given and par 
ticular case. The impatience seems to lie justifiable. The 
intention is highly respectable. But, after all, it is not by 
the purity of a reformer's motives that the careless world 
will judge him, but by the success of his work. And this 
success in turn must be an artistic success. It must ap- 
peal to those who are familiar with and appreciative of the 
masterpieces of the past, whether these be Greek or Roman 
or Romanesque or Byzantine or Gothic or of the Renais- 
sance, as having, not necessarily in the same forms, other 
things being equal, preferably in a different form from 
these old historical glories of the art by which the appre- 
ciation of every taste of all modern students entitled to an 
opinion on the subject has been formed, something of the 
artistic quality which inheres in the "standard works." 
It is almost or quite necessary to this end that the new 
work should be " scholarly " ; that is, that it also should 
give evidence of the appreciation, on the part of its author, 
of the historical masterpieces. We have just been saying 
that Richardson's work showed that, and that Sullivan's 
work shows that. But we can by no means make that 
admission in favor of all the reformers. The general criti- 
cism to which many of the new and revolutionary works 
are justly subject is that they are erected and submitted 
to public appreciation "in the rough." A model which 
is shown to us " in block," without the modifications of 
surface and outline which all the past masterpieces, back 
to Egypt itself, exhibit, may impress us as a promising 
scheme by dint of the forcibleness of its masses and of 
their relations. But, when it is enlarged and erected, it 



cannot impress the cultivated observer as a complete 
and satisfactory work of art. He will be sure to find it 
"lumpy," and he will have reason to suspect that its 
author has not undergone the studies the results of which 
in the conventional architecture he deplores. It is quite 
true that one man can no more create an architectural 
style than he can create a language. But it is equally 
true that, if he ignores the modifications and nuances 
which all the masterpieces show, he has produced, not a 
work of art, but only a more or less interesting- suggestion 
of a work of art, which with further and successful elabo- 
ration may become such a work. However desirable it 
may be to overthrow the domination of the Beaux Arts, 
that domination is not to be overthrown by " block plans " 
or " rough sketches.' ' 



I 



T IS seldom we are able to present in a single number 
so many brick houses of such general good quality as 
those which we illustrate this month. In devoting 
all of our plates to country house work we feel that we are 
giving the architect interesting and workable material at 
a time when it is of the most interest to him — when 
clients are thinking of their spring- building. 

Most of these houses have recently been built in the 
West and they are interesting alike to the Eastern and 
Western architect in showing that the country house style 
based on the precedent of Colonial and English types is 
becoming more universally appreciated. The style allows 
for a disposition of rooms in the plan to take advantage of 
the different exposures, and the many attractive adapta- 
tions which architects are constantly evolving give a 
wide range of treatment for the elevation in which to ex- 
press the individuality and personal element of the owner. 

The several houses designed by Messrs. Cope & Stew- 
ardson show a diversity of exterior treatment, although 
the plans in most respects are of a similar type. The 
brick gabled house shows an intelligent and consistent 
use of brick, and the true spirit of the Tudor style is had 
from this material solely, with the single exception of the 
entrance porch, where limestone has been used spar- 
ingly. The moulded labels and string courses are cleverly 
handled in moulded brick and they create a more restful 
effect than if they had been executed in a contrasting- 
white stone as is the more usual case. 

The Thompson residence is situated among many line 
old trees, and is a singularly attractive English half timber 
design. The elevations have a picturesque and irregular 
appearance which, however, has not been gained at the 
expense of the plan. The living rooms are arranged in a 
very livable manner with easy access to the spacious lawns, 
and the manner in which the service end of the house has 
been arranged to conform to the garden front is specially 
commendable. Notwithstanding- its close proximity to the 
terrace it is sufficiently screened to not interfere with the 
fullest use of the latter. 



preliminary examinations for the Roteh Traveling Scholar- 
ship will be held at the office of the Secretary, C. II. Blackall, 
2() BeacOQ street, Boston, on Monday and Tuesday, April 13 and 
14, at 9 a.m., to be followed by the sketch for competition in design 
on Saturday, April IS, at the Boston Architectural Club. The suc- 
cessful candidate receives $2,000, to be expended in foreign travel 
and study during two years. Candidates must be under thirty 
years of age and must have been engaged in professional work 
during two years in the employ of a practising architect resident in 
Massachusetts. Candidates must register at the office of the Secre- 
tary before the examination. 



Competition Program— Suburban House and Garage— Page I 





MONTHIY 



Ii 



CALIFORNIA 

SACh 

s-book is due on the 

, >ok may be kept f( 

s weeks longer. msKsSSsssmsss^^ 

il 



S!<SS«SS!SSS5«Si«SSS««S^^ 






IP 



ST. LOUIS 
TERRA COTTA CO. 

Manufacturers of 

Architectural 

AND 

Ornamental 

TERRA COTTA 

IN ALL COLORS 






TIFFANY 



THE GUARANTEED 



ENAMEL BRICK 



I! 






ii 



1203 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Chicago 






;'»«! 






Eitabliihed 1856 



ii 

« y, 



Henry Maurer & Son 

ManufacturtTt of 

HOLLOW TILE 

Fireproofing Materials 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

Flat and Segment Arches 
Partitions, Furring, Etc. 

Hollow Wall Blocks for Buildings 

GENERAL OFFICE 

420 East 23d Street - New York 

Philadelphia Office, Penna Building 
Work* Maurer, New Jersey 



II 



i 



« 



BRICK, TERRA COTTA 
AND TILE COMPANY 

M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor 

CORNING - - NEW YORK 



Manufacturers of 

Architectural 
TERRACOTTA 









ii 



New York Office 



'■■.-.-'■■-; s • ... \ . 






1182 Broadway 

CARTER, BLACK A AYERS 

Agencies in all the Principal Citiet 



I 

I 



THE BRICKBVILDER. i 

II 

Competition for a Suburban House and Garage; 

On Lot Having a Frontage of 50 Feet and Depth of 100 Feet. 

TO BE BUILT OF NATCO XXX HOLLOW TILE. 

II FIRST PRIZE, $500. THIRD PRIZE 1150 






FOl Kill PRIZE, 1100. 



1 1 SECOND PRIZE, $250. MENTIONS. 

Competition Closes at 5 P. M., Tuesday, June 30, L914. 

1 1 PROGRAM. 

np H f pr °b le m ^f for a D etached Suburban House and Garage, the exterior walls and foundations of which are to be built of 

Natco XXX Hollow Tile. The architectural type and plan arrangement of the house to be optional with the designer. The 

plan, however, should provide for at least three rooms, besides hall and accessories on the first floor and four rooms and 

-■- bath on the second floor. Attic, if any, to be developed by the designer as he sees lit. The garage should accommodate 

one automobile. 

The house will be located on a lot with a street frontage of 50 feet and a depth of 100 feet. The lot is in the middle of a block 
| p with improved property on both sides. 

The total cubage of the house must not exceed 35,000 cubic feet, which must include porches and verandas, these latter to 
be figured at one-quarter their actual cubage. Measurements must be taken from outside face of exterior walls and from the 
level of the basement floor to the average height of all roofs, measured to a point two-thirds of the distance from highest cornice 
I ^ to ridge. The total cubage of the garage must not exceed 4,000 cubic feet. 

The house must be placed at least 6 feet from the lot line on one side and sufficient space left at other side of property for 
| | entrance way to garage. The garage may be placed on the property lines if so desired. 
The jury will give consideration : 
First, to the practical value of the design, its appropriateness for location on the prescribed site and its fitness, in an esthetic 



' 



— T I • — - — «■— v_»»,.^.^»»j avw "rf '"l" '"^VUVJJ 1UI IWVHIH/11 Vli 111^. |/| V.OV. I II'VVI .""IIV CA11W 11." I I I I I V .->.-) , 111 llii V ^ L I I V. t IV. 

sense, to the materials employed. 

Second, to the excellence of plans. 

Third, the adaptability of the design, as shown on the detail drawing, to the constructive requirements ol Natco Hollow Tile. 

It is hoped that the submitted designs will prove to be a careful study of the problem ; that the contestants will think of the 
house as one to be actually built on a 50-foot lot in the outskirts of a large city or at some suburban development. While original 
designs in good taste and of a high order of merit are desired, attention is particularly called to the first requirement, i.e., that the 
design must be practical — a design which is useful as well as beautiful in propor' ; ons. mass, and detail. 

The object of this particular Competition is to stimulate and encourage the more extensive use of Natco Hollow Tile in the 
solution of the suburban house building problem. That there is a growing demand for houses of this type —houses which will be 
the all-year-round homes of the owners — should be recognized. 

One finds constant evidences of the ability of Natco Hollow Tile to solve the problems — whether these relate to extremes of 
temperature and climate or other unusual conditions. It has been proven that this modern building material has a wide and prac- 
tical adaptability to many imposed conditions. Where requirements of fireproofing are unusually exacting this material lends itself 
to diverse architectural requirements. The new Natco XXX block has accomplished a distinct gain in structural strength. The 
results of building walls in this material is the bringing of all shells and webs into direct alignment and under complete compression. 
The double cross web is the reason. 

Each drawing must bear the following title : " Design for a Suburban House and Garage to be Built of Natco XXX Hollow Tile. " 

On the drawing in a space measuring 5x6 inches — enclosed within rules — is to be given at a size which will permit of three- 
f ^ quarters reduction the sizes of the various rooms which compose the design and the calculation of the total cubage. 

The cubage will be carefully checked before the designs are submitted to the jury. 

II - ——-==—— '« 



CONSTRUCTION. 

On the back of this page will be found details of construction which are recommended. 

Natco Hollow Tile blocks being heavily scored on all sides permit of stucco being used as an outside finish, and plaster applied 
^ | direct to the block for interior finish. 

The floors and roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On one sheet, a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. The character of the 
exterior finish must be clearly indicated on the perspective and detail. Plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to 
the inch. A section showing construction of exterior walls through roof ; height of floors to be given on section. A key cross sec- 
tion at the same scale as plans showing height from cellar floor through all roofs. Enough detail sketches to fill out sheet. In 
connection with plan of the first floor give the plot plan. The plans are to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany 
I I the plans. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 22 inches by 30 inches. Plain black border lines are to be drawn on the sheet 1 inch from 
t % edges of the long dimension and one-half inch from edges of the short dimension, giving a space inside the border lines 21 inches 
by 28 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. Very thin paper or cardboard is prohibited. 

The drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the twin ,lc 
plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of Tin-: Brick- 
i I bvilder, 85 Water street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 30, 1914. 

The Post Office Pspartment now requires that drawings sent by mail shall be at the letter — or first class— postage rate. 
Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable 
fyA, care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. _ 

The designs will be judged by five members of the architectural profession, representing different sections of the country. 
The prize designs are to become the property of Tub Brickbvildi-.r, and the right is reserved by Tin BRICKBVILDER to pub- 
I I lish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be given in connection with each design 
published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing In the sealed envcl- 
I I opes containing their names, 25 cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition will be returned direct from the office of Tin. BRICKBVILDER to the contestants. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500. For the design placed third a prize <>f 1150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize »1 1100. 

If 

I I This Competition is open to all architects and architectural draftsmen. 

it The prize and mention drawings will be published m The Brkkiivii i>i:r 

This Competition is conducted under the patronage of the .National Fire Proofing Company. 

if 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 









II 



I 



•STANDAIDS-AND-TYPICAL- DETAILS- NATCO-XXX- HOLLOW -JII^O^TIUCXLON- 




I bLOCK- 



ISOHETLIC-VIEW-Of-COlNfBONDINC-IN-lTWALL ■TYPICALWALL-SKTION-Wlffl-TlIOSWM^liMW 



Typical Details of Natco \\\ Hollow Tile for Suburban House Construction. 









I 















___i_____ 








RENDERED COMPOSITION BY J. ANDRE SMITH. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXIII 



AI'KII., 1911 



M MIUM I 



The Private Library. 



Ih II. T. BOTTOMI.n. 



A MAN'S house has been likened to his cloak — both 
should fit him well and be suited to his needs and 
the circumstances of his life. A good tailor will 
make a garment neither too large nor too small, and a 
good architect will take care to fit a house to the needs of 
his client. The more nearly a house, and consequently 
every room in that house, is adapted to the requirements 
of the man for whom it is built, the more perfect it will be 
as a work of art. 

A library, above all rooms, should be the expression of 
the individuality of its possessor. Here a striving for 
effect or originality, so often disconcerting in the extreme, 
is particularly out of place. This should be the room in 
a house where repose, simplicity, and quiet are to be 
found ; where the parts are all beautiful, with a certain 
sobriety in the furnishing and ornamentation, as if the 
owner respected the quality of his books and esteemed the 
brilliant assemblage of famous guests ranged within 
his walls. In planning a library the aim should be to 
attract, not to startle. 

We will consider the pri- 
vate library from two 
points of view : design and 
comfort. Perhaps it might 
be better to put comfort 
first, for of what use is a 
room intended for the en- 
joyment of books unless it 
is an inviting place that 
tempts one by its conven- 
ience and privacy to spend 
one's time in it? Nobody 
ever yet read a book with- 
out first making himself as 
comfortable as possible 
under the existing circum- 
stances. In the pictures 
of the early saints, even 
the self-denying St. Jerome 
in the Desert rolled a 
stone under his elbow and 
propped his back against a 
lion before perusing the 
Holy Writ. Since then, 
times have changed, and 
we moderns provide our- 
selves with deep easy 
chairs, plenty of light, and 
things to please the eye. 



Studiolo of Isabella d'Este at Mantua. 



" Without the great and beautiful arts which speak to the 
sense of beauty, a man seems to me a poor, naked, shiver- 
ing creature. These are the becoming draperies which 

warm and adorn him." 

In a room primarily intended for study and leisure the 
treatment of the detail is of the utmost importance, 
whereas, in one designed for conversation or amusement, 
the activities of the inmates are far more interesting than 
the subtleties of the inanimate objects around them. When 
one is seated alone in one's library, the critical faculties 
are awake, every detail is seen and dwelt upon, our 
notices the profile of each moulding, the quality of every 
curve, either the design and execution is found to be beau- 
tiful or it i- ; likely to become intolerable. Looking up 
from a book or from writing, the eye rests on the decora- 
tions, either with infinite content, if they are tine and 
suitable, or with growing disgust. Therefore the design of a 
library should be carefully considered in every detail from 
the main proportions of the room down to the sizes and 

shapes of the tables and 
chairs that furnish it. 

The history of private 
libraries as far back as 
those of ancient Rome, 
from which our own are 
descended, and from which 
they have inherited many 
characteristics, is ex- 
tremely interesting ; but it 
is not the purpose of the 
present article to discuss 
this history, except as it 
offers suggestion to the 
architect to-day. The ac- 
companying pencil sketch 
was made from a Roman 
library discovered on the 
Esquiline some years ago 
by Signor Laneiani. Al- 
though the hook shelves 

themselves had disap- 
peared before the room 
was excavated, the charm- 
ing stucco frieze of delicate 

pilasters and medallions 

was still in fairly good con- 
dition. The portraits were 
mutilated, but enough of 

the inscription remained 




76 



THE BRICK B VILDER 




to tell what the frieze 
originally had been. 

The room measured 23 
by 15 feet. The pilas- 
ters were 5 feet apart 
from center to center 
and the medallions l 
feet in diameter. We 
know from many sources 
that Roman bookcases 
c 1 o s e 1 y resembled 

, _ . rni Sketch of Frieze Found in Roman Library 

modem ones. 1 hex- 
were often decorated with different kinds of inlaid wood and 
finished at the top with a cornice, but instead of our Hat 
hooks, they were, of course, filled with papyrus rolls. 
The extent of the shelves and their height was governed 
by individual taste. This library on the Esquiline was 
lined with book shelves whose exaet character cannot now 
be determined ; hut its frieze or an adaptation of it would 
be very decorative in a modern room. 

Although none of the other libraries illustrated approach 
this one in point of age, some of them are hundreds of years 
old. After the Dark Ages had very nearly completed the 
destruction of all libraries and of all learning, the Christian 
church revived the love of study within its monastery walls. 
In the cloisters where the brothers congregated to read 
and to make manuscripts, we find further interesting sug- 
gestions for the modern library. So far as the writer- 
knows these have never been materialized. 

In the Middle A.e;es, when books were few. they were 
kept in locked receptacles in the cloisters, and there the 
monks " wrote or studied, or conducted the schooling of 
the novices and choir-boys, in winter and summer alike." 
In some of the monasteries one side of the cloister was 
glazed to protect the studious brothers from the elements. 

" A charming picture has come down to us of the liter- 
ary activity that prevailed in the Abbey of St. Martin at 
Tournai at the end of the eleventh century, when Abbat 
( >do was giving an 



culty of properly heat- 
ing it, was not perhaps 
the most practical of 

working- libraries, as we 
see from the following 
couplet found in the fly- 
leaf of an old book : 

" As we sit here in tempest, 
in rain, snow and sun 
Nor writing, nor reading 
in cloister is done. " 



impulse to the 
writing of manu- 
scripts. ' When 

>• o u e n ter t h e 
cloister,' says his 
chronicler, ' you 
would generally 
sec a dozen young 
monks seated on 
chairs and silently 
writing at desks 
of careful and ar 
t i s t i c d e s i g n . 
With their help he 
got a c C u r a t e 
copies made of all 
of Jerome's com- 
mentaries on the 
Prophets, of the 
works 'of the 
Blessed Greg- 
ory, ' " etc. 

The cloister, be- 
cause of the diffi- 




Library in a City Apartment. 



Hut what could be 
more picturesque than those cloister libraries — the quiet 
protected walk, the arched openings looking out upon a 
lovely, carefully kept garden, the desks in the arcades 
tlooded with light. 

The seclusion and beauty of such a library must appeal 
strongly to a lover of books, and it would seem that with our 
modern inventions for heating houses, a most ideal library 
on the plan of the cloister-libraries of the monks of the 
Middle Ages, with a garden in the heart of it and windows 
all around it. might be arranged in a country house, espe 
cially if the court formed by it were left open to the south. 
The design of the garden has infinite possibilities, but it 
should undoubtedly be made with paths running through 
it, for what Montaigne says is most true : " Every place 
of retirement requires a walk. My thoughts sleep if 1 
sit still ; my fancy does not go by itself as when my legs 
move it ; and all those who study without a book are in 
the same condition." 

While the monastery library was developing in the 
north, the private library strictly speaking, was coming 
into existence in Italy — collecting rare and beautiful 
things was a passion with the nobility of the Renaissance, 
and they planned many beautiful rooms in which to keep 
them. 

( )ne of the most famous of their libraries was the Studi- 
olo of Isabella d'Este in Mantua. Here the lovely 

Marchesa gath- 
ered together all 
the treasures of 
literature and art 
she could lay her 
hands on, and 
here she received 
her most intimate 
friends and dis- 
cussed with them 
the politicsof Italy 
and the affairs of 
the whole world. 
This studiolo has 
been sadly mis- 
handled by time ; 
but the exquisite 
fineness of what 
remains of the ar- 
chitecture, the 
pilasters, the cor- 
nice and base, and 
the mural decora 
tions, make it still 
a lovelv room. 



THE RRICKBVI L D E R 







LIBRARY IN HOUSE OF GEORGE D. PRATT. ESQ., AT GLEN COVE, L.I. 
TROWBRIDGE & ACKERMAN. ARCHITECTS 




LIRR\RY IN HOUSE OF LEWIS J. POOLER. ESQ.. AT TUXEDO. N. Y. 
CHARLES A. PLATT. ARCHITECT 



78 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



i 







Drawing by Boucher showing Two Arrangements of Bookcases. 



Tin.' Marchess kept her books behind painted 
wooden doors, which were undoubtedly 
made for their safe keeping, but which 
were a distinct decorative feature of the 
room . 

It is difficult indeed to restore it in im- 
agination to what it was when filled with 
Isabella's collection of books and rare manu- 
scripts and works of art. Here were her 
favorite paintings and statuettes, an alabas- 
ter organ, a collection of musical instru- 
ments. ' There were antique bronzes. 
figures of alabaster and jasper, cabinets of 
porphyry and lapis-lazuli, murano glass — 
precious vases — and crystal mirrors." 
The photograph of the room in its present 
condition, though charming, gives very 
little idea of what it was when the scholarly 
Marchesa entertained the learned men of 
Italy in it. 

Hut a most delightful Italian Renaissance 
library, which is to-day in its original con- 
dition, is that of the Palazzo Sacchetti in 
Rome. The writer will never forget the 
impression received on entering it — that 
of a most satisfying, dignified, home-like 
room. It is the principal private room in 
the palace and is used constantly by the 
Marchese and his family. At the first 
glance it is evidently the outgrowth of the 
need or desire of a scholar, and was planned 
as a setting for a student. There is no 
conscious arrangement for the chance visi- 
tor or for any sort of entertainment. It is 
simply a beautiful receptacle for the 
owner's books and kindred possessions. 
The room is large and oblong and very 
high, with three long windows reaching 
almost to the ceiling and diffusing, between 
the eye and the dark beams above, a misty 
light which is reflected again from two 
large blue globes. The bookcases around 
the walls, of the same dark wood as the 




Book Stack in Private Room in Cooper 
Union, New York. 



ceiling, were about 10 feet high and 
above them was a fine frieze of old 
maps in blues and greens and soft 
browns. These maps made a most 
unusual and interesting decoration. 
In the center of the room was a 
massive table of dark oak covered 
with papers and writing materials, 
from which gleamed the scarlet seals 
of several important documents. 
The floor was tiled and partly 
covered by some old Oriental rugs. 

The whole room gave the effect of 
great richness of color, due in part, 
of course, to that cleverest of all 
COlorists, time, but due also to beau- 
tiful combinations of materials. We 
to-day are apt to be timid in this 
respect. 

The illustrations, accompanying 
this article, have been chosen to rep- 
resent rooms of widely different 
character so as to offer as many ideas 
as possible that maybe incorporated 
in the design and fittings of a modest 
library. One illustration to which 
we would call special attention is 
that of a book stack designed by Miss 
Hewitt for the private library- in 
Cooper Union, from the original 
drawing by David Mann. Unfor- 
tunately, the room itself is now used 
more as a storeroom than anythin.c 
else, which explains its unkempt 
appearance, but the arrangement is 
s< i unusual that permission was asked 
to photograph it in spite of the con- 
dition of its shelves. They are 
made of a soft brown walnut and 
are divided vertically into wide and 
narrow spaces. The narrow ones 
arc carried up to the ceiling and the 
cornice above them is broken, form- 




Design for a Library by David Marot. 



THE BRICKBYILDER 



79 




LIBRARY IN PRESIDENT'S HOUSE. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK. N.Y. 
McKIM. MEAD «c WHITE. ARCHITECTS 




LIBRARY IN HOUSE AT NEW HAVEN. CONN. 
DELANO «c ALDRICH. ARCHITECTS 



8o 



THE BRICK BVILDER. 




Library in a New York Apartment House. 

ing as it were, pilasters of books around the room. About 
two and a half feet from the floor is an extra shelf which 
ean be pushed in even with the book shelves or pulled out 
so as to form a table to rest reference books on. This is an 
excellent practical arrangement for any library. 

It is gratifying to see how worthy many of our Ameri- 
can rooms of the nineteenth century are of the best tradi- 
tions which have inspired them. Nothing could be liner than 
the classic feeling in the library designed by Mr. Piatt 
which is a room unusually 
line in every detail. 

In marked contrast to it 
is the charming white room 
in a city apartment. Here 
also the detail is well worked 
out and the decoration is 
delightful — the furniture, 
the engravings and paint- 
ings, the arrangement of 
the books. The compart- 
ments under the book 
shelves are very useful for 
holding - manuscripts, etc., 
that need to be protected 
from dust. There is a dis- 
tinction about this room that 
is very rare. 

A simple, work-a day 
room designed for a man un- 
usually fond of books, is the 
library in a cooperative 
apartment house in New 
York. The mantel and the 
old portrait above it arc 
very dignified, and the other 
three walls of the room are 



lined to their full height with severely simple and practical 
bookcases. 

Among these illustrations, which show a variety of 
styles of suitable bookcases, it should be possible to draw 
suggestions that will be of value whether the requirements 
are for only one or more simple bookcases standing against 
the wall, or a great numberof "concealed, ' ' that is. built-in 
bookcases that are finished flush with the walls and are 
really a part of the architecture of the house. 

It is not always possible to carry out the design of a 
room just as a highly trained architectural sense dictates, 
and to fit a man's surroundings to his life and habits, is a 
difficult task ; innumerable considerations invariably arise 
with which compromises must be made. To begin with, 
few prospective owners of libraries live alone ; they have 
their families, whose varying tastes must be considered, 
and annoying practical considerations, which cramp and 
hamper, are almost sure to force themselves forward. 
Hut it must be confessed that these considerations are 
often a blessing in disguise, giving the finished rooms an 
individuality that is felt to be lacking- in many less re- 
stricted architectural creations. More than any other im- 
portant room that is given an architectural character from 
its design and finish . the library should be considered a 
practical workshop and study for those who wish to get 
away from confusion, and as such should be freed from 
superfluous decoration. Of course too great simplicity 
may be merely a sign of "a dead imagination," but 
nowhere is a careful restraint so indispensable as here. 

It is necessary in order to have a library worthy of the 
name that one truly revere its contents. There are 
libraries for readers as well as libraries for collectors who 
love the bindings and the editions more than the printed 
word, but we must have something of the collector's spirit 
or we shall not think it worth our while to carefully house 
our books. 




Library in a House at Princeton, N. J. 
Trowbridge & Ackerman. Architects. 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES 01 UMK.I.FS ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDFKF.KS OF TO-DAY, V.CCOMPAMED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

I\. THE WORK OF MR. J. \M)KI. SMITH. 



THERE is in New York a society called "The Di- 
gressionists," which is composed of architects who 
engage themselves in fallowings of various sorts be- 
sides architecture, and their annual exhibition is in many 
ways one of the most interesting in the city, since it illus- 
trates the profound influence which a knowledge of archi- 
tecture has upon work in the allied arts. Some of the men 
are sculptors, others painters or etchers, and still others 
do work in the minor arts, — bookbinding, jewel and metal 
working, and other crafts of that sort. Any of these men 
could unquestionably make a very good living at what we 
may call his hobby, since each of them shows very marked 
ability, although every one of them, of course, in a way 
indicative of the profound regard for order and construc- 
tion which the practice of architecture teaches a man. 
One of these men, for example, is Mr. J. M. Hewlett, of 
the firm of Lord and Hewlett, who has invented a new proc- 
ess in painting (if one 
can call colored designs 
painting), on which the 
only brush used is an 
air brush ; and in this 
medium he has done 
much theatrical 
scenery, as well as ex- 
quisite screens and wall 
decorations. Other 
men have exhibited 
much skill as landscape 
painters, and in all this 
various work there is 
probably no branch in 
which so high a degree 
of artistic and technical 
skill is reached as in the 
work of the men who 
etch. Architectural sub- 
jects are particularly 
suitable for etching, for 
they afford a man ex- 
ceptional chance to dis- 
play his skill, and are 
particularly interesting 
to the architect-etcher, 
because of the natural 
sympathy which he 
would have in his own 
subject. Etching is a 
fascinating way of illus- 
trating, not only be- 
cause of the difficulties 
of technique which one 

feels have been over- ^ 

come in a successful Old English Inn. 



etching, but also because there is something in the results 
produced which differs very greatly from those possible 
in any other medium, even pen drawing with the finest 
possible pen. The richness and warmth of color which 
are characteristic of etching would seem to make it par- 
ticularly an appropriate medium for architectural render- 
ing, but as far as can be recalled there is no one who has 
used this mode of expression ; and when we find an 
architect who. like Mr. J. Andre Smith, is an etcher of 
great ability, one wishes he would devote more of his 
work, not to the pictorial representation of work already 
constructed, but would show some of our clever renderers 
how excellent a means it would be for the showing of 
work not yet executed. For Mr. Smith is of all our ren 
derers the man whose etchings are the best ; and indeed 
all his drawings have the flavor of etching about them, 
whether he uses the graver, the pencil, or the colored 

crayon ; and these are 
about all he does use, 
for no drawing of the 
many he has shown has 
been a water-color. 

It is interesting to 
note in his work how 
strong the influence oi 
the etching has been ; 
it would seem as if that 
were the thing he took 
up first and to which 
all other means were 
subsidiary, and without 
knowing the precise 
course of his artistic de- 
velopment it would be 
difficult to prove to the 
writer that his first and 
real love was not etch 
ing. 

He has not the facility 
to execute pictures of 
large size in Hat and 
carrying tones, as have 
so many men. His 
work consists of ex<|iii 
site miniatures, rather 
than wall pictures, and 
for certain sorts of 
architectural work 
where reproduction in 
a moderate quantity is 
essential, one would 
think it the ideal pi 
ess. It wotdd be hard 
to make a central spot 




Etching by J. Andr£ Smith. 



81 



THE BRICKBYILDER. 



in an exhibition out of one of these things, however well 
the subject and the execution might warrant it ; but to 
the discerning a more delightful series of architectural 
drawings was never done than those shown at a recent 
exhibition of his work, in which over one hundred pencil 
drawings and etchings were shown together ; and not 
one among them was of unexecuted work, for Mr. Smith 
is not an architectural renderer primarily, but a designer 
and etcher ; he does renderings of his own work occasion- 
ally, and his method is essentially that of an illustrator 
rather than of an architect. His work has this distinction, 
however, from the work of the other men who do occa- 
sional drawings of architectural subjects, such men, for 
example, as Vernon Howe Bailey, Joseph Pennell, and 
Ernest Pexiotto, he knows his architecture thoroughly, 
and actually draws it, not simply indicating it as they do. 
Of course the three men whose names have been intro- 
duced for purposes of illustration have drawn so much 
architecture that their indication is exquisite and reason- 
ably accurate, but even so, one can only infer architec- 
ture from their drawings ; it is not laid down definitely in 
black and white to be read by every draftsman. Most of 
the illustrators argue that accurate drawing of an archi- 
tectural subject destroys, or at least lessens, the artistic 
quality, reducing the impression of reality except to those 
men who are themselves architects and are willing to pass 
their ju lgnunt of the picture on an accepted architectural 
formula. Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith argues in some such 
way as this, although not precisely in these terms; were 
he to see a series of drawings and etchings by Mr. Andre 
Smith, he would, I think, be convinced that the most pre- 




Robin Hood's Bay. 



cise architectural drawing can be combined with illustra- 
tive indication of shadows and surfaces without at all 
lessening the interest of the drawing to the general pub- 
lic, and greatly increasing it to the architect, since 
while the picture interests the architect as well as the lay- 
man, the architecture is of equally important interest. 

Color is not Mr. Andre Smith's favorite means of ex- 
pression, only two of the drawings illustrated in this arti- 
cle are anything but black and whites, and those two, the 
sketch for a country house and the sketch of a public 
building in process of erection (see frontispiece) are 
really in method black and whites, since his shadows are 
not variations of tone, but real blacks, and color is ap- 
plied only on the lighted surfaces. The illustrations in 
this number are thus essentially black and white drawings, 
and of three different subjects, two pencil drawings of 
Florence, two etchings, and two drawings made in this 
country, and out of the whole six, after all, only one is an 
architectural rendering in the sense that a rendering is a 
drawing made to show how a proposed building will look ; 
this is the drawing of the little country house. 

The pencil drawings of Florence are among the most 
beautiful travel studies that an architect has ever made, 
not only because of their drawings of architectural detail, 
but also because Mr. Smith has chosen his composition 
with an eye so completely a painter's, and has seized upon 
the exact moment in each when the lighting was most in- 
teresting. That of the entrance to the Ponte Vecchio, for 
example, has a fascinating shadow thrown by the build- 
ings on the opposite side of the street, and the time of day 
which made the drawing of this detail exceedingly diffi- 
cult, would also of 
course greatly enhance 
its pictorial interest. 
The drawing of the 
Loggetta Vasari is 
much less surprising, 
but not less interest- 
ing, since the picture 
was made apparently 
at such a time of day 
when no sunshine was 
able to enter the nar- 
row streets, and all the 
light was reflected, and 
the fact that Mr. Smith 
has been able to work 
an all over tone over 
the entire surface with- 
out the result being 
uninteresting, is quite 
as much an achieve- 
ment as being able to 
appreciate a particu- 
larly picturesque time 
of day. Of the etch- 
ings the writer feels 
himself unable to sax- 
very much, since a lack 
of knowledge deters 
him from attempting 
an appreciation of tech- 
Etching by J. Andre Smith. nical merits and proc- 




I 

H 
§ 

•U] 

cc 

Q 

z 

< 




m 
O 

z 

< 

cc 
a 

_j 
u 

z 

a. 



N 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



esses, but they seem of unusually interesting character, 
both bold and delicate, with a delicious indication of 
broken surfaces, and great ability to enrich plain surfaces 
without detracting from their simplicity. The two archi- 
tectural renderings have apparently had a basic all over 
tint on them, there are no whites left ; the drawings have 
then been made in pencil with considerable use of colored 
crayons, and the blacks thrown in, in the case of the 
country house with conte crayon, and in the drawing of 
the public building in the course of erection, with ink, 
and the whole drawing is then varnished. They are of 
unusual mellowness of color, and in no wise brilliant, but 
extremely restful, and in spite of their general calm treat- 
ment are of much vigor and strength. 

It is impossible to show in six examples how great a va- 
riation in treatment is possible within the rather narrow 
boundaries that Mr. Smith has set for himself ; it would 



need thirty examples to begin to give an idea of the tre- 
mendous variety of effect possible to him in black and 
white. I lis renderings range from the quietest of low-toned 
drawings of subdued and twilighted streets to a blaze of 
sunshine in the open country, with detail almost utterly 
lost in harsh black shadows; but through them all we 
feel the same skilful and architectural handling of the 
theme, and while it would have perhaps been more inter- 
esting to have shown more of Mr. Smith's renderings for 
tentative buildings, as a matter of fact it is so much more 
the other side of his art which interests him, and so many 
of his drawings have been made, either as travel studies or 
etchings, that it has seemed fitting to select those which are 
reproduced here, especially since they illustrate a way of 
working almost completely different from the usual method 
employed and which will likely suggest a wider range 
of mediums for the delineation of architectural subjects. 




A SMALL COUNTRY HOUSE 
COLORED CRAYON SKETCH 
BY J. ANDRE SMITH 



DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTVRE 




i\ 



M O N 

IT IS fortunate for the 
student of architec- 
ture, beset with the 
task of trying to disen- 
tangle individualities 
from "firms," that the 



SERIES OF ILLVSTRATIONS 

OF THE MOST NOTABLE 

WORK OF THE YEAR WITH 

APPRECIATIVE TEXT BY 

TGOMERT SCH V Y 




L E K 



Chapel of the Intercession 
Trinity Parish, New York, N. Y. 

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue; Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



one more readily than 
the architects who have 
been the creators ,,| 

the ' ' chapels ' ' would 

allow, the architectural 
as well as i he ecclesio 



church of St. Thomas in New York, of which the plan logical primacy and paramountcy of old Trinity, coin- 

and " lay out " have been so clearly understood to be the manding the vista down Wall street from Broadway, 

work of Mr. Cram, of the late firm of Cram, Goodhue, have always, since the consecration in 1846 of Richard 

and Ferguson, and of which the working out and detail Upjohn's rededification of the mother church, re 

have been with equal clearness understood to be the work mained unchallenged. But it was by no means always 

of Mr. Goodhue, should be so swiftly succeeded by the so. When the elder John Adams visited New York On his 

Chapel of the Intercession, which is with equal clearness way southward in 1774. the lion of the architecture of 

understood to be Mr. Goodhue's individual work. The Trinity was by no means Trinity itself, standing where it 



fact must be a comfort to 
the individual architect of 
this latter and latest work. 
It is certainly a comfort to 
the commentator. 

For the reader who is 
not a New Yorker, and who 
therefore is not ' ' charged 
with knowledge" of the 
" paramountcy " of Trinity 
Church, in matters relat- 
ing to ecclesiology and to 
church building, from the 
latter part of the seven- 
teenth century to the be- 
ginning of the twentieth. 
in the city of New York, 
the very word "chapel" 
may denote a misconcep- 
tion which it is worth while 
to clear up. "Chapel," 
when it is not used, as it is 
in England, to denote a 
place of worship which 
signifies a dissent from the 
religion of the state, de- 
notes an accessory and sub- 
ordinate place of worship 
of the mother church, 
which has its main scat 
elsewhere. That is the 
case with the new Chapel 
of the Intercession. It is 
equally the case with the 
other "chapels" of the 
great historical foundation 
of Trinity Church. As no 




Detail of Main Entrance. 
85 



still stands at the head of 
Wall street and from all 
accounts a shabby and 
negligible shed of a "meet- 
in- house," shortly to be 
demolished by fire in the 
course of the British oc- 
cupation, but the new 

" chapel " of St. Paul, de 
signed by the now almost 
irrecoverable Mcliean, in 
which Washington subse- 
quently had a pew, ami 
upon which the said John 
Adams delivered a scries 
of more or less inept archi- 
tectural remarks. Simi- 
larly, and subsequently in 
fact, in the first decade of 
the nineteenth century, 
when some now forgotten 
genius in the way of real 
estate promotion and de- 
velopment undertook to 
convert the despised 
swamp of " Lispenard's 
meadows ' ' into the ' ' court 
end " of Manhattan Island, 
and succeeded in s<. eon 

verting them by the laying 

out of St. John's Park and 
the building of St. John's 
" Chapel," of which the 
putative and possibly the 
real architect was that John 
McComb who was the puta- 
tive but certainly not the 



86 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



real author of the 
contemporaneous 
City Hall; the new 
" chapel " effaced 
in public apprecia- 
tion not only the 
elder St. Paul's. 
but also and still 
more the shabby 
old mother church 
itself. So when 
the indurated New 
Yorker comes up- 
on this new and 
stately church, 
laid out upon an 
ample scale, some- 
thing liketwo hun- 
dred and seventy 
feet by one hun- 
dred feet in ex- 

t re m e dim e n - Cloistc 

sions. — a church 

which seats some 1,400 people upon its main floor, without 
any makeshifts or addenda of galleries or side-chapels,- - 
he is not startled by hearing it called a " chapel," when it is 
understood that it is a " chapel " of Trinity. But he for- 
gives the jar which the nerves of the stranger undergo at 
such a designation of such an edifice. 

And here again, and at the outset, those to whom the 
new church gives most artistic pleasure cannot fail \<> do 
homage to the past of Trinity Parish, which has enabled 
him to achieve this success, unique on Manhattan Island, 
where every new edifice is so cabined, cribbed, and con- 
fined by the cost of land and the occupation of every 
available square foot of the surroundings of an eligible site 
as to deprive the building erected upon it of all the dignity 
of detachment and isolation. The enormous advantage 
the new church possesses in this respect it derives from 
the fact that it stands upon the ground providently pre- 
empted, a generation or two ago, by Trinity Church for 
Trinity Cemetery, as a relief to the overcrowded grave- 




yards of the parish 
down town ' ' at 
a time when it 
seemed that the 
actual site in the 
neighborhood of 
150th street and 
Broadway might 
remain not merely 
s u b u rban but 
rural for many 
generations yet to 

come. I low falla- 
cious that expec- 
tation was the 
visitor to the new 
church has only to 
look around to see, 
in the multitu- 
dinous and tower- 
ing outlines of sky- 
scraping apart- 
ment houses. Nor 
has the providence of Trinity been manifested alone in 
the "preemption" and reservation of the ground. No 
suburban cemetery can have been more judiciously guarded 
than this was from vulgar invasion by architectural device. 
The architectural device was that of the late Frederick 
Clarke Withers, one of the most sensitive and cultivated 
of the Victorian Gothic designers. He sharply set off the 
sacred precincts from those open to ordinary occupation 
by a massive wall, of the native "trap rock " of which 
Manhattan Island is composed, punctuated at due intervals 
by piers in which there was judiciously introduced 
" wrought work " in a more tractable material. In effect, 
though not in tint, the same combination, and giving the 
same contrast, as appears in the choice of material for the 
new church to which all his so long antecedent labors now 
appear in the light of a promise and a setting. 'Tis true, 
'tis pity, and pity 'tis, 'tis true, that the dominating fea- 
ture of his otherwise unpretentious work has been forced 
to give way to the march of improvement. I do not know 




Chapel of the Intercession, New York. 



Ground Floor Plan. 

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue ; Cram, Goodhue fit Ferguson, Architects. 




Ml 



. 



WEST FRONT 



CHAPEL OF THE INTERCESSION. TRINITY PARISH. NEW YORK. N. Y. 
BERTRAM GROSVENOR GOODHUE; CRAM. GOODHUE & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS 



88 



THE BRICK BVILDER 




Pulpit and End of Choir Stalls. 

the chronology of the improvements. But it must have 
been after the preemption by Trinity of the site for its 
new suburban cemetery that the city of New York deter- 
mined to extend Broadway through the center of it. The 
bisection of the cemetery thus accomplished, Mr. Withers 
undertook to mitigate by a suspension bridge 
across Broadway, the bridge remaining until 
its demolition only a few years ago, one of 
the most exemplary achievements in New 
York in the way of a decorative treatment 
of a practical necessity. The demolition of 
the bridge in fact made room for the new 
church. That nobody who contemplates the 
church can regret the destruction of the 
bridge, seemly and picturesque as the bridge 
was, is one of the strongest tributes that 
could be paid to the later architect. 

There can really be no question of the 
use tile later architect has made of his 
unequaled advantages and opportunities. 
Among his advantages is the rare one, to all 
appearance, of not having been controlled 
or limited in any expenditure required to 
carry out his conception of what this church 
ought to be. It were unprofitable to inquire 
into the actual cost of this beautiful and 
most successful work. I may have been 
told, but I really prefer not to know. It is 
enough to know that there is nowhere any 
evidence of "skimping." lie has, in the 
first place, used, without abusing, his rare 
chance of taking advantage of his ample 
area. He has " expatiated " in laying out 
nplete parochial "plant." The plant 



nsistsofthe church proper, of a parish house apparently 

destined, though that is the concern rather of the rector 
than of the architect, to exert a wholesome and efficient 
civic and social influence upon the life of a neighborhood 
of which the conditions indicate that, though the work of 
the new church is by no means among the destitute, or 
even the necessitous, the church is yet a "chapel" and 
even a missionary chapel — a chapel in artitos, main- 
tained, at least originally, by the contributions of the 
faithful elsewhere. And. naturally, it includes a rectory. 
These various requirements are accommodated upon the 
ample area provided and gracefully "accommodated" to 
one another. A connecting link which is a necessary part 
of the accommodation one regrets to find not sufficiently 
exhibited in the photographs. That is the quadrangular 
and nearly square cloister which intervenes between the 
church and its dependencies. Though here by no means 
designed for the promenade of cloistered and tonsured 
monks, it lias the air of seclusion from common and mun- 
dane affairs which belong to the traditional notion of a 
cloister. At any rate, it is a feature which a sensitive 
architect could not omit in a scheme of this kind if he 
could by any means find it practicable to include it. and it 
is very delightfully treated. 

but rectory, parish house, cloister, are each and all sub 
ordinate and accessory to the church itself, much as by 
their grouping they contribute to detaching and isolating 
it as well as completing its effect. The church is " the 
thing." Its " orientation " is fortunately correct. The 
West front, at the extremity down the moderate slope of 
the hillside, is the proper West front. The " East end," 
a proper and Anglican flat East end, is really the East end. 
up the hill. The slope, though slight, is sufficient to indi- 
cate if not to require some emphatic feature which shall 




Choir Stalls and Organ in Chancel. 




INTF.RIOR LOOKING TOWARD CHANCEI 



(.HAPEL Oh THE INTERCESSION. TRINITY PARISH, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
BERTRAM GROSVENOR GOODHUE s CRAM. GOODHUE * FERGUSON. ARCHITI I I 



9° 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



serve the purpose of securing- to the eye the stability and 
e of the edifice by visibly anchoring and spiking it 
down, as it were, to the acclivity. It seems to have been 
this feeling which determined the situation and the design 
of the tower at what would be a transept if the church 
did not essentially consist merely of nave, aisles, and 
chancel. The effect of weight and anchorage, which has 
been denoted as necessary to the chief architectural function 
of this tower, has been kept in view in its design. It is a 
simple, four square, unbuttressed mass, solid and un- 
broken up to the belfry stage, or broken only by the cross- 
ing bands of lighter tint which in the lower part conform to 
principal lines which are continued on one side or the other 
along the adjoining walls. The simplicity is in the upper 
stages carried to a degree unusual in Mr. Goodhue's work, 
but to an excellent effect in emphasizing the relation of 
tower to church. The battlemented parapet itself is se- 
verely plain, denying itself even the customary pinnacles, 
of which the place is advantageously taken by the single 
central fleche which dominates the four square mass 
more effectively than would the four equal members 
at the angles which Ruskin has compared, in King's Col- 
lege Chapel, to a table upside down with its legs in the 
air. The interior is given up below to the organ loft, 
opening upon the two bays of what may be called a rudi- 
mentary transept, to the visual as well as acoustical 
advantage of the elaborate and successful design of the 
instrument, while the corresponding projection across the 
nave is given to a lady chapel. 

The position of the tower leaves the West front as a 
simple and symmetrical composition, with no features but 
the central doorway and the central window, and except- 
ing these no openings but the slits which rather punctuate 
and emphasize the flanking expanses of wall. The central 
feature in fact makes up a single feature in two stages, 
effectively united by the notably ingenious framing of them 
between buttresses receding from the plane of the wall 
below, while the frame is completed across the top by an 
equally effective blind gallery, relieved against the upper 
wall. The rectilinear canopy of the doorway with its 
Hanking niches is an effective preparation for the curvi- 
linear and flowing tracery of the great window above. In 
design, in scale, and in adjustment all this detail is equally 
successful and satisfactory, and makes up one of the most 
admirable of our church fronts in its kind, the effect, as 
everywhere, being much enhanced by the detachment and 
isolation accruing from the spacious setting. 

Equally effective, in its very different and yet quite con- 
gruous way, with the simplicity of the front is the pictur- 
esque and harmonious grouping of the multipartite flank. 
The ranged arcade of the four great clerestory windows, 
in itself a feature as simple as it is noble, is succeeded by 
what we have called the rudimentary transept, by the mass 
of the tower, by the projecting gable of the parish house, 
by the cloistral arcade which connects this with the rec- 
tory, and finally by the rectory itself. Evidently there is 
here a sufficient and even a dangerous variety. The dan- 
ger is that the variety will become a miscellany, that it 



will "scatter'' and fail to produce a total effect. This 
danger has been obviated by various devices which are 
worthy of study, as indeed much study has obviously 
been spent upon them, but perhaps mainly by the skill 
with which the " cordons," composed of belts of a lighter 
tint than the field of the wall, have been introduced to tie 
the parts together and to connect them into a whole. 

The interior is worthy of the exterior, and here there is 
even more of the sense of spaciousness and amplitude, 
which, to the stranger, makes the name of " chapel " seem 
so absurd a misnomer when applied to one of the largest 
churches in New York. Here, also, the prevailing im- 
pression is rather of simplicity than of complication. The 
largeness and fewness of the parts of the four-bayed nave, 
or five-bayed counting the western gallery, of the two- 
bayed transept, if we may continue to call it so, and of 
the three-bayed chancel, gain an effect of repose which 
cannot subsequently be disturbed by all the elaboration 
that has been applied in the richness of the traceries, in 
the elaboration of the screen under the western gallery, in 
the intricate and exquisite wood carving of the choir. 
You are to note that the treatment of the main structural 
features is all the while characterized by as much sim- 
plicity as their general form and disposition. Only in the 
vaulting of the lady chapel is there anything that can 
fairly be called fantastic in the elaboration of the masonry, 
and here the designer has "treated resolution" to excel- 
lent effect. One exception to the rule there may be in the 
equipment of the inner archivolt of the nave arches, with 
its separate vaulting shaft continued to the floor, and of 
the emphasis given to the arrangement by a moulded capi- 
tal not continued through the other mouldings of the pier. 
Mr. Goodhue, as all students of his work know, does not 
at all aspire to the praise of a purist, but the introduc- 
tion of this abundantly precedented feature suggests the 
formular element from which the design in general is so 
delightfully free. Moreover, it seems to detract from the 
weight and dignity of the mass of the pier to have its 
inner moulding and the archivolt it carries thus detached 
and isolated from the mass. But there is nothing like this 
anywhere else. Another point that may perhaps be 
marked for animadversion is that the steep hammer- 
beamed ceiling, which has been decorated in color with 
great richness of effect where and when it is apprehensible, 
is so high above the clerestory and so steep that it is only 
under very favorable conditions of weather that it exerts 
the influence to which it is entitled. But even if these 
things be blemishes, they are hardly worth mention — cer- 
tainly are worth no more than mention — in the presence of 
a success of ensemble and detail so conspicuous as that of 
the Chapel of the Intercession. We can pardon those who 
even prefer it to St. Thomas's, though, indeed, the 
crowded and hampered site of St. Thomas's makes a com- 
parison with its free standing successor almost impossible 
and quite inadvisable. It suffices to note the evident fact 
that the new church is one of the most interesting ex- 
amples of ecclesiastical architecture in New York, or for 
that matter in the United States. 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



T HE BRICKBVII, I) E R 



PLATE 49 




ENTRANCE FRONT 



SEASIDE BRANCH OF THE WIDENER MEMORIAL SCHOOL. LONGPORT. N. J 
HORACE TRUMBAUER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVIL I) E R 



PLATE iO. 






P^H 


l-H ■ 


i i : 


! * - 


1 ! : 


1 ■ 


I h 


1 


hh : 


Na • 


gffi : 


1 J-1U 5 



MAIN FACADE 

• ■ «. . •#>■■■ 




^tU-MJ 
















Uj 



BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



SEASIDE BRANCH OF THE WIDENER MEMORIAL SCHOOL, LONGPORT. N I 
HORACE TRUMBAUER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 51. 




VIEW OF COURT LOOKING TOWARD OCEAN 




COURT FACADE OF MAIN BUILD1NC 



SEASIDE BRANCH OF THE WIDENER MEMORIAL SCHOOL. LONGPORT, N. J. 
HORACE TRUMBAUER, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 5? 




DINING HALL LOOKING TOWARD MAIN BUILDING 

THE JOHN DICKSON HOME FOR AGED MEN, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
ARTHUR B. HEATON. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



THE BRICK B V I L I) K R . 



PLATE Si. 



<7?Tr JolS. <-T>irkfin ,7/W 
far , ^3 = «gn ■ ■ ' 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



THE JOHN DICKSON HOME FOR AGED MEN, WASHINGTON. D. C. 
ARTHUR B. HEATON. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBV1LDER 



PLATE 54. 




u 




a 




/ 









H 




O 




X 




X 




</) 




< 




V 






III 


-i 


h 


UJ 


X 
(J 




n 


U 


< 


uJ 




(1 


7. 


< 




h 


OS 


< 


o 

U- 


UJ 

I 


u 


CO 


? 


cc 


O 


-j 


I 


i. 


z 


< 



c/5 

y 
Q 
z 

o 

UJ 

I 

H 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 55. 




■■ 



GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN FACADE 





5 f> ifBVANT* •■ 

^ f fc»*.V.«« R-* 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 

LOCHBY COURT APARTMENTS. SHERIDAN ROAD. CHICAGO. ILL. 
RJCHARD E. SCHMIDT. GARDEN & MARTIN. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 56. 




=J _J 



o 




u 




< 


(O 


f i 


H 




i ) 


I 


Ld 


u 


H 


. 


T 


Q 


U 


< 



< 


£t 


z 


■?■ 


H 


< 




a 


7. 


CC 


■X 


M 




I 


III 


CA) 


Q 




rr 




< 



y. 

a: 
< 

Cu 
< 

H 
CC 

D 
O 
U 

>- 

ca 

X 

u 

o 



VOL 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 57. 




O 

X 

o 

< 
z 
z 

u 
z 

u 



-J 
H 

3 



O 
O 
X 

u 

CD 

< 

a 

D 

o 

Q 

U 

a: 

LU 

Q 

Ixl 

CC 

Lu 
Id 

X 

f- 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBV1LDER 



PLATE 58. 





I 

o 

< 

z 
z 
u 
z 

u 

2 G 

I p 

5 5 
5 % 

< a 
* I 

O Q 

o 8 
i § 
u £ 

» 5 



O 

S 

y 

I 

id 
2 

u. 

LxJ 
I 

H 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICK B V I L 1) E R 



PLATE 59. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



DETAIL OF TOWER AND APPROACH 



THE FREDERICK DOUGLASS SCHOOL, WALNUT HILLS, CINCINNATI. OHIO 
GARBER <y WOODWARD. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BR1CKBV1LDER. 



Hl.ATE 60. 




> 




z 




of 




P 




</) 




u 


(/) 


I 
u 
o 


UJ 

h 


QC 


I 




U 


11 


cr 


O 


< 


cc 




X 


n 


u 


Q 




< 

s 


•_> 


3 


< 


/ 


0, 





Q 


Q 

or 


7. 





< 


o 


a 




H 




UJ 




0. 




oi 




<n 





VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 61. 




Z 
Z 

o 
u 

Q 
Qi 
O 

u. 

H 

< 

& 

Ul 

>-' 

< 

Q 



D 
I 
f- 

cc 

< 

u. 
O 

Ul 

O 

X 



VOL. 23, NO. 4. 



THE B R I C K R V I L D E R 



PLATE 62. 





Z 

O 
u 

Q 

as 
o 

£ b 

.- o 
cx a 

(/I < 

" ui 

> t 

< Li 
Q 3} 

Cl cq 

tr * 

3 I 

I t 
< 

u. 

o 

UJ 
CS) 



VOL. 23. NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 63. 







See page 94 for flour plans 



VIEW LOOKING TOWARD COW BARN 

FARM BUILDINGS OF PERCY R. PYNE. ESQ.. BERNARDSVILLE. N. J. 

ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 64. 




fEA HOUSE 




FARM COTTAGE AND PUMP HOUSE 



FARM BUILDINGS OF JACOB SCHIFF. ESQ.. RED BANK. N. J 
E HARRIS JANES. ARCHITECT 







Farm Buildings, Estate of Jacob Schiff, Esq., Red Bank, N. J. 



Modern Farm Buildings.* 

CONCLUDING PAPER. 
A TREATISE ON THEIR DESIGN, PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT. 

By ALFRED HOPKINS. 

Architect and Author of the Work, "Modern Farm Buildings." 



IN the preceding article on the requirements of farm 
buildings the writer considered the cow barn in detail, 
since it is perhaps the most important of the group 
from the standpoint of sanitation and because it probably 
presents more difficulties to the designer than any of the 
other buildings in arranging the floor space and providing 
for the cattle which on most farms constitutes the impor- 
tant portion of the live stock. 

It was specially pointed out that the cow barn should be 
amply provided with windows to give fresh air in summer 
and to take advantage of the sun in winter. It will be 
furthermore found advan- 
tageous to fit all the win- 
dows with blinds. These 
should be hooked in and 
not swung. The interior 
sash should be entirely 
removed in the summer 
time and the building 
kept dark by closing the 
blinds. The only way to 
keep flies out of a barn is 
to keep it dark — screens 
are useless. Fig. VII 
shows a desirable type of 
window and blind suitable 
for the cow barn. 

The interior woodwork 
of the cow barn is best 
painted with enamel 
paint ; white though it 
soils quickly is preferable 
for the simple reason that 
all dirt may be readily 




seen. It is a great advantage to enamel the walls and 
ceiling, though it is better not to paint the cement dado, 
as this frequently wants more vigorous scrubbing than a 
painted surface would allow. The cement plastering, 
though sometimes unsightly at first, improves in appear- 
ance with age and use. The iron work for the stalls can 
be painted any color desirable, but it is well to brighten 
them with aluminum, which is light in color, and though 
more easily rubbed off than paint, is more easily renewed. 
The plumbing for the cow barn is very simple and has 
been worked out to a perfectly satisfactory solution. All 

bell traps should be extra 
heavy and well, galvan- 
ized. The ordinary cast- 
iron trap rusts and is a 
nuisance. The soil line 
from all bell traps should 
invariably be of heavy 
iron pipe. Outside of the 
building tile pipe may be 
used, but it is poor prac- 
tice to use this within the 
building. The soil lines 
from the gutters should 
run to an outside mason's 
trap, and this line can 
take the outlet from the 
trough and the bell trap 
in front of the trough. 
The outlet to the water- 
ing trough should always 



Plan of Farm Buildings, Red Bank, 
E. Harris Janes. Architect. 

91 



*The first paper on this sub- 
ject appeared in The Brick- 
bvilder, March, 1914. 



9 2 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



be trapped. This outlet 
should not be less than 4 
inches in diameter, anda deep 
seated plug is necessary to 
keep the cows from pushing 
it out. Fig. VIII will make 
this clear. 

The leaders to the building 
should never be connected to 
any soil line, as a stoppage 
at the end of the leader line 
will cause the water from the 
roofs to back up and empty 
itself through the nearest bell 
trap on the stable floor. The 
leaders must always run into 
a separate system of their 
own. The supply at the end 
of the cow trough should 
never be less than 2 inches. 
Adequate outlets for hosing 
down should be had in all 
parts of the building. 




* Fig. VIII. Section through Trough 



The inlet ducts should be 
placed so that they are equally 
distributed, and their com- 
bined area should be equal to 
the area of the outlet vent. 
The inlet vent should be open 
at the bottom on the outside 
and at the top on the inside. 
This prevents the air blowing 
directly through it into the 
building, as would be the case 
if the opening on the outside 
was opposite that on the in- 
side. 

There are differences of 
opinion as to artificial heat in 
the eow barn. There is no 
doubt that heat is desirable 
on very cold nights. The 
great trouble with using arti- 
ficial heat is that the stable- 
man is liable to keep the 



barns at a temperature com- 
The subject of ventilation is a prime one, for no matter fortable to himself, which is too warm for the cattle. The 
how carefully an architect may plan his ventilating sys- barn should never be heated to over 55 or 60 degrees 



tern, it is almost impossible to find 
cattlemen who will take the trouble to 
acquire sufficient knowledge to use it 
intelligently. The theory of all ex- 
haust systems of ventilation is to take 
the air out at the bottom of the room 
and let it in at the top. This manage- 
ment of the air currents creates a 
circulation absolutely necessary for 
ventilation. Professor King has 
worked out for the stable a system of 
ventilation which is generally known 
bv his name. The outlet vents are 
seldom made less than I feet square, 
which gives an area of 4 square feet, 
and this is considered sufficient for 
twenty cows. This duct ought to be 
30 feet from the floor of the cow barn 
to the top of the duct. If lower, this 
ratio must be increased. This duet 
can be in one end of the cow barn as 
shown in Fig. IX, which is the best 
place for it in a small stable, with a 
single row of cows. In a stable with 
a double row of cows an excellent 
contrivance is an outlet 
duct of the sliding type 
which will come down in 
the central passageway, 
where it is placed at night 
when ventilation is most 
needed, and in the daytime 
is pushed up to the ceiling. 
Additional outlet ducts 
may be run from the side up 
the slant of the roof and 
into the ventilator on the 
roof as shown in Fig. X. 




Fig. IX. Outlet Duct at End of Barn. 




* Fig. X. Outlets at Sides Terminating in Central Ventilator. 
Reproduced from " Modern Farm Buildings," by Alfred Hofikim. McBridt, NasttSr Co., Publiihen. While 



Fahrenheit. The great advantage of 
artificial heat is seen in the ventila- 
tion. It allows the taking in of a 
greater amount of fresh air without 
chilling the stable. Artificial heat, 
then, should always mean more ven- 
tilation, not less. 

The most satisfactory way to re- 
move the manure is by overhead 
trolley, and the track should be hung 
2 feet back of the gutter, which brings 
the carrier in exactly the right posi- 
tion for convenient transfer of the 
manure from the gutter to the car- 
rier. The carriers are much better 
and cleaner than the old system of 
the cart, the wheels of which, if they 
become foul, grind the dirt into the 
floor at every revolution. 

In laying out the manure trolley 

lines, it is frequently desirable to take 

them through the feed room. It must 

be supposed that this is an un- 

leanly process, as the manure once 

in the carrier stays there and the 

car and contents can pass 

through the feed room 

without fouling it. It is 

almost always more direct 

to trolley through the feed 

room than to go around it, 

and it is well to remember 

that simplicity in doing the 

work throughout the whole 

group of farm buildings is 

the most important factor 

in having it well done. 

the horse manure 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



93 



and cow manure can be tracked to 
the same ultimate place, the cow 
manure should not have to go through 
the horse barn to get there, or vice 
versa. 

The place for unloading the carriers 
should under no circumstances be near 
the milking cow barn, but as far away 
as possible. All manure draws flies ; 
horse manure breeds them. Absolute 
cleanliness in this regard is important, 
for the milking barn can have nothing 
dirtier in it than the fly. The openings 
through which the manure trolleys pass 
should never be narrower than 4 feet, 
and the trolley will not run on a track 
whose curve has a radius of less than 
3 feet. 

Many farmers prefer to save the liquid 
manure, and in order to do this, it is 
necessary to conduct the drains from the 
gutters in a separate line to the liquid 
manure pit. All other floor drains 
should be taken out of this line. In 
large herds, say forty milking cows or 
upwards, it is always desirable to col- 
lect the liquid manure in a separate pit. 
In computing the capacity of the liquid 
manure pit, it is well to allow about 400 
gallons per cow. 

Wherever possible, all the stable's 
sliding doors should invariably be used 
in preference to swinging doors. Swing- 
ing doors are a nuisance in a stable. 
The large hay barn door may sometimes 




View from Cow Yard. 



GfcTE IN HtOQE 




Ground Floor Plan. 

Farm Buildings of S. T. Peters, Islip, L. I 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




Garage on Estate of S.T. Peters Islip, I 



swing out, but even here 
the sliding type of door is 
better. It is necessary to 
have a heavy stop for all 
sliding doors, which can be 
admirably made upon the 
floor in concrete, as shown 
in Fig. XI. All outside 
doors are best glazed, so 
they will let in as much 
light as possible ; and in- 
side doors should be glazed 
as well, as it is convenient 
to see from one compart- 
ment to another. No door 
for cattle should be less than 4 feet in width, and a 
6-foot door will enable two cows to go out at a time. 
The lower half of a Dutch door should be 4 feet 
6 inches high for horses and 3 feet 8 inches high for 
cows. All Dutch doors should open out and hook- 
back flat against the building. All door frames oc- 
curring in rooms with concrete floors should have 
their frames cut off 6 inches above the floor, and the 
form of the frame carried out in concrete. 

Doors are made 7 feet 6 inches high for horses, 7 
feet is high enough for cows ; the large hay doors are 
usually made 12 feet wide and 14 feet high. In ma- 
chinery rooms, for the storing of farm machinery, 
doors 8 feet wide by 8 feet high are usually sufficient. 
With regard to the other buildings of the farm 
group, the hay barn is perhaps the most interesting 
to the architect, as it is the largest structure and 
dominates the group. There is no feature to this 
building which is specially important, except that it 
be framed in such a manner as will allow the hay 
fork to run continuously from one end of the building 
to the other. Fig. XII shows the detail of the 
framing as it is usually carried out, and is sufficient 
for all spans under 50 feet. The trusses should be 
placed from 14 to 16 feet on centers. It is also quite 
practicable to fill the hay barn from either one or both 
ends, in which case the hay track is projected through 
the end of the building some 8 feet and a door not 



94 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



i 




Left Wing of Group. 

smaller than 6 feet wide and 
8 feet high is located just 
below it. This door is best 
hung to slide down, and 
should be weighted with 
counterweights. The proper 
ventilation of the hay barn is 
necessary, and in addition to 
the usual central ventilator, 
louvres should be placed 
underneath the eaves and at 
the gable ends. These should 
be arranged to be closed with 
batten doors in the winter 
time. In computing the capacity of the hay barn, 
it is usual to allow for each animal two tons of hay per 
annum, and for every ton of loose hay, 500 cubic feet 
of space. Baled hay takes up approximately one- 
third the room which loose hay does — 150 cubic feet 
per ton of baled hay as compared with 500 cubic feet 
per ton of loose haw Baled hay has the immense 
advantage of greatly reducing the fire risk, as it will 
not burn, while there is scarcely anything more in- 
flammable than loose hay in bulk. 

The farm stables should include a general wagon 
room, where the better class of vehicle may be kept : 
the horse stable, a place for harness, either in the 
stable or in a separate harness room, and for the farm 
wagons ample accommodation in the way of sheds, a 
machinery room, and tool room. The wagon room 
is an enclosed room for an express wagon, farmer's 
buggy, etc. It is well to have a chimney in this 
room, so that a stove may be used in the winter. 
This is the only room of the horse department of the 
farm barns which need be heated. It should never 
be less than 24 feet in depth, and 30 feet in width is 
a minimum dimension. In planning for a number 
of vehicles, it is usual to allow 7 feet for the width 
of each wagon and 11 feet for length. In close plac- 
ing of many wagons, it is possible to get the average 
width down to 6 feet 6 inches per vehicle. There 




Ground Floor Plan. 

Farm Buildings of Percy R. Pyne, Esq., Bernardsville, N. J. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



should always be a place for washing the wagons in the 
wagon room, preferably opposite the entrance, and for con- 
venience there is nothing equal to the overhead washer. 

In the horse barn, as in the cow barn, all mouldings or 
projections of any kind should be avoided. The horses 
may be arranged in double or single rows. The single 
row of stalls is very much better, as it enables one side of 
the stable to be thrown open to the sun and air. The 
type of stabling which has a passage in front of the stall, 
though requiring a larger building, is an excellent idea, 
giving more ventilation and comfort for the animals than 
any other kind. It keeps the horses away from the light, 
which frequently blinds them, and makes a cooler and bet- 
ter lighted stable. The windows in the horse stall where 
the stall is against the outside wall should never be lower 
than 6 feet 6 inches. 

The manure trolley is advisable in the horse stable, and 
the ventilation should be carefully worked out as in the 
cow barn. Usually a high ceiling for the horses is desir- 
able. The gutters to the stalls are always shallow and 

their corners rounded, exactly 
the reverse of the cow stall 
gutters, and, above all, open, 
for the covered gutter is hard 
to keep clean. 

The simplest possible stall 
partition is merely a pole 
hung between the animals. 
This has been used in Eng- 
land for a long time, but it 
seems impossible to adopt 
such a stall here. The rigid 
stall partition is consequently 
generally used. The stalls 
are usually 9 feet in depth, 




Entrance to Hay Barn Opposite Yard. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



though a shallower stall of 7 
feet answers all requirements 
and allows more of the horse 
to be seen. Stalls can vary 
from 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 
in width, and there is nothing 
in the superstition that a horse 
will cast himself in a stall 
which is between 4 feet and 5 
feet wide. Where few horses 
are provided for, there is no 
stall equal to the one 6 feet in 
width. A 6-foot stall is wide 
enough to allow cleaning or 
harnessing the animal in it. 
Hay is best fed upon the floor, 
and no hay rack is necessary. 

The farm horse usually does 
well on a concrete floor, but where 
there is a prejudice against it, the 
wooden slat floor with an iron pan 
below is the best type. The pans 
should be connected with the water 
system so that they can be flushed 
out. Stalls with wooden slats have 
the advantage over the concrete, 
that the urine drains out of them 
more quickly, and the bedding is 
drier in consequence. A cork 
brick for the floor is frequently 
used, and while it does not drain 
off as rapidly as the slat floor, 
it is warmer than the con- 
crete and is to be preferred 
on that account. 

A feed room for the horse 
stable is desirable. It is 
better to have all hay and 
grain come into the feed room 
in preference to the stable. 
The practice of storing hay 
above the horses, and throw- 
ing it down into the stable 
through the ventilator, is bad. 




CROSS StCTlON PART LONGITUDINAL SECTION 

* Fig. XI. Detail of Framing for Hay Barn. 




Ground Floor Plan. 



Farm Buildings of Clifford Brokaw, Esq. 



95 

If hay has to be kept over the 
horses, it is better to have no 
communication between the 
hay loft above and the stable 
below. 

A shed is a place for the 
storage of all farm wagons, 
carts, extra tongs, shafts, and 
the various things valueless 
and valuable which accumulate 
in the practice of agriculture, 
and in any farm group, no 
matter how large, there is 
seldom shed roo.m enough. 
The shed should never be less 
than 24 feet deep, and the sup- 
ports for the roof are best as 
few and as far apart as possible . 
The shed need not be over 9 feet 
in height, and 8 feet 6 inches is 
usually all that is required under 
average conditions. It is inexpen- 
sive and often desirable to have a 
loft over the shed for general stor- 
age. The hay barn can be made 
high enough to store the hay in a 
second story, leaving the space be- 
low for shed room, and in small 
farm groups this is an economical 
way of obtaining such space. 
In connection with the shed 
and generally at one end 
of it a convenient place 
is found for the storage of 
all farm machinery, which 
is used only for a short time 
during the summer, and 
when not in use, is best kept 
under cover in an enclosed 
room. It is similarly desir- 
able to provide a small room 
for the storage of tools, hoes, 
rakes, spades, and other 
small farm implements. 




Farm Buildings of Clifford Brokaw, Esq. 

Alfred Hopkins. Architect. 

Reproduced from " Modern Farm Buildings," bu Alfred Hopkins. McBride, Nasi & Co., Publishers. 



The Professors and the Profession. 



By ALBERT KELSEY, F.A.I.A. 



I HAVE hesitated over the selection of a title for this 
paper, feeling, after having listened to a discussion 
which took place recently before the Philadelphia 
Chapter A. I. A., on the relation of the profession to the 
sch-.ols, led by Professor Laird of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and debated by Mr. C. C. Zantzinger, 
chairman of the Institute's Committee on Education and 
by Mr. Henry Hornbostel, that it should have been " The 
Profession vs. the Professors," or even " The Profession 
without the Professors," though I confess no revolu- 
tionary ideas, such as these tentative titles convey, ever 
occurred to me until then, having, on the contrary, there- 
tofore felt that these two groups of sincere and ardent 
workers were supplementing one another's endeavors in 
perfect harmony. And even now, notwithstanding the 
eminence of the debaters and their divergent and startling 
points of view, I mean to ignore any spirit of rivalry or 
antagonism which may exist, still believing, as always, 
that for the average student regular and methodical 
instruction by a well-organized and permanent staff is 
better and productive of surer results than any intermit- 
tent, offhand teaching, no matter how brilliant, by archi- 
tects in active practice. On the other hand I cheerfully 
concede that the presence of an architect, now and then 
or at regular intervals in the lecture room or leading a 
criticism is much to be desired. But I cannot for a 
mi uncut admit that such a man's time, for such fragmentary 
and often too uncoordinated instruction is worth more than 
that of a professor permanently in charge. To make such 
a claim in comparison with the services of a professor who 
has patiently and laboriously built up, watched, and studied 
a school's growth, day by day, and month by month, for 
years is obviously absurd. 

At the meeting of the Philadelphia Chapter referred to, 
Professor Laird felt that the profession was not doing as 
much as it might for the schools, while strange to say, no 
one rose to ask what the schools were doing for the pro- 
fession in the sense of educating the public, establishing 
ideals, and raising standards. Indeed, both factions seemed 
to regard these institutions as mere training schools for 
the young, overlooking the possibility that from such an 
eminence a certain impartial, contemplative, and scholarly 
influence might radiate and exert a potent influence upon 
both the public and the profession. 

There were occasional flashes of idealism in Mr. Horn- 
hostel's remarks, though on the whole he took a sordid 
practical point of view, admitting that the schools were at 
last turning out excellent draftsmen, though giving but 
grudging credit to the pedagogues for this result, and by 
way of constructive criticism thought that the schools 
might increase their usefulness by a greater liberality in 
the conferring of honorary degrees. 

Mr. Zantzinger who, recently in the discharge of his 
official duties had made a tour of inspection of the leading- 
schools of architecture, referred to " instructors more or 
less incompetent " and to the growing practice of "im- 
porting Frenchmen with foreign points of view " to teach 
design, and made several thoughtful recommendations, 



the most radical being that the schools should extend the 
length of their courses and that the teaching of design 
should be confined to American architects in actual prac- 
tice, like Mr. Hornbostel. 

In short to meet the commercial and intensive demands 
of the day seemed both the burden and the limit of desire 
of both factions. They said not a word about architecture 
as a fine art — architecture that will endure. Nor did 
they even refer to real architecture, either commercial 
or spiritual ( I use this last word in the French sense), but 
confined themselves to paper architecture, — training on 
paper,— to the plan-factory and competition-mill, and to 
bigger and stronger schools in which to grind out more, 
quicker, and sharper draftsmen to feed into omnivorous 
office hoppers where whole departments are set aside for 
gladiatorial competitions, and where the architect himself 
often says, " the execution of buildings is left to the office, 
that does not interest me." 

Now, in all this I see a splendid opportunity for some 
school to try and stem the tide. Dr. Laird explained that 
it had taken twenty years for the schools to get their pace, 
and now having got it, let us inquire what one might do, 
on its second wind. The machine being on a good .e/oing 
basis, those in charge now have time to look about for 
new worlds to conquer and, moreover, time to estimate, 
with a fair degree of accuracy, the esteem in which their 
graduates are held by the general public. In short, how 
does the public rank an architect ? Usually as a more or 
less incompetent business man; often as an impractical 
dreamer, but seldom as a practical artist. I think this is 
both the usual point of view and a very just point of view. 
Well, "the public be damned." Let us seek the judg- 
ment of the cognoscente, let us go to art circles and to 
realms of intelligence, where certainly we will get our due. 
Surely that will be the great test ; and what do we find? 
That the oldest and most active Academy of the Fine- 
Arts in the country is unappreciative a.s are the directors 
and curators of most of our other art schools and mu- 
seums ; while the authorities of the next great World's 
Fair have deliberately and purposely ruled to exclude an 
architectural exhibit from the Department of Fine Arts ! 
Likewise college presidents, litterateurs, editors, musicians 
and actors, and other thoughtful men do not seem to appre- 
ciate us. This is all very sad but there must be a reason 
for it. Perhaps it is because the profession has not made 
good, or perhaps it is because there is no disinterested and 
recognized authority to speak for us. Let us pursue this 
comforting thought. Possibly if in one or more of our 
colleges there was a professor of architecture unhampered 
by the desire to follow the wishes of a money-making pro- 
fession, if there was a man thundering' truths against the 
commercialization of architecture to the entire nation, while 
extoling "the glory that was Greece and the grandeur 
that was Rome " through the medium of the best popular 
magazine and from the lecture platform (a fully accredited 
professor doing as much to popularize good architecture as 
an Elmendorf or a Burton Holmes), a public sentiment 
might be formed and an incentive for more beautiful and 



96 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



97 



more finished architecture might be created, thereby mak- 
ing some worthy practitioners deserving of the considera- 
tion they now expect but seldom get. 

A Charles Elliott Norton, a Goldwin Smith, a modern 
John Ruskin or a Dr. Elliot commanding the confidence 
and respect of the public because of his academic position 
and rugged independence would exert an authority and an 
uplifting influence no organization of practicing architects 
could hope to equal. Why? Because talking down from 
the heights so far removed from the possible job-getting 
and possible job-giving world, he would command an at- 
tention and a respect which is given only to those who are 
intelligent, sincere, and absolutely disinterested. 

It may be that it will require a retired architect, who 
has been used to meeting the fierce conditions of actual 
practice, used to real architecture, as well as paper archi- 
tecture ; who understands climatic conditions, who knows 
materials and the action of the weather upon them, who 
understands their artistic juxtaposition and treatment ; 
who knows besides the theory of ornament, the right tricks 
of undercutting and high lighting, and other variations 
necessary for the successful and effective use of a well 
known classical motive in different positions and under 
different conditions ; who understands color and especially 
the difficulties and differing conditions to be fought when 
using stained glass, etc. Who, in short, is equally a cos- 
mopolitan in the use and knowledge of all the styles, 
as in the use and knowledge of all the crafts. It may 
be, and perhaps is, expecting too much of a pedagogue 
to know and feel and insist upon all the refinements that 
went into the work of classical antiquity and that also 
goes into the best work of to-day, but at least he can lead 
his followers, in and out of school, in the right direction. 
Surely, without holding himself too much aloof he can 
maintain his dignity and keep constantly in touch with 
the active work of the profession. He can continue to 
advise those about to build, cautioning them in no uncer- 
tain terms that the finest architecture is not as apt to result 
from a competition as by direct appointment ; and then, 
if overruled, he can point out, very clearly and firmly, that 
many of those who are best at winning competitions are 
not always best at executing buildings ! That, therefore, 
limited competitions are desirable, but not only limited in 
the present recognized sense, but more especially that 
they should be limited— for instance, to architects who 
have not more than two or three partners-of-convenience 
in widely separated cities, to architects with permanently 
established offices, and to those whose competition-mills 
are not taxing the faking capacity of their ' ' hands ' ' by 
' ' manufacturing ' ' too many competitions at one and the 
same time. Also a thoughtful college professor once hav- 
ing reached the necessary eminence, will not be required 
to give much time to mere routine school work, but will 
have leisure, and above all the eager desire and keen wish 
to visit and study the buildings already executed by those 
he proposes to invite ; and will examine their buildings 
with such care as to know without any possibility of 
doubt whether the execution is better or worse than the 
original drawings promised, whether they have settled or 
cracked, whether they are good in detail and color, texture 
and finish, and above all whether the "winning partie " 
has been adhered to and if so how it suits the actual needs 
of those using it. He will make up his mind whether a 



genius capable of designing and building a stupendous 
stunt, dwarfing a state capitol, and throwing a whole city 
out of scale is really serving the community to the best 
advantage, and so on, ad infinitum. 

Proud of his influence and renown, his university will 
give him his sabbatical year abroad, so that he may re- 
fresh himself also by actual contact with the best the past 
has produced. Thus once every seven years he will come 
home more and more convinced of the fact that the bulbous 
domes, tapering towers, fair temples, and wondrous tombs 
of the Mogul Empire still display an exquisite perfection 
of workmanship and an infinite variety of design which is 
neither taught nor practiced to-day ; that the almost un- 
known ruins of Indo-China disclose grand flights of imag- 
ination, a type of architectural sculpture, a richness of 
ornamentation, a truly fine contrast in scale, a nicety of 
construction neither taught nor practiced to-day ; that the 
mosques and minarets of Mohamet, strewn the length of 
the Mediterranean, still plainly show evidences of patient 
study and careful execution neither taught nor practiced 
to-day ; while classical antiquity with its more exquisite 
art — which we profess however to venerate, study, and 
emulate ; he will then see that in reality, as it is at pres- 
ent taught, furnishes us with only a box of tricks, or a 
book of rules which we use in the same uninspired manner 
we use a Carnegie handbook, or a building trades 
pocketbook. He will see with horror that we are willing 
to take it all for granted, and swallow it whole, without 
understanding or appreciation. And, moreover, that 
there really is a chance for the pedagogue to kindle the 
flame and keep it burning for the benefit of the public, the 
refreshment of the profession, and the inspiration and en- 
lightenment of the student. 

Then perhaps he will devise a way to make his advanced 
students see as he sees, and feel as he feels — by requiring 
them to study classical forms in a dark room — by passing 
their hands over certain casts and describing what they 
feel ; so that they may thereby become excited and 
aroused to some real understanding of Greek refinement, 
and the true spirit of Greek art ; thus teaching that purity 
of form is not limited, nor archaic and obsolete, but uni- 
versal and eternally young. 

As to his particular concern for the undergraduate body 
and scholarship holders at home and abroad, he will give 
them incisive and searching criticisms on the work of the 
day, pointing out its promise and its failures, in vivid un- 
forgetable terms ; and will himself come to the conclusion 
that the great demand of the day, as well as for so long as 
this country continues to grow and prosper, will be for a 
utilitarian and more or less commercial architecture. And 
then he will gradually rearrange his courses so that the 
three or four year courses, and special courses, shall only 
be courses in commercial architecture ; so that those con- 
tinuing for two or three years longer, either at college or 
under its influence in travel, study, and research, either at 
home or abroad, alone shall get the most coveted degree 
of all — that of architect ! Thus by this or some similar 
method he will establish in the eyes of the public, what to 
my mind is the matter of very greatest importance to-day, 
viz., that there are architects and architects. 

While I have great respect for the opinions and sincerity 
of the gentlemen who took part in this debate, I do not at 
all agree that a more promiscuous distribution of degrees 



9« 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



will in any way help present conditions. True, we find 
common ground in the fact that there are already too 
many young architects honored with degrees of the dental 
and veterinary caliber, but differ as to the proper number 
of elderly practitioners to be singled out and honored. It 
being my contention that already some have been so hon- 
ored beyond their deserts ; which prompts me to remark, 
en passant, that I once heard some cultivated college 
graduates in an exclusive club say that they could not see 
why an architect should receive a degree any more than a 
policeman ! Special point is given to the story by the fact 
that they were referring to a Ph.D. which had that day 
been conferred on the late Charles F. MeKim, the most 
conscientious and most highly cultivated architect our 
profession has thus far produced ; showing conclusively 
that a truly great architect and his work meant little, if 
anything, to a rather superior group of men. 

X. »w, I contend, it is for the college professor, first through 
the students and the faculty, and then through the press 
and the public, to create a better general understanding of 
what an architect really is ; and if such a cult or caste as 
I have suggested could be created, made up of men think- 
ing in different terms from those in the commercial 
group— an aristocracy of architects whose attainments 
would be understood and respected by all men of educa- 
tion — then the degree of architect would mean much; 
but so long as the present promiscuous system of associat- 



ing obscure and rapacious commercial architects with bril- 
liant soldiers-of-fortune prevails and is encouraged by 
those in charge of our leading schools, and so long as one 
and the same office produces buildings of varying stand- 
ards, good, bad, and indifferent, according to the ability 
of the designer temporarily employed, or according to the 
pressure put upon the office and the eagerness of its chief 
to expand business, so long is it going to be impossible to 
impress the public with the sincerity of architects and to 
fool the people into believing that we are " holier than 
thou " artists and scholars, untainted by the commercial 
rapacity of the age. If, however, the heads of the princi- 
pal schools will set about to produce highly trained artists 
and scholars — uncompromising and stanch — then within 
a short time we shall have a select group of architects, 
peculiarly fitted to design and execute the great religious 
and secular buildings of a new land, whose names will live 
long after we are dead and gone, not because of the 
volume of work they produced nor the recognition they 
exacted, but because of their steadfast and patient and 
self-sacrificing devotion to an ideal. And it is only be- 
cause such men in the past lived and struggled, that we 
of to-day can raise our tired, jaded eyes to gaze, now and 
then, here and there, upon a truly sublime structure 
which, the more frequently we view it and the better we 
know it, awakens in us an ever-increasing feeling of rest- 
ful awe and genuine admiration. 



EDITORIAL. 



A FEW months ago we brought to the attention of our 
readers the general dissatisfaction which is felt 
with present methods of estimating and their re- 
sultant effect on competitive bidding, calling attention at 
the same time to the efforts which are being made to 
establish an American System of Quantity Surveying, 
which it is claimed will be effective in bringing about better 
conditions of estimating, equally beneficial to owner and 
contractor. We published in recent issues of The Brick- 
bvilder expressions of opinion from chapters of the 
American Institute of Architects and from individual 
architects, which came to us as a result of our presenta- 
tion of this subject. Their letters indicated that they 
recognized the need for improved methods in estimating, 
and that they were agreeable to welcome and further any 
sincere efforts which were made to attain this end. 

The advocates of the Quantity System are constantly 
enlarging their sphere of influence, and as the advantages 
to both owner and contractor become more apparent they 
are arousing the interest and securing the support of the 
architectural profession. This is, however, as it should 
be, for architects should be eager to support and adopt any 
measure which will effect a clear and just understanding 
between owner and contractor. In the architect's profes- 
sional employment he assumes the unique and exceptional 
legal combination of an agent for the owner and at the 
same time arbitrator between the owner and the contractor. 
Such an exceptional duty makes the offices of an architect 
particularly difficult, and it is evident that anything which 
can be construed to lessen the difficulties which may arise 
in the fulfilment of his duties should be warmly welcomed 
by him. It is easily acknowledged that the chief disputes 



which arise between owner and contractor, and which re- 
quire arbitration on the part of the architect, are due to 
misinterpretation of what the contract calls for, and in the 
settlement of charges incurred by extra work which are 
clue in some cases to omissions in specifications and other 
causes directly chargeable to the architect, and in others of 
equal frequency, to express desires on the part of the client 
to include other items than those in the original contract. 

The first reason for such misunderstandings, however, 
the Quantity System of Estimating as proposed would re- 
move, for before completing the bill of quantities all 
omissions and other defects would be determined and 
cleared up, with the result that the documents when they 
reach the contractor will be as complete and accurate as it 
is possible to make them. 

It is not so with plans and specifications, which maybe, 
and often are, contradictory and capable of two or more 
interpretations. In such cases the bidder has forced upon 
him a condition which causes and encourages guesswork 
methods, as to what another person has in his mind, as to 
what he really means by certain lines and words, and 
occasions often arise when it is difficult, if not impossible, 
to determine what the true intention is until perhaps after 
the estimate has been submitted. 

The bill of quantities carefully prepared will entirely 
remove this dangerous element of chance. It should be 
furnished to each bidder and contain everything which is 
essential for the contractor to have when making up his 
figures. It should be prepared by efficient men whose 
competency and integrity have been assured, and should 
further be guaranteed by them and made the basis of the 
contract equally with the drawings and specifications. 



Hi 



"^iffSjji iliill ' iiiiiii I 



ftk^Jidii. iVsAs-'.v 



m 



*■ «iv,'i 






iWi 






!ii((Hlffl(ll(lfflWl/«l«l"l 









># 



it: 



VOLUME XXIII 



NUMBER 5 



^ 



CONTENTS /or MAY 1914 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS Architect Plate 

FRANKLIN BUILDING. THE, CHICAGO. ILL .George C. Nimmons 68-71 

HOUSE. OAK PARK. ILL Spencer & Powers 73,74 

HOUSE. MRS. DENKMANN-HAUBERG, ROCK ISLAND, ILL., Spencer & Powers 75-77 

HOUSE. FRED B. SMITH, ESQ., TERRE HAUTE. IND Spencer & Powers 78. 79 

OFFICE BUILDING. LAWYERS'. WASHINGTON. D. C Arthur B. Heaton 12 

STORE AND OFFICE BUILDING. WASHINGTON, D. C. Applet on P. Clark 72 

STABLES, TERRE HAUTE, IND., AND ROCK ISLAND, ILL... Spencer & Powers 80 
VETERINARY BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA Cope & Stewardsot 



LETTERPRESS 

DETAIL OF UNIVERSITY BUILDING, SOUTH CAROLINA, ALFRED 
BUSSELLE, ARCHITECT, THOMAS R. JOHNSON. DEL Frontispiece 

KING'S COLLEGE HOSPITAL. THE NEW. LONDON, ENGLAND 

Ft. Randal Phillips 

"" William A. Pile. F.R.I.B.A., Architect 

Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 

BUSINESS SIDE OF AN ARCHITECT'S OFFICE. THE.... D. Everett Waid 

The Office of Messrs. Mann & MacNeille. New York 
Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 

SOME OLD AND UNFAMILIAR SPANISH BUILDINGS Arthur G. Byne 

Part II. Hospital de Santa Cruz. Toledo 
Illustrations from Photographs 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS Ed. Review 

V. The Work of Thomas R. Johnson 
Illustrations from Drawings 

MODERN USE OF CASEMENT WINDOWS, THE Howard V. Bowen 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 

HEATING AND VENTILATION •- Charles L. Hubbard 

II. Space Required for Apparatus 
Illustrations from Diagrams 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 






YOKJi' 



P VB LI S HE© • MONTH LY 



65-67 



Page 



99 



10H 



106 



110 



ll.i 



118 



122 



jjpy 



; "M 



3 



□9 



m 



IBP 1 



m 



. L.i'-.nm-i ] 



BOStQH'' ■' 

iv5S'ELL-F-WHlTEHEAD 

& NTERW . COpTlUGHT • 1014- BY-RPGERJB'AND-fMNSON- COKPKN>C • ; . 
■WRSf R1PTIQN ' R.M E5 * 

SSKS;^^S^^K^'A N , D :SSS^ 



'. 



iM] 




RENDERED DETAIL OF UNIVERSITY BUILDING IN SOUTH CAROLINA 



ALFRED BUSSELLE. ARCHITECT 
THOMAS R. JOHNSON, DEUNEATOR 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIII 



MAY, 1914 



NUMBER 5 



The New King's College Hospital, London, England. 

WILLIAM A. PITE, F.R.I.B.A., ARCHITECT. 
By R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



.~i> <2- i, . 



IT has long- since been apparent that the public hospi- 
tals of London are not in positions best suited to the 
population they are intended to serve, for with the 
never ceasing growth of the metropolis there has been a 
corresponding migration from the central districts towards 
the outskirts. Twenty years ago a committee of the House 
of Lords went carefully into this subject and recom- 
mended that a process of decentralization should be fol- 
lowed whenever opportunity offered. The first institution 
to act on this recommendation is King's College Hospital ; 
and others, including Westminster and St. George's, are 
preparing to do likewise. The conditions will be clearly 
realized if past history is surveyed. King's College Hos- 
pital, for example, when established in 1839 adjacent to 
the site now occupied by 
the Law Courts, was in the 
midst of the densely popu- 
lated district around Clare 
Market. The clearance of 
this slum area, as part of 
a London improvement 
scheme, caused a migra- 
tion of the former inhabi- 
tants, and as time went on 
the hospital found itself 
getting more and more out 
of touch with those who 
stood most in need of its 
succor and aid. About ten 
years ago, therefore, steps 
were taken towards remov- 
ing the hospital to a dis- 
trict where it could render 
greater service. The com- 
mittee of the House of 
Lords had recommended 
that at the first opportu- 
nity a general hospital 
should be built at Camber- 
well, on the southeast side 
of London, where a large 
and densely populated area 
remained unserved by any 
such institution ; and to 
that location the authori- 
ties decided to transfer 
King's College Hospital. 
In 1904 a site on Denmark 
Hill was selected, and here 
the great new building has 



SHeparfamf 



Stixt. 

ff A«h«S JitaS 






been erected. The site is in every respect an admirable 
one, comprising twelve acres, rising gently towards the 
south, and overlooking on this side a pleasant open piece 
of wooded ground called Ruskin Park. The site is almost 
rectangular, having a length of 1,000 feet and a depth of 
500 feet. 

When the removal had been decided upon, six leading 
architects were invited to submit designs, the plans of 
Mr. William A. Pite, F.R.I.B.A., being selected. Work 
on the site was commenced in 1908. In the following year 
His Majesty, the late King Edward VII (who took a keen 
interest in the hospitals), laid the foundation-stone, and 
the present sovereign, King George V, in company with 
Queen Mary, inaugurated the building in July last, so 

that altogether about five 
years have been taken in 
erecting the hospital. It 
is not, however, complete 
at the present time, as 
only five of the eight ward 
blocks projected in the 
scheme have been built, 
and work on the erection 
of the medical school and 
other buildings is still in 
progress. 

As will be seen from the 
accompanying block plan, 
the hospital is practically 
divided into two parts by 
the central corridor (nearly 
900 feet in length), the 
eight ward blocks being- 
grouped on the south side 
of this corridor, while the 
administration block, the 
casualty and outpatients' 
department, and the medi- 
cal school are arranged on 
the north side. 

A dm in is tra Hon Bu i I ding . 
The administration build- 
ing, centrally placed, has 
secretarial offices, board 
room, nurses' dining hall, 
and resident medical offi- 
cers' quarters on the 
ground floor. The wards 
are worked from the first 
Group Plan floor, where matron's, sis- 




\ PRQSPECTvrf KINGS 03UIEGE I Il'SHTAL - UHJ.WAKk HILL IOMX.1N SE-AVOkun-A Rtr FRIBA Ardurat- 



Bird's-eye Perspective of Completed Group 



SK. Jfooo+ctKimcoi and (ftwi 



9 {tap- 



® 




IOO 

ters', and nurses' quarters 
are provided, the floors 
above comprising bed- 
rooms, bathrooms, and 
other accommodations. 
The nurses' bedrooms are 
1 2 by 9 ft . At present their 
number is 188, but when 
the west wing is completed 
there will be 303. (The 
hospital at the present time 
provides accommodation 
for 3 Jo in-patients, but 
eventually this number 
will be increased to 600, 
so that, adding the nurs- 
ing and other staff, the 
total population of the hos- 
pital will not be far short 
of 1.000.) In the adminis- 
tration building the follow- 
ing will eventually be the 
proportion of nurses' 
rooms: bedrooms 303, 
bathrooms 50, toilets 42. 
boot-cleaning rooms 13, 
hair-washing rooms 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 

L^ U LjlJ Lj U 



r^ cs 



o era 



U^LlT] il} 




-r Wm 




.; — • ; — ■ 

GROUND n.ODR. 



Casualty and Outpa- 
tients' Department. The 
casualty and outpatients' 
buildings on the east side 
of the administration build- 
ing comprise five distinct 
departments grouped 
around a large waiting 
hall. These departments 
are, — casualty, baths and 
electrical, outpatients', 
almoner, dispensary. 
The casualty and outpa- 
tients' departments are 
close to the main road and 
are placed in juxtaposition 
on either side of an en- 
trance court 40 feet wide, 
spanned by a glazed roof 
across the two main en- 
trances. The casualty de- 
partment provides for the 
immediate treatment of 
surgical and medical acci- 
dents, and includes, in 
addition to the usual ac- 
commodation, a 24-hour 




General View and First Floor Plan of the Administration Building 
King's College Hospital, London, England 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



101 



observation ward on the first floor, comprising eight 
beds, each in a g-lass-screened cubicle. Here doubtful 
cases can be watched before being admitted to the wards 
proper. Similarly, a padded room (the walls and door 
being lined with rubber cushions) is provided for infuri- 
ated cases. In fact, throughout the building every detail 
has been studied with the object of securing the greatest 
convenience and safety in working and service. 

The underlying plan of effective organization is even 
better illustrated in the outpatients' department, where, 
around the central waiting hall (capable of seating 500 
people, for whose convenience a central buffet is installed, 
where refreshments can be obtained), the examining 
rooms, etc., are so arranged that, after having seen the 
doctor and received treatment or medicine, patients do 
not retrace their steps, thus enabling the work of the 
hospital to go on without disturbance. There are top- 
lighted corridors on either side of the waiting hall, that 
on the north giving access to the surgical consulting 
rooms, with operating theater, and that on the south giv- 
ing access to the medical consulting rooms, throat and 
ear department, and children's department, in connection 
with which last it may be mentioned that there is a sepa- 
rate entrance for whooping-cough cases, just as special 
provision is made for the immediate removal of infectious 
cases to the isolation hospital. On the south side, too, 
on the first floor, is the dental department. Opening off 
the west end of the waiting hall is the women's and gynae- 
cological department, which includes a large examining 
room having six undressing boxes, so that while one pa- 
tient is being seen others may be preparing. In the baths 
and electrical department all kinds of baths are provided, 
— alkaline, lime and sulphur, vapor, douche, needle, as 
well as rooms adapted for X-ray and other electrical 
treatment. Finally, in this section of the hospital is 
the dispensary. This is very extensive, being adapted 
to serve both the outpatients' department and the hospital 
proper. Lifts communicate with the drug and surgical 
stores. 

Medical School. On the other side of the administration 
building the medical school is now being erected. The 
medical school has always been a great feature of King's 





Waiting Room in Outpatients' Building 



Outpatient and Casualty Buildings 

College, from the inception of the hospital in 1839, and 
the names of many eminent physicians and surgeons — 
Dr. Robert Bentley Todd, Dr. George Budd, Sir William 
Ferguson, and Lord Lister among them — are associated 
with it. Hence much importance attaches to the new 
building. It comprises a fine lecture theater, library, 
museum, and laboratories. 

Main Wards. Wards are grouped on the south side of 
the main hospital corridor and, as already stated, five are 
built, but three more will eventually be added. The two 
middle blocks, called respectively the King Edward VII 
and King George V Ward Blocks, are of three stories, the 
others being of two stories only. All have blow-through 
arches at ground floor, to prevent the air becoming stag- 
nant between the blocks. The accompanying plan shows 
the disposition. It will be seen that there is a cut-off 
lobby between the main corridor and the ward rooms at 
one end, and blow-throughs between the ward and the 
sanitary towers at the other end. The wards are each 27 
feet wide and accommodate twenty-four beds. The ceiling 
is of plaster, and the windows extend from 3 feet 3 inches 
above floor level to within a few inches of the ceiling ; 
they are of a patented type pattern, working in grooves 
and having lever arms which allow them to be easily ad- 
justed, the sashes always overlapping and also allowing 
them to be reversed for cleaning purposes ; there is a 
hopper at the top. The floors of the wards are laid with 
linoleum, the skirting being of a patent composition swept 
at the angle and finishing flush with the linoleum. The 
walls and ceilings of the wards are finished with granite 
silicon plaster, painted with white enamel. Warming is 
by central double-stoves (two in each ward), supple- 
mented by low-pressure steam radiators. The sanitary 
towers have water-closets and sink rooms on the one side, 
and baths and lavatories on the other, every provision 
being made for the utmost cleanliness and convenience ; 
thus, there is a special cupboard for bed-pans, with exter- 
nal ventilation, and the sink room is so placed that pa- 
tients do not pass through it. Between the arms of the 
sanitary towers a sun balcony is provided on each floor, 
overlooking Ruskin Park. 

Special Ward Block. At the west end of the main hos- 
pital corridor is a special ward block, of two stories, con- 
taining four wards of fourteen beds each, for ophthalmic 
cases and diseases of the ear, throat, and skin. Detached 



102 



THE BRICKBV1LDER. 



from this block, in the north- 
west corner of the site, is the 
isolation hospital. This is quite 
an advance in building's of its 
kind — a development from a 
similar scheme at the Pasteur 
Institute in Paris. Accommo- 
dation is provided for eight 
patients, in glass-screened cubi- 
cles entered off a central nurs- 
ing corridor, ample ventilation 
beingprovided by blow-throughs 
in the upper part of each room. 
The patient is bathed in his 
cubicle, and the soiled linen is 
taken away in a cylindrical box 
to be disinfected. 

Operating Theaters. The prin- 
cipal operating theater blocks, 
two in number, each two stories 
high, are on the north side of 
the main hospital corridor, be- 
tween the pathological block 
and the north wing of the spe- 
cial ward block. They are car- 
ried out in the most modern 
manner, the floors being laid 
with terrazzo and the walls 
white enameled. The sinks, 
sterilizers, etc., are placed in a 
bay, on one side of which is the 
anesthetizing room and on the 
other the surgeons' room with 
sterilizing room adjoining. 
Space is provided for eighteen 
spectators, who, however, do 
not come on the actual floor of 
the theater, but are accommo- 
dated in tiers, with separate en- 
trance. Heating is on "panel" 
system, the pipes being laid 
within the wall. In all, there 
are nine operating theaters. 

Kitchen Department. This is 
a most admirably planned de- 




Interior of Ward 




Exterior Detail of Ward Wings 

Note air intakes at ground level, removable panels 
inwindo and inlets to central ward 








Typical Plan of Ward Wings 



partment. It is on the base- 
ment level of the administration 
building and has a complete 
plant for cooking by steam and 
gas. The floor is laid with 
tiles, and the roof, of reinforced 
concrete, is planned with a duct 
all round communicating with 
an exhaust fan, which with- 
draws all fumes and discharges 
them at the roof level. Thus, 
no smell of cooking reaches the 
rooms above the kitchen. 

Of the many other parts of 
the hospital, space does not here 
permit any extended descrip- 
tion : sufficient to say that a 
refrigerating plant provides the 
considerable amount of ice that 
is required daily, a calorifier 
provides a constant supply of 
hot water, dynamos driven by 
oil engines generate electricity 
for lighting and power, and a 
special apparatus enables bed- 
ding, etc., to be thoroughly 
disinfected. 

Altogether King's College 
Hospital may be regarded as 
a very notable example of a 
large general hospital. It is 
skilfully planned as a finished 
group, allowing for a distribu- 
tion of parts which guarantees 
efficiency and convenience 
among the hospital personnel. 
The accommodation for 
patients has been determined 
upon with a practical view to 
future demands of the com- 
munity. The various depart- 
ments are equipped in the most 
perfect fashion, and the whole 
displays much architectural 
distinction. 




/////////HI 

Juiiding 



Sun Balcony at South End of Wards 



The Business Side of an Architect's Office. 

THE OFFICE OF MESSRS. MANN & MacNEILLE, NEW YORK. 

By D. EVERETT WAID. 



THE offices of Messrs . Mann 
& MacNeille, 70 East 45th 
street, New York City, are 
of exceptional interest, for the 
reason that this firm of architects 
undertakes the direct execution 
of construction work, not as 
contractor, but as agent for the 
owner. Many architects are 
called upon to do such work 
occasionally and to a small ex- 
tent ; but perhaps only one 
architect known to the writer 
other than the firm 
mentioned possesses 
a construction de- 
partment that has 
developed a complete 
organization trained 
to estimate costs, to 
buy material and 
hire labor, and to ex- 
ecute construction 
work according to 
their own standards. 
The tendency 
among architects to 
sublet work and even 
to execute it by em- 
ploying labor and 
contracting for mate- 
rials themselves is 
perhaps due to the 
existence of many in- 
competent brokers 
who call themselves 
general contractors . 
That tendency may 
receive an impetus, 
when architects real- 
ize that their proper 
standing is jeopard- 
ized by the growing 
power of a class of 
contractors who are 
dealing altogether 
with owners and with 
an avowed purpose 
of standing between 
owner and architect, 
and even employing 
architects as a sub- 
servient part of their 
own organizations. 
Desire for self-pres- 
ervation should warn 
present-day architects 




Administration Floor Plan 




Drafting Department Floor Plan 



! 

u 

t 1 


1 * jfl 




1 ( f 


■«■ 




W 



Entrance Hall showing Stairs to Drafting Department 
103 



that they must thoroughly 
qualify themselves with practi- 
cal knowledge of materials and 
construction and structural 
design. Otherwise they may 
find themselves on a salary basis 
making artistic sketches for a 
business man whose main in- 
terest is money profit, and who 
has not the aesthetic apprecia- 
tion which animated the crafts- 
men-architects of old. 

Returning to Messrs. Mann 
& MacNeille, the 
visitor to their office 
will agree that the 
plan conveys no ade- 
quate idea of its at- 
tractiveness. Mr. 
Mann, the sponsor 
for the designing 
abilities of the firm, 
has his headquarters 
nearby, if not always 
in the drafting room, 
which is located in 
the "pipe-gallery" 
story of one of the 
new Grand Central 
office buildings, 
where the rent is 
about half the rate of 
the upper portion of 
this duplex office. 

The photographs 
and plan together 
give some idea of the 
arrangement and fine 
furnishing of the en- 
trance hall and the re- 
ception room, which 
is supported by a 
corresponding busi- 
nesslike elegance and 
richness throughout 
the remainder of the 
office. 

Mr. MacNeille, who 
is a trained engineer 
and who had valuable 
experience in one of 
the big engineering 
offices before he be- 
came a practising 
architect, is especially 
interested in the con- 
struction work of his 



104 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



e-°- N y 406 



Emergency Order 

tflbftCl If Cctitnet Condition* on h* 



B5.7! 






Work No. 

Dm*.. . 



Location of Work . 



Shipping I os true tic 



Or*? Copy to Mint ' 

Tissue Copy io 'he HuiMing. aoJ 

Yellow Copy ID Deafer. 



MANX A MacNEILLE 



ijjti 



THIS AGREEMENT. made in the City of New York 

this day of . 191 . between 

MANN W MacNEILLE. (hereinafter called the -Architect." I. parties of the first part. 



i her. 



'*). individually and as the duly authorized agent of 
party of the second part 



We beg to inform you of the following alteration! 
which wc have made in your plant and specifications at 



Your request lo 

Your letter of 

Or for the best interest of the work. 



WITNESSETH: 

The Architect* have prepared for the Owner plan* and .(petrification* for the 
construction on the Ow 



property 



of 

The Owner den ire* to engage the Architects to manage the construction, and as agent* fur 
h to take full charge of trie work to he performed under said plans and specification*, 
and such additional work a* he may from time to time direct. 

Now. therefore, in consideration of the premises, and of the — 
herein ..-untamed, the parties herehy agree a* follows: 



itual 



I. The Architects shall, a* agents for the Owner, and for h account, engage 
or contract for the labor and purchase or contract for the purchase of the materials 
necessary to perform the work ahove referred to. and shall inspect tin* work aod materials 
and manage and direct the construction. 

The services to he rendered hy the Architect, hereunder are as follow.: 
procuring estimates, placing orders, employing and supervising the workmen, negotiating, 
preparing and signing contracts, auditing and paying the hill, and pay rolls out of money 
furnished hy the Owner as herein provided, and in general acting a. the Owner's agent* 
in managing the entire work. 



time a* he actually spend* on the 



he Architects will provide the service* of a general foreman or 
charge of construction, charging the Owner with only so much of hi* 
k outside the office of the Architect.. 



II. The Arch 
upenntenJent in charge of construction, charging the O 



III. The Owner shall pay the Architects as compensation for the 
endered hereunder ten per cent, of the cost of the construction, due in pro rata 
nstalmcnts a* payment" for account of the Owner are due and payable. 



IV. The Owner shall deposit with the Architect, in advance, from time to 
time, sufficrnt money to pay the bills accruing on the work and their own commission., 
and the Architect* shall, prior to each new deposit, if the Owner so desires, render a 
statement of the disbursement* made from the previous deposit, accompanying same with 
receipted hill* or vouchers 

V. The cost of the construction shall include tbe cost of all labor, material, 
freight, expressagc. traveling expenses, permits, telephone, indemnity insurance, and tbc 
time of the general and other foreman, and of the pay clerk and the co.t of legal service* 

and surveyor'* service* where they are necessary. 



AWAWOED TO 



POMPLETC WORK 



AMOUNT ALLOWED » 



IMS-LOT KCt- ftKCOflO CARD 



-m, „- LAIO OFF 



stimate the above will i 



Yours 

MAN!- 



MANN A Mfte-MEIIXE 
TO Bast ajtb Srr-xtt. N*-v> Tort 

PETTY EXPENSE ACCOUNT 

Owner 



Woek Ending 101 



For What Spent and by Whom 
Procure Rscaipt where possible ami siuch a> ibis slip 




Araonnt on band it commencement of week 

Received during tbc week 

Total 

Spent during week 

Amount on hand tbis date 



Signature of Foremnr 



PROFESSIONAL CODE AND CHARGES FOR MANAGING CONSTRUCTION- 
MANN y MacNEILLE. ArcKitecti 
70 EAST 45th STREET. NEW YORK 



He M also charged the co.t of 
nts aod other disbursements for 



SERVICES RENDERED 

Procuring estimate, from sub-contractor*, after separating the work into it. different divisions for 
this purpose; negotiating for. preparation of, and signing of the sub-contract*; and the direction 
of the construction. 

Listing the quantities of materials required, procuring price, on same, placing the order* and auditing 

At uu. 

Employing and .upervising the workmen, foremen, general foreman, and when necessary a pay clerk. 

issuing the pay rolls, paying and auditing same: 
And in general acting as the owner . agent in managing the building operation* 

CHARCES 

10 per cent, of the cost of the work for managing it. construction 

telephone service, expressagc. traveling expense, survey*. la 

his account. 
'Payments to the Architects are due firo rata as payment* for labor ana material become Jus 
When the owner desire*, in advance, a complete detailed estimate of the cost of the labor and 

material for hi* house, this will he charged for at the cost of preparing same to the Architects. 

FINANCING 

The arrangement for financing which we have found "most satisfactory i» for the owner to deposit 
with us about ten per cent, of the proposed cost at the time the work is commenced. 

From this amount we pay the hills for labor and material as they become due. taking advantage for 
the benefit of the owner of any professional, cash or other discount. When the sum deposited 
approaches exhaustion we render an itemized statement to the owner of the amounts expended. 
accompanying same with vouchers or receipted bills if he desire*. 

He then reimburses us this amount. This arrangement continues until the building is completed 
and final account* rendered. 



/. i >rderfor materials or labor issued and accepted under conditions, 
of contract printed on reverse side. Materials called for in sin h 
when delivered at the building are checked by foreman, who 
tractor an itemized receipt which forms the' basis for checking his bill. 
2. Printed notice to inform clients of additional expense made neees- 
uir\ in the course of construction. 3. Card for office use attached lo 
tabulation of bids authorizing letting of contract. 



4. Card record of each employee on construction work. S. Form 
of agreement for managing construction. .1 sixth condition per- 
mitting the owner lo terminate the contract at any time by com- 
pensating the architects to date of termination and space for 
signatures of the contracting parties appears on the reverse side. 
7. Form staling services rendered and compensation for the same to 
the architects. 



PRINTED FORMS IN USE IN THE OFFICE OF MANN & MacNEILLE 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



i°5 





l 






























DAILY RECORD OF LABOR 


4 


NO 






!«h v- n,^.- n.nr 








Nnb.rsiW.rk 


WHAT DOING 






.191 


Masons 








Helpers 










Carpenters 













r>fM . A »« 


Helpers 










Laborer! 










Sheet Metal Workers 








Painters 






Plumbers 






1 










Electricians 






1 










Heating Men 






Form G. 

j 'Delinquent Memorandum 

^ MANN t M1CNEILLE— ARCHITECTS 












Misc. Subcontractors 






































DAILY RECORD <>l MAI E RIAL 


UN O- 0»L» O, SuB <0,T„ Ar ,OR 


M IDMESi 


M ^ " C 












J«h No Owner Date 




""""""" 


-""™ * °— - 














BsrtafCcMtdi 


BlfierHafUf 


Slid 


». ■.. r .,„ .... 












Footings 












BalEqFO^OEB 


„»Tt OF 0EU.E.YCU.EOEO,,™ 01,00, 


0»EWD E U.E»«Wno>HE> 


OWE Of i-l~E»T 












Concrete Walls 










Rendering 
























O.TE 


OESCIBE „S»E WH.T .5 W. 


V 


Tile 












Owner 1 












Brick 
































Address 


























Work Location 












CONTRACTS 


r ■_*». 










5 


Contract For Olven to Date 


Numb., 


Amount 
























-— — _L— 


























Printed Forms in Use in the Office of Mann & MacNeille 



firm. In developing' their system he 
adopted the rule of providing printed 
blanks for simplifying business admin- 
istration only after experience had 
demonstrated their need and indicated 
the form they should take. Their forms 
therefore represent the demands of 
experience and not the result of theory. 
Mann & MacNeille, after preparing 
drawings and specifications, make de- 
tailed estimates of cost while they are 
getting bids from contractors. If their 
own estimate, plus their charge of 10 
per cent, does not better the contractor's 
bid by 10 per cent or more, they advise 
the client to let the contract. If the 
client wishes them to undertake the 
construction, they execute a special con- 
tract agreeing to act as agent to manage 
construction. The owner is expected 
to deposit with them funds sufficient to 
cover liabilities at all times and permit 
them to secure the best prices by reason 
of their custom of paying cash or dis- 
counting bills. Close scrutiny is kept 
on the progress of work, and daily re- 
ports provide a record of costs of both 
labor and material . A daily comparison 
of estimated and actual costs of con- 
struction is thus possible. It may be 
remarked that such checking is most 
essential, and it will be found the rule in 
the business of successful contractors. 

Their system also avoids friction over 
extras, by written notices which inform 
the owner of the cost which any change 
may involve. Several of their more 
important blanks are here reproduced 
which may interest those who are not yet 
equipped to manage construction work. 



/. Bank check voucher used by architects in special accounts for construction ivork. 
2. Form for notice to office of delayed shipment of materials. 3. Guide card for use of chief 
draftsman. Behind this guide is kept register of drawings and records of their issue and 
other memos relating to the building. 4 and 5. Work slip and follow-up memorandum 
for office use. 




Reception Room 
Office of Mann & MacNeille 




■■VMMMI 






MAIN PORTAL 
HOSPITAL DE SANTA CRUZ, TOLEDO 



Some Old and Unfamiliar Spanish Buildings. 

PART II. HOSPITAL DE SANTA CRUZ, TOLEDO. 

By ARTHUR G. BYNE. 

Illustrated from Photographs Specially Taken by the Author. 



THE Hospital of the Holy Cross was a foundation by 
Cardinal Pedro de Mendoza, who had already built 
the one of the same name at Valladolid. Enrique de 
Egas was architect for both. The Toledo edifice was built 
between 1505-1515. 

De Egas and his powerful patron had fallen out over 
the Valladolid hospital, because the facade was too severe. 
Mendoza was enormously wealthy and proportionately os- 
tentatious, and in his eye it was "poor and wretched." 
He died before the Toledo work was begun, which left 
De Egas to carry out his schemes unafraid that the facade 
would not be found rich enough. The influence of the 
Valladolid incident is apparent, nevertheless, for the 
portal is much more heavily ornamented than in the pre- 
ceding structure. 

Starting as a Gothicist, this architect had become an 
enthusiast over the Italian importation of Renaissance 
and tried to understand it not only in its ornament but 
fundamentally. How well he succeeded is shown by the 
classic symmetry of plan in his four great hospitals, — the 
two already mentioned, and those of Granada and 
Santiago. Considering Spain's remoteness from the Re- 
naissance movement, and the fact that long internal dis- 
turbances had retarded her intellectual growth, these 
early Renaissance structures are specially remarkable. 
It is hard to believe that they were designed only fifty and 
sixty years after Brunelleschi's Pazzi Chapel at Florence, 
which, very Roman though it is in many features, is con- 
sidered the first completed building of the Italian Renais- 
sance ; and harder still to believe that De Egas had 
probably never been in Italy, but got his knowledge 
through Italian builders who sought employment in Spain. 

The Toledan example is in the form of a great Maltese 
cross. It shared the fate of other over-ambitious archi- 
tectural undertakings — never to be finished ; but even 
incomplete, it ranks with the Archbishop's Palace at 
Alcala as heading the list of fine Spanish Renaissance 
buildings. 

Only the doorway (with detail) and the lower part of 
the staircase are shown. All is much dilapidated ; for 
Toledo, besides being overtaken by poverty, was badly 
battered by the French in 1808. A restoration is on foot, 
but unless this is more intelligently carried out than the 
restoration of San Juan de los Reyes in the same city, the 
decrepit old hospital might better go unpropped to its 
death. There are encouraging signs, however, in the 
very small portion of the patio thus far repaired, that the 
work is in sympathetic hands. 

The doorway is of a fine, white stone, called piedra blanca 



de la Rosa, and marble, and the whole has turned into 
fascinating old ivory tints. It can be clearly seen that 
the detail is purer Renaissance than the ensemble, since 
the latter, particularly at the top, takes some egregious 
liberties with the style. This portion, one feels, must 
have bothered the architect greatly ; till at last, in des- 
peration of a Renaissance solution, he turned to his early 
Gothic training to help him out. 

The lower part, on the contrary, is admirable. The 
rectangular door frame and its adjacent colonnettes are 
surprisingly pure ; and the spot of amorini supporting the 
Mendoza arms is as charming and as early as any similar 
motif in Italy. Throughout the lower portion the detail re- 
sembles early Lombardy work, particularly certain door 
and window motifs of the Certosa de Pavia which anti- 
dates De Egas' work by only a few years. It is hardly 
assuming too much to say that among the stream of Italian 
workmen employed in Toledo from the foundation of its 
great cathedral down to the middle of the XVIth century 
some must have come straight from Pavia. This would ex- 
plain why the doorway is so like terra cotta ornament, for 
in Lombardy the early use of burnt clay products had a 
pronounced influence later on stonework . 

In the staircase illustrated is a newel post that is popu- 
lar throughout Spain, this one probably being the father 
of the large family. Undeniably crude in places, as at the 
intersection of the rail with the capital, it is chiefly inter- 
esting as having formed a style in newels. The shapeless 
block on top is a much mutilated heraldic shield. The 
balusters here, as later in Alcala, have been cut, each 
three, out of one block of stone. The feat was a prodi- 
gious one, more remarkable, indeed, than commendable. 
To turn out a single spindle whose rings follow the rake of 
the stair instead of being horizontal to itself, is too difficult 
to be worth while ; to work out three in this manner by 
piercing a block of stone, and to retain, besides, a con- 
necting band, is too stupendous to be believed if one had 
not examined into it. The string piece of the staircase 
has a beautiful section, and, furthermore, it makes a very 
creditable intersection with the base of the newel. 

Another structural peculiarity here is a big Gothic seg- 
mental relieving arch passing behind the three semicircu- 
lar Renaissance arches that support the floor over this 
staircase. It would seem that De Egas, after constructing 
these latter, could not believe that they would do their 
work adequately, and so swung the great flat arch behind 
to reinforce them — another instance of his only half un- 
derstanding the new architecture and calling upon the old 
to help him out. 



107 




DETAIL OF MAIN PORTAL 
HOSPITAL DE SANTA CRUZ. TOLEDO 




DETAIL OF STAIRCASE 
HOSPITAL DE SANTA CRUZ, TOLEDO 




Rendered Drawing of Elevation, Detroit Public Library 



Cass Gilbert, Architect 



Thomas R. Johnson, Delineator 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

V. THE WORK OF THOMAS R. JOHNSON. 



LtKE many of the other men who have made a dis- 
tinguished success at architectural rendering - , 
Mr, Johnson began his art life with the idea of 
becoming a painter or an illustrator. He is by birth a 
Canadian, and his first training was acquired in a Cana- 
dian art school, but as a comparatively young man he 
came to New York and entered an architect's office. His 
tremendous ability, both in rendering and in design, was 
not at first appreciated, and it may be of interest to note 
that the designer of the Singer tower did not think the 
man who was intimately associated with the designer of 
the Wbolworth tower worth 515 a week, and discha 
him. The Wbolworth tower is spoken of because Mr. John- 
son has been for many years in Mr. Cass Gilbert's office, 
and for most of that time has been Mr. Colbert's chief 
reliance in matters of 
design, at least as far 
as a man of Mr. Gil- 
bert's strong- artistic 
personality can rely on 
any one else ; but Mr. 
Johnson is no less capa- 
ble as a designer than 
he is as an architectural 
renderer. Mr. Gilbert 
e a r 1 y p e r C e i v e d the 
merit of the rare com- 
bination of gifts which 
Mr. Johnson possesses, 
that of being able not 
only to design well, but 
to throw his designs into 
perspective with the ut- 
most freedom and rapid- 
ity ; and so accurate is 
Mr. Johnson's knowl- 




Study for a Board Room in a Suite of Offices 

Cass Gilbert, Architect 
Tnomaa R. Johnson. Delineator 



e of perspective that faults not apparent in direct eleva- 
tion become surely visible in his perspectives, and much of 
the work from Mr. Gilbert's office is now designed in per- 
spective aided by Mr. Gilbert's criticism ami suggestions. 
To one who knows the man's manner of work well, the 
most fascinating things Mr. Johnson has ever done have 
been these quick and brilliant studies, in which he mingles 
pencil, water color, and colored chalks with the most 
remarkable effectiveness and truth of representation. Nor 
does his knowledge of architecture stop at design. He 
was for some years, and perhaps still is, one of the most 
finished draftsmen in New York, probably the only 
comparable men being Mr. II. Van Buren Magonigle and 
Mr. Albert Randolph Ross, both of whom have at least a 
good deal of Mr. Johnson's facility in perspective and 

water-color rendering. 
The working draw- 
ings of some of Mr. Gil- 
bert's work which have 
been from time to time 
published, that are 
signed T. R. J., will be 
found in every archi- 
tect's office, and they 
are not only a delight 
to the eye in the ar- 
rangement of the sheets, 
in lettering, and in 
beautiful indication of 
ornament, but are also 
very complete and ade- 
quate construction de- 
tails. Mr. Gilbert's 
office has always turned 
out extremely well fin- 
ished working draw- 



lio 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



1 1 1 



ings, because Mr. Gilbert is him- 
self a draftsman of superior 
grade and likes and appreciates 
technically good drawings ; but 
of them all none have been so 
fine as those which Mr. Johnson 
has made, although in all of them 
his technique may be found to 
have been reflected. 

Another phase of Mr. John- 
son's ability which may not be 
out of place to mention in an 
article of this kind, although'per- 
haps illustrations of it are hardly 
necessary, is his skill at carica- 
ture ; his sketches of the differ- 
ent men he worked with when in 
Mr. Gilbert's office are delight- 
fully gay exaggerations without 
being in the least unkind ; many 
of them are better than portraits, 
in that the real spirit of the man 
has been grasped and set upon 
paper ; and while little of Mr. 
Johnson's work has ever been 
done for the humorous maga- 
zines, his ability in that direction 
is far beyond that of many men 
who make their living from it. 

In architectural rendering 
there is no phase that he has not 
completely mastered ; his ren- 
dered plans, while perhaps not 
as brilliant as those turned out 
by Mr. Hornbostel, have a severe 




Study for the Woolworth Building 

Cass Gilbert, Architect 

Thomas R. Johnson, Delineator 



and sober dignity which makes 
them models for competition 
work, and probably no more 
beautiful renderings of elevations 
have ever been produced either 
here or abroad than his. Our 
competitions now are conducted 
under very rigid rules, prohibit- 
ing the use of color, or as some 
of them read, ''perceptible 
color " ; this, of course, with the 
idea that the work will have as 
uniform a quality as it is possible 
to produce, so that the judges 
may not be misled by the tricks 
of rendering; and while Mr. John- 
son in his renderings uses no 

perceptible color, ' ' its presence 
is felt even though it may not be 
perceived, and even a photo- 
graphic reproduction, such as that 
of the Detroit Public Library, 
shows this peculiar quality, which 
is the happy possession of but a 
few. 

Purely architectural renderings 
of elevations, when carried as far 
as is this one, are apt to become 
cold, hard, and forbidding ma- 
chine drawings rather than soft, 
warm, architectural drawings; but 
somehow Mr. Johnson's are never 
pushed over the edge — they are 
perfection, but not the perfection 
which repels. 




Perspective View of University of Minnesota Buildings, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Cass Gilbert, Architect 



Thomas R. Johnson, Delineator 



I 12 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Cass Gilbert, Architect 



The black sky is a 
trick which every- 
body knows as mak- 
ing a building stand 
out wit h g i' i 
strength ; but in 
nine-tenths of the 
drawings where the 
dark sky is used, it 
is at the expense of 
all luminosity, the 
building becomes 
dull and opaque, 
and the delicacy of 

fine rendering of detail becomes lost through too great 
contrast between building and entourage. 

Mr. Johnson's office studies have been spoken of above 
as being the most interesting things he does, and two of 
them have been reproduced in this article — a study for the 
W( olworth Building and study for the board room in a 
suite of offices. The study for the Woolworth Building 
was made in pencil on tracing paper, mounted, tinted with 
water color and picked out with Chinese white : the 
shadows are part in pencil and part in color. The great 
utility of drawings of this kind is in the fact that Mr. John- 
son is able to make them so quickly ; that of the Wool- 
worth Building, for example, not taking over six hours to 
draw, mount, and render, and a comparison with photo- 
graphs of the executed building will show how useful this 
perspective study has been in developing weak spots in 
the design and also in the study of fenestration and the 
projection of the vertical lines. This was but one of 
many similar studies made for this building, some of them 
on tracing paper, some on detail paper, and some on heavy 
hot-pressed paper, all of them extremely rapid in execu- 
tion, but accurate in perspective. Of course "accuracy" 
is more or less a comparative term, applying to the mass 
of the building rather than to such things as the perspec- 
tive of the elliptical arches ; but the roof heights, the pro- 
jection of the principal vertical lines, etc., were all 
carefully laid out. 

Another study for a similar purpose, but of an entirely 
different character, is that for the board room in a suite 
of offices. It was executed entirely in water color with not 
even much pencil layout over which to work, and a water- 
color study like this which takes into account the color 
scheme and the lighting, as well as the proportions and 
system of decoration, is, of course, of great value in deter- 
mining design. 

The making of innumerable sketches of this character 
in which buildings and rooms are studied with as near an 
approximation to actual conditions as can be obtained in 
drawings, is the most valuable function which an archi- 
tectural Tenderer can perform, and this is, of course, one 
which requires an intimate knowledge of design, and 
further than that, of the particular type of design desired 
by the office for which they are made, and perhaps they 
could only be made by a man who was very closely in 
touch with the design of the office and thoroughly familiar 
with the ideas at the head of it. 

The rendering of the warehouse for Austin Nichols and 
Company was made in pencil on Bristol board, no color at 
all being employed ; while it was started as a study sketch 



Sketch of Warehouse in Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Thomas R. Johnson, Delineator 



it was finally de- 
veloped into a draw- 
ing to show the 
clients. It was ac- 
cepted, and the 
structure built sub- 
stantially as indi- 
cated in the sketch. 
The other large ren- 
dering, that of the 
Washington avenue 
frontage of the Uni- 
versity of Minne- 
sota, is a very care- 
fully drawn and rendered water color, and is so absolutely 
truthful in the delineation of the type of the trees that one 
sees around a new building, the fencing of the parking 
space, and the character of the traffic, that it gives a pic- 
torial effect suggestive of work done from a completed 
scheme. 

It will be noticed in all these drawings that Mr. John- 
son's mastery of entourage is not excelled even by his 
rendering of the architecture itself, and part of the illusion 
of reality which his renderings adequately convey must be 
due to this. Architectural rendering is usually more or 
less conventional, even in the offices of very successful 
men, although architects are so accustomed to see con- 
ventions that they do not realize that conventions are 
being used; and if an architectural rendering is pleasing 
in color, and of an agreeable pattern, the architect regards 
it as a finished work, although to the layman it may be 
nearly as incomprehensible as a working drawing. 

The work of Mr. Jules (iuerin even may be included in 
this class, but by sheer beauty of color and also to some 
extent at least by the familiarity of the laymen with his 
subjects, he manages to make the necessary appeal to the 
public ; but an architect whose structures are executed as 
yet only in his own brain cannot push convention too far, 
and succeed in the main purpose of all architectural ren- 
dering, which is to convince the clients of the plausibility 
of his ideas. Mr. Johnson's work in this way is un- 
doubtedly adapted to popular use, since his colors please 
the popular as well as the educated taste, without disguis- 
ing the sound architecture behind them. 

Beside his work in Mr. Gilbert's office he has occa- 
sionally made renderings for other people in the past, one 
of which is here reproduced as a frontispiece, and it is of 
particular interest, because of the admirable indication of 
materials all the way through — marble is evidently marble, 
just as the brick and tile cannot be mistaken for anything 
but what they are. While the drawing is of large scale, 
and the indication of each individual part is carried to a 
workmanlike conclusion, the pictorial effect has by no 
means been neglected. 

In considering Mr. Johnson's work, one characteristic 
must be noted which is eminently desirable in work that 
must have a practical value, — where the men discussed in 
former articles of this series have each been remarkable 
for some particular sort of rendering, some trick or talent, 
of which he has made the most, we find Mr. Johnson's 
work steady, sober, consistent, of very wide range, both 
of technique and of subjects, and yet piquant and brilliant 
as it is refined and quiet. 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 65. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE TO COURT 



VETERINARY BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 66. 




VIEW IN COURT LOOKING TOWARD LECTURE ROOM 



-«. 




GENERAL VIEW OF EXTERIOR 



VETERINARY BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKB V ILDER 



PLATE 67. 




VIEW IN COURT LOOKING TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



VETERINARY BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA, PA 
COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 68. 




LOWER STORIES 



THE FRANKLIN BUILDING, CHICAGO. ILL. 
GEORGE C NIMMONS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 68. 




LOWER STORIES 



THE FRANKLIN BUILDING, CHICAGO. ILL. 
GEORGE C. NIMMONS, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 69. 




THE FRANKLIN BUILDING. CHICAGO. ILL. 
GEORGE C. NIMMONS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 70. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 



THE FRANKLIN BUILDING. CHICAGO. ILL. 
GEORGE C NIMMONS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 71. 




< LlI 

u b 

52 x 



u 2 

o < 

Q O 

-1 5 

5 I 

CQ Z 

Z U 

J LJ 

y O 

^ o 

o 



£ 



ul 

I 

H 






VOL. 23, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 72. 




U 
Q 
Z 

o 

O 

z 

X 
to 
< 

u 
z 

5 
_j 

3 

CQ 
U 

o 
u. 

Lu 

o 

Q 
Z 

< 

U 

DC 

o 

H 



U 

Q 

z" 

o 

H 
O 
z 

x 

CO 

< 

u" 
z 

Q 

D 
CQ 

UJ 
U 

C 
u, 
O 

CO 

a 
< 



VOL. 23. NO. 5 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 73. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HOUSE AT OAK PARK, ILL. 

SPENCER & POWERS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 74. 







GARDEN FRONT 



HOUSE AT OAK PARK, ILL. 
SPENCER & POWERS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 75. 





_] 




_l 




"■" 




Q 




Z 




< 




J 




01 








^ 




U 


<rt 


n 


h 


Oi 


u 


. 


h 


U 

DC 


I 
( i 


ul 


rr 


OJ 


<r 


-J 




< 


a: 
u 


7 


S* 


7" 





<■ 


LL 


~ 


* 


^ 


as 


X 


1 1 


L±J 


7 


Q 


LU 




0, 


en 


m 


OC 




S 




u. 









Ll) 




en 




3 




O 




X 





VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 76. 







M^K. 




-'• \s' 1 


^ _fl B 


% 




' 










, <\ - * 







VIEW FROM THE EAST 



HOUSE OF MRS. DENKMANN-HAUBERG, ROCK ISLAND, ILL. 
SPENCER & POWERS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 77. 




_] 

_J 

Q 
Z 
< 

22 

u en 

o i- 

"■ ui 
f- 



o 

os 

Ld 
OQ 

< 
X 
Z 

z 
< 

z 

uj 
Q 

c/i 

u. 
O 

UJ 

c/1 

D 
O 
I 



VOL. 23, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATF. 78. 




VIEW FROM APPROACH 




VIEW FROM GARDEN 



HOUSE OF FRED B. SMITH, ESQ., TERRE HAUTE, IND. 
SPENCER & POWERS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 79. 




Q 
z 

ui 

(- 

< 
o 

< 



t o 
in -s 

CD ul 
_ <J 

z 
a. 



I 



O 

UJ 

c/i 

D 

o 

I 



VOL. 23. NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDK R 



PLATE 80. 










STABLE' OF MRS. DENKMANN-HAUBERC. ROCK ISLAND. ILL 
SPENCER 6, POWERS. ARCHITECTS 



The Modern Use of Casement Windows. 

WITH NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
METAL AND WOODEN FRAMES ILLUSTRATED 
WITH AMERICAN AND ENGLISH EXAMPLES. 

By HOW \RI) \. BOWEN. 



SUCCESSFUL architecture takes careful account of 
the smallest particular of building and designing. 
The effect of a completed work depends upon the 
thoughtful treatment of a great variety of minute details. 
The architect, accustomed as he is to observing a nicety 
of balance and possessing a keen appreciation of the value 
of selecting from a number of possibilities the exact detail 
which well schooled judgment has taught him to be the 
one most desirable, regards nothing as undeserving of the 
most careful consideration. 

Hardly any other single detail of 
planning has more to do with form- 
ing the character of a building than 
its fenestration. The windows of a 
building are its eyes, upon which 
depend not only its survey of the 
world but also its expression. Upon 
its windows and its doors devolves 
much of the duty of imparting char- 
acter and, what may be called archi- 
tectural accent, and the success or 
failure of a work is often dependent 
upon the handling — careful or 
otherwise— of its openings. 

But the thoughtful and intelligent 
planning of such openings is not all 
which is demanded of the architect. 
They may be planned with the ut- 
most care, and their positions may 
be determined after the 




most thoughtful "vis- 
ualizing" of the com- 
pleted structure, and yet 
be only partially satis- 
factory to a man who 
values at their proper 
worth the minutice of 
design. Upon the filling 
of the windows them- 
selves depends, in a 
large measure, their 
architectural value. 

Some one has said 
that building to-day has 
been hindered as well 
as helped by the 
inventiveness of some 
manufacturers who, by 
producing what is inex- 
pensive and useful, and 
therefore likely to be 
employed, have made of 
less frequent use other 
things which arc equally 
useful and far more 



House at Hewlett Bay, L.I. 
Albro & Lindeberg. Architects 



decorative, but which, for various reasons, seem to win a 
less ready acceptance into popular favor. Large sheets 
of glass arc, of course, of inestimable value for many uses. 
One can hardly imagine their not being used for certain 
windows of shops where the revealing of what may be 
placed within them is of prime consideration ; hut windows 
for other purposes naturally demand a different treatment. 
Just the extent to which the careful filling of window 
spaces affects the appearance of a building cannot always 
be realized until one sees the same 
structure, or a building exactly simi- 
lar, treated in different ways. In 
a certain street in New York Citj 
there still exists a row of fine, old 
houses built, probably, about 1850. 
The windows of these houses have 
sashes with very large panes, but 
recently, in the rearranging of one 
of the row, casement windows filled 
with small panes have been in- 
stalled. The house so altered now 
possesses a character, individuality, 
and distinction which is wholly 
lacking in the other houses. 

Many an architect surveys the 
work of a few centuries ago and 
wonders if the designers of that day 
were not blessed either with unusual 
opportunities or with a special gift 
for using just what 




Group of Metal Casements with Leaded Class 

in 



would best interpret or 
express the meanings 
which they wished to 
convey. Neither can be 
said to be wholly true, 
but in using the mate- 
rials which their times 
made possible they dis 
covered a fortunate 
method of employing 
them which may well 
serve as models for 
those who practise to- 
day, especially when the 
possibilities offered by 
materials at this time 
are infinitely greater. 

Those who admire the 
long, horizontal mirrors 
frequently used over 

mantels in old-fashioned 
interiors arc apt also to 
admire the taste and 
judgment which guided 
the breaking up of the 



The Modern Use of Casement Windows. 

WITH NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
METAL AND WOODEN FRAMES ILLUSTRATED 
WITH AMERICAN AND ENGLISH EXAMPLES. 

By MOW \RI) \. BOW KY 



SUCCESSFUL architecture takes careful account of 
the smallest particular of building and designing. 
The effect of a completed work depends upon the 
thoughtful treatment of a great variety of minute details. 
The architect, accustomed as he is to observing a nicety 
of balance and possessing" a keen appreciation of the value 
of selecting from a number of possibilities the exact detail 
which well schooled judgment has taught him to be the 
one most desirable, regards nothing as undeserving of the 
most careful consideration. 

Hardly any other single detail of 
planning" has more to do with form- 
ing" the character of a building than 
its fenestration. The windows of a 
building" are its eyes, upon which 
depend not only its survey of tbe 
world but also its expression. Upon 
its windows and its doors devolves 
much of the duty of imparting" char- 
acter and, what may be called archi- 
tectural accent, and the success or 
failure of a work is often dependent 
upon the handling — careful or 
otherwise — of its openings. 

But the thoughtful and intelligent 
planning of such openings is not all 
which is demanded of the architect. 
They may be planned with the ut- 
most care, and their positions may 
be determined after the 
most thoughtful "vis- 
ualizing" of the com- 
pleted structure, and yet 
be only partially satis- 
factory to a man who 
values at their proper 
worth the minutiae of 
design. Upon the filling 
of the windows them- 
selves depends, in a 
large measure, their 
architectural value. 

Some one has said 
that building to-day has 
been hindered as well 
as helped by the 
inventiveness of some 
manufacturers who, by 
producing what is inex- 
pensive and useful, and 
therefore likely to be 
employed, have made of 
less frequent use other 
things which are equally 
useful and far more 




House at Hewlett Bay, L. 
Albro & Lindcberg. Architect 




Group of Metal Casements with Leaded Glass 

113 



decorative, but which, for various reasons, seem to win a 
less ready acceptance into popular favor. Large sheets 
of glass are, of course, of inestimable value for many uses. 
One can hardly imagine their not being used for certain 
windows of shops where the revealing of what may be 
placed within them is of prime consideration ; but windows 
for other purposes naturally demand a different treatment. 
Just the extent to which the careful filling of window 
sjuices affects the appearance of a building cannot always 
be realized until one sees the same 
structure, or a building exactly simi- 
lar, treated in different ways. In 
a certain street in New York City 
there still exists a row of fine, old 
houses built, probably, about 1850. 
The windows of these houses have 
sashes with very large panes, but 
recently, in the rearranging of one 
of the row, casement windows filled 
with small panes have been in- 
stalled. The house so altered now 
possesses a character, individuality, 
and distinction which is wholly 
lacking in the other houses. 

Many an architect surveys the 
work of a few centuries ago and 
wonders if the designers of that day 
were not blessed either with unusual 
opportunities or with a special gift 
for using just what 
would best interpret or 
express the meanin.es 
which they wished to 
convey. Neither can be 
said to be wholly true, 
but in using the mate 
rials which their times 
made possible they dis- 
covered a fortunate 
method of employing 
them which may well 
serve as models for 
those who practise to- 
day, especially when the 
possibilities offered by 
materials at this time 
are infinitely greater. 

Those who admire the 
long, horizontal mirrors 
frequently used over 

mantels in old-fashioned 
interiors are apt also to 
admire the taste and 
judgment which guided 
the breaking up of the 



"4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Casements in House at Bryn Mawr, 
Duhring. Okie & Ziegler. Architects 



surface into three panels 
— a larger panel at the 
center divided by a nar- 
row band of gilt frame 
from a smaller panel at 
either side. The use of 
smaller mirrors, however, 
was no doubt necessitated 
by the fact that such large 
surfaced mirrors as would 
be required were the 
frame filled with one piece 
of glass, were either not 
obtainable or < »f such great 
cost as to render their use 
impossible. Just so with 
the architects who — say, 
in the eighteenth century 
— design e d w i n d o w s ; 
large panes of glass were 
not always to be had, and 
in the use of glass which 
made smaller panes nec- 
essary there was found the 
most successful window 
treatment. The greater 
ease with which larger 
panes are now to be had, 
and particularly their 
comparatively small cost, 
has led to their use to an 
extent which many archi- 
tects regret and against 
which they are not always 
able to prevail. 

Much of the absence of 
expression of our windows 
is due not only to the use 
of large surfaces of glass, 
but also to the form of the 
windows themselves. The 
type popularly known as 
the "guillotine," or 
double hung window, has 




An Unusual I orm of Casement Wi 

Old House in Lancashire, England 



been, until lately, almost wholly in use, 
and it is difficult to supplant it in popular 
favor, even though it possess few claims 
upon popular approval and many defects. 
The double hung window, besides being 
hopelessly ugly and usually wholly without 
character, is balanced or hung upon weights 
concealed behind the woodwork of the win- 
dow. These weights occasionally have to 
be examined, or the cords upon which they 
hang must be renewed and the woodwork 
removed to make access to them possible. 
Besides being difficult to clean, their very 
nature makes it impossible to open the 
window more than, at most, halfway. 

The casement window, upon the con- 
trary, possesses every advantage which is 
conspicuously lacking in the former. Con- 
sisting, as it ordinarily does, of vertical 
panels filled with small panes of glass, it 
confers upon the window opening an ex- 
pression and vitality which at once im- 
proves the appearance of the building. Its 
use compels careful designing, for instead 
of there being a single opening filled with 
one or two large surfaces of glass, the use 
of casements suggests the division of the 
space into a group of several smaller win- 
dows separated by slender mullions. This 
form of treatment would be hardly possible 
were double hung windows used, for each 
window must have a separate system of 
weights, and the space which must be al- 
lowed for them would necessarily be so 




Fig. 1. Detail of Wooden Case 

ments Opening Out, Set in < 

Frame Wall 



Detail of House at Cynwyd, Pa., Showing Casement Windows 
Mellor & Meigs, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



"5 



large as to defeat the object of the group- 
ing. A very effective arrangement, where 
space and particularly where height per- 
mits, is to place them one over another. 
Such grouping, of course, belongs particu- 
larly to the buildings of the Tudor or the 
Jacobean style, but it can be appropriately 
used in many modern types of houses which 
lay claim to no definite style. 

The value of the casement window, how- 
ever, is by no means wholly architectural 
nor based upon advantages which have 
anything to do with attractiveness of effect. 
They possess many good qualities which are 
entirely utilitarian and upon them an archi- 
tect may often base so strong an argument 
that the balance, in the mind of a some- 
what reluctant client, may be turned in 
their favor. 

Every housekeeper has struggled with 
the difficulty of keeping double hung win- 
dows reasonably clean. The problem is 
not always difficult of solution where houses 
are but one or two stories high, for sitting 
upon a window sill to wash the outer sur- 
faces of a window presents no particular 
obstacle to the average housemaid, pro- 
vided the window be not far from the 
ground. But this is the day of lofty build- 
ings — tall city dwellings or towering struc- 
tures containing apartments or business 
quarters — and the cleaning of their win- 
dows can hardly become a part of the duties 
of even the most courageous woman servant. 




House at Wynnewood, Pa., with Leaded Casements 
David Kniclcerbacker Boyd. Architect 




Wooden Casement Windows in Country House at 

Southampton, L. I. 

Albro & Lindeberg, Architects 



STU.tS 




Detail of House at Bernardsville, N. J., Showing Metal Casei 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects 



Fig. II. Detail of Wooden Case- 
lent Windows ments Opening In, Set in a 

Masonry Wall 



Casement windows offer 
no such difficulty, for as 
they are not often more 
than eighteen inches in 
width the arm may readily 
be passed about them and 
every part of their outer 
surfaces be easily reached 
from within. Then, too, 
casement windows are 
very often hung with the 
device which makes pos- 
sible their being turned 
about or "inside out," 
and either the inner or 
the outer surface pre- 
sented for cleaning. 

An argument in favor of 
the casement may be 
based upon the fact that 
it makes possible the 
opening of the entire win- 
dow. Almost every part 
of the country is subject 
to extremes of heat dur- 
ing a few weeks of the 
year, at least, and there 
is nothing more annoying 
than to be unable to open 
a window more than half- 
way, yet this is the most 
which can be expected 
of any double hung 
window. 

The use of the case- 
ment is the logical 
remedy for this defect, 
for it opens to the air 
every square inch of the 
window opening — it is 

100 per cent window." 
Indeed, it sometimes does 
even a little more for, 



n6 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 




Detail of Single Metal Casement and Frame Showing Suitable Hardware 

projecting as it often does over the sill, it may act as a 
screen to catch and deflect into a room any stray breeze. 
Its affording- the maximum of ventilation secures for the 
casement its use in many mercantile buildings where the 
welfare and comfort of workers during the summer must 
be considered, and it should certainly recommend itself 
to architects who are planning rooms with dormer win- 
dows where, unless the rooms are to he insufferably 
warm during the summer, every possible precaution must 
be taken that adequate ventilation is provided. 

In so full and frank a statement of the casement win- 
dow's advantages and merits it would be hardly fair to 
omit some reference to the various objections which 
clients are apt to urge against its use — objections not 
numerous and. founded as they are upon a misunder- 
standing of its structure and workings, not difficult to 
refute. Manx- a client will say vaguely that he has heard 
that casements are not weather tight nor burglar proof. 
Casements when made to swing inward, and particularly 
when made of wood and set within wooden frames, max 
not always be weather proof; for wood unfortunately is 
subject to shrinkage and even when well and thoroughly 
seasoned is apt to contract, leaving a crevice between the 
casement and its frame. Hut precisely the same objec- 
tion max- be brought against every window built of wood, 
and experience has proved that casements, even though 
of wood, when arranged to open out, in which case the 
detail of the sills of both types are identical, are fully 
as weather tight as double hung windows — the hardest 
01 rains must be driven steadily against them to make 
11 issible the entrance of water. 

With a reasonable amount of care and time expended 
in studying the detail of wooden casements, satisfactory 
service may be had from them when they are not placed 
in extremely exposed positions. In the drawings 



reproduced herewith are shown examples of construction 
for casements which have been found to be satisfactory 
and which can be used with equal success in masonry or 
frame walls. Figure I shows details of the jambs and sill 
for frames with sashes opening out, and Fig. II for cashes 
opening in. In England the ordinary method of forming 
the rebates in the joint is shown by the dotted lines in 
Fig. I. but in this country this half round rebate and the 
astragal mould, shown by dotted lines on the section of 
the meeting stiles in Fig. 1 1 , are usually omitted, the ordi- 
nary method for the sides of the meeting stiles following 
the detail shown here or some variant of this idea. 

The position of the frame in Fig. II, would only allow 
the sash to swing a little more than 90 degrees. If it is 
desired to have the sashes swing against the walls, the 
frames must be arranged to set nearly flush with the inside 
face of the wall if they swing in, or the outer face if they 
are to swing out. The frames and sashes should be made at 
least 1 : 4 inches thick and the sills should be worked from 
heavy stock to allow for sufficient slope and some form of 
rebate to prevent the passage of rain and snow. The de- 
tails of the sills shown here are considered effective in this 
respect for most sections of the country. Casement sashes 
are frequently made too large for convenience and become 
unwieldy and difficult to adjust in heavy winds — 20 
inches to 2 feet for width and not over 5 feet for height 
will be found in most cases to be the largest size that will 
prove satisfactory. 

There are very few casements, however, being made of 
wood where durable qualities are demanded. Very satis- 
factory casements and frames are now being made of 
bronze or steel, and one need only examine a few of these to 




Detail of Metal Casements and Transom Set Within Stone Mullions and 
Transom Bar 



THE BRIC KB VILDER 



117 



be convinced that they are as 
absolutely weather proof as 
human ingenuity can make 
them. The glass is set within 
a metal sash which fits with 
mathematical exactitude in a 
metal frame arranged for the 
sash to swing outward. Over 
the crevice between frame and 
sash there is placed a strip of 
metal sometimes an inch wide 
attached to the sash to protect 
this joint. There is often at- 
tached to the lower rail a con- 
densation gutter designed to 
catch the water condensing on 
the inside and carry it out on 
to the sill by means of weep- 
holes. All this metal work is 
so thoroughly welded and fitted 
together that the entrance of 
water is an impossibility. 

To refute the objection that 
casements are not burglar 
proof, examine the accepted 
mode of fastenings of both 
types of window. The 
usual fastening for the 
double hung window 
consists of a catch which 
secures the top of the 
lower sash to the bottom 
of that above. In win- 
dows of this type where 
the meeting rails are not 
counterchecked, and in 
practically any wooden 
sash after it has been 
exposed to the weather, 
a crevice due to shrink- 
age occurs between the 
rails, and into this space 
a thin blade may be in- 
serted which will un- 
fasten the catch. 

By way of contrast 
examine the fastenings 
of a casement window. 
The frames being of 
metal cannot contract, 
and the fastening, which 
even in the case of the 
wooden sash is after the 
style of a bolt, prevents 
the window being forced 
open from the outside. 
The outer strip of metal , 
welded to the swinging 
casement and which 
renders it proof 
against the weather, 
makes it equally secure 
against burglars. 




Detail of Casement Windows in House Shown 






r * ^ m^rt^i^i^m^'^-^a^*^i^iJ m y 



mt m m ii'i w — — ■ ■ 





The advantages of case- 
ments from the decorative 
point of view are many. Their 
possibilities, in so far as they 
deal with the exterior of a 
building, have already been 
touched upon ; but an archi- 
tect must design the interior 
fittings as well as the exterior 
details, and the effect of case- 
ments upon the interior should 
not be overlooked. 

They suggest the use of 
leaded glass to an extent which 
is interesting alike to archi- 
tects and decorators. Case- 
ments and leaded glass seem 
closely related from the al- 
most universal use of leading 
in the windows of old Euro- 
pean buildings. Examine any 
old village cottage or vine-clad 
Tudor residence in England, 
or the venerable half timbered 
facades in Rouen or Rheims, 
and it will be seen that the 
casements are filled with 
leaded glass in patterns 
often highly ornate but 
sometimes fully as 
beautiful by reason of 
their quaint simplicity. 
Leaded glass, even 
when not old, has a ten- 
dency to fall somewhat 
out of perpendicularity ; 
the softness or pliability 
of the leads makes pos- 
sible the holding of 
some fragments of glass 
at angles which, vary- 
ing as they do from ex- 
act position, afford a 
play of light and shade 
which lends added 
quaintness and pictur- 
esqueness to the win- 
dow. 

The resourcefulness 
of the manufacturers of 
casements has provided 
a considerable variety of 
appropriate hardware 
for their use. The 
locks or fastenings used 
for casements, and the 
stays or braces by 
which they are held in 
position, when open, 
heighten immeasurably 
the quaintness of any 
interior in which they 
are used. 



Heating and Ventilating. 

II. SPACE REQUIRED FOR APPARATUS. 
By CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



h 



Till-: data ami observations set forth in this article 
are intended to assist the architect in the planning 
of airways in building's of large size and also in ap- 
proximating the space required for boiler and fan rooms 
under different conditions. 

This subject has been suggested by the experience of 
the writer in receiving from architects numerous plans 
for laying out heating and ventilating systems, where the 
space reserved for this purpose was either much too small 
or else so arranged as to be difficult of utilizing to the best 
advantage. 

It is evident there can be no hard and fast rule for lay- 
ing out the ducts and Hues, as the governing conditions 
vary so widely in different buildings. However, there 
are certain general principles which may be made to 
apply in a majority of cases by 
varying them somewhat, and 
which will serve as a guide 
to the architect in planning 
the general scheme of his 

building. 

The first step in any case is 
to determine the volume of air 
to be supplied to each room ; 
next the size of the flue ; 
and finally its location, which, 
to a certain extent, depends upon its necessary size. 

Air Volume. The volume of air depends upon the use 
of the room and the number of occupants, modified to a 
certain extent by local conditions, such as cost limit of 
ventilating system, arrangement of rooms, length of time 
they are used continuously, etc. Tables I and II, from 
"Power, Heating, and Ventilation," will be found of 
assistance in assuming the volume of air to be supplied. 

TABLE I. 
Air Supply for Various Bi cldings. 

Air supply per occupant for Cubil Cubi J 

per minute. pi-r hmir. 

Hospitals snt< ,11111 4,800to6,000 

High schools 5ii 3,000 

Grammar schools 40 2,400 

Theaters and assembly halls 25 1,500 

Churches . . .... 20 1,200 




F.g. I 



Fig. II 

Arrangements of Inlet and Outlet 



Fig. Ill 



Air Sri 



TABLE II. 
•i.v iok Various Rooms. 



I tee of r>. 



Change 

per hour. 



Public waiting rooms . . 4 to 5 

Public toilets . 5 h 

Coat and locker rooms i ti .s 

Museums 3 4 

, public 4 5 

■ s, private 3 4 

Public dining rooms. 4 5 

Living rooms .34 

Libraries, public. 4 5 

Libraries, private.. 3 4 



Si - of Flues and Ducts. Having determined the vol- 
ume of air to be supplied to the different rooms, the sec- 
tional area of the flue, in square feet, is found by dividing 
the cubic feet of air per minute by the velocity to be 
maintained. For gravity circulation, in the case of build- 
ings like churches, hospitals, schools, etc., it is customary 
to assume average velocities in the supply Hues about as 
follows : 

Ft. per inin. 

1st floor. . . . 250 

2d floor ... 300 

3d Moor 350 

The velocity in the vent lines will be somewhat less on 
account of the lower air temperature, and may be taken 
as below : 

Ft. tier min. 

lst Boor 220 

.'(I floor 260 

3d floor 300 

In work of this kind the 
heater should be placed directly 
at the base of the flue and the 
cold air connection made as 
short and direct as possible, 
and the full size of the warm 
air flue. When two or more 
heaters are supplied from a trunk line, the main duct 
should have a sectional area equal to all of the warm air 
ducts connecting' with it. If the trunk line has two 
inlets, on different sides of the building, each should 
equal the full size of the duct. 

When a fan is used, considerably higher velocities may 
be employed as follows : 

Ft. per min. 

Inlet windows to heater . 1,000 

Main duct from fan 1,200 

Branches to tlues 900 

Vertical flues to rooms 600 

Through registers. . 350 

Vent flues 350 

In the case of court-houses, municipal buildings, etc., 
where there are a large number of rooms and several 
floors, it is necessary to reduce the flue space to a minimum. 

For buildings of this character and of fireproof construc- 
tion it is customary to use terracotta flue linings, on account 
of their smooth interior, and employ a velocity of about 
1 000 feet per minute by speeding up the fan. The same 
velocities may be obtained in the vent Hues by connecting' 
them with a centrifugal exhauster placed in the attic. 
When these high velocities are employed, .great care must 
be taken to make all ducts and flues tight against leakage, 
to have the interior smooth and without abrupt bends, so 
far as possible. 

Arrangement mid Location of Airways. The arrange- 
ment of the flues will depend largely upon the type of 
building-. In the gravity heating of halls and churches of 
small and medium size the air may be brought in at points 



lis 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



JVENT 
' ! FLUES 



CLOSET SPACE 



_M 



CLOSET SPACE 



\ 



CLOSET SPACE 



SUPPLY I 
FLUES I 




ELEVATION 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

Fig. IV 



near each corner, preferably 
throug-h wall registers 7 or 8 
feet above the floor- If the 
rooms are not too large, the 
discharge ventilation may be 
through grilles or registers in 
the front of the platform and 
connecting with a flue carried 
up on the rear wall. It is well 
to supplement this with one or 
more ceiling vents for use in 
mild weather. If the audito- 
rium is of considerable length, it 
is best to add a second vent flue 
at the other end. In the case of 
school buildings, where the 
rooms are large and the arrange- 
ment similar, or the same on each floor, more definite 
rules may be given. One inlet and one outlet is usually 
sufficient for a standard class room, and either of the 
general arrangements shown in Figs. I, II, and III may 
be used according to choice as to which is the more con- 
venient. The inlet registers should be from 7 to 8 feet 
above the floor and the vents either at the floor or just 
above the baseboard. A typical arrangement for a bank 
of flues on the scheme of Fig. Ill is shown in plan and 
elevation in Fig. IV. In this case the supply flues are 
carried up near the outer wall and the vents at the inner 
end of the partition, with the space between utilized for 
closets or bookcases. This is probably one 
of the best arrangements for general school - 
house work, being fairly compact and bring- 
ing the supply and vent openings in positions 
for the most effective results. On account 
of the offsets in the supply flues it is rather 
better adapted to sheet metal than to ma- 
sonry construction, although either materia 1 
may be employed. 

A very compact arrangement of flues, in 
which there are no offsets, is shown in Fig. 
V. The only objection to this is the loca- 
tion of the vent flues, which are too near 
the outer wall for ideal conditions. How- 
ever, the supply flues are well placed, which 
is of greater importance, and a very satis- 
factory air distribution may be obtained with 
this arrangement. 

In order to avoid offsets, or double par- 
tition walls, the supply flues are made the Fig 
same size as the vents. This scheme is 
especially adapted to masonry construction and where the 
space is limited. Each building, of course, requires 
special treatment ; but the diagrams given represent stand- 
ard practice and may be modified to fit a variety of con- 
ditions. The flue arrangement in Fig. II is practically the 
same as shown in Fig. IV, the only difference being that 
the flues are located in a rear or corridor wall and there- 
fore only a single bank may be used. 

The top of the supply flue should be curved and the 
register opening made the full width of the flue in order 
to obstruct the air flow as little as possible. One of the 
most sanitary arrangements for the vent outlet is to omit 
the usual grille or register face and extend the floor and 



*n 



I-! 



=?=$ 



{ M 









i W ! 

<! < ! <t 

D><3 ILj [il I 



l — r 



J 



. I . ompacl arrange- 
ment oj iIhi s without 
offsets whit h .-, ill give 
a mtisfai tot vdislribu 
lion oj nil . 



■ig 



V 




Fig. VI 




119 

baseboard so as to include the 

Hue. Typical diagrams for inlet 
and outlet openings are shown 
in Figs. VI and VII. The fan 
and heater room should be cen- 
trally located in order to make 
the supply duets symmetrical, 
thus equalizing the resistance to 
air flow and assisting in the 
distribution to the various 
rooms. 

The connecting duets be- 
tween the fan and the vertical 
Hues form an important part of 
a ventilating system. All bends 
should be well rounded and ad- 
justable deflectors provided at 
the junctions. These airways are usually constructed 
of galvanized iron and carried at the basement ceiling, 
although underground ducts of concrete are often used 
where the basement rooms are utilized for class-room pur- 
poses and it is desired to keep the ceilings free from all 
obstructions. Underground duets are more expensive to 
construct and produce a considerable loss of heat unless 
lined with some sort of insulating material, which adds 
still further to their cost. Care should also be taken in 
work of this kind to make the ducts waterproof when the 
soil is such as to call for this precaution. Sometimes 
the building arrangement is such that the upper part of 
the basement corridor may be made to 
serve as the main distributing airway by 
constructing a false ceiling 2 or 3 feet 
below the main ceiling. This serves as 
a supply reservoir under pressure from 
which branch ducts may be carried to such 
flues as are off the direct line of the main 
airway. In cases of this kind care should 
be taken to provide either adjustable damp- 
ers or deflectors as may be best adapted 
to give to each flue its proper proportion 
of air. 

In large churches and theaters the air is 
best distributed by delivering it into a closed 
space beneath the floor and discharging it 
into the room through specially constructed 
slots or grilles in the pews, or through 
"mushroom" outlets beneath the chairs. 
In small churches and halls the treatment 
is more nearly like that employed in school 
buildings. 
In the case of hospitals the method will depend a good 
deal upon the type of building. Indirect heat is largely used 
in cottage hospitals one or two stories in height, bringing 
the warm air in through wall registers beneath the win- 
dows. The basements of buildings of this kind usually 
provide ample space for any arrangement of cold air supply 
desired, and often the entire basement, or a considerable 
portion of it, is used as an air chamber. In larger institu- 
tions a fan system should always be employed, and owing 
to the large number of small rooms comparatively high 
velocities arc made use of to reduce the flue space re- 
quired. In buildings of this kind the rooms are commonly 
arranged along main COITidor-ways and the flues carried 



' 



7 



Fig. VII 



VIII 



I 20 



THE BRICKB V I L D E R 




up in banks along the corridor walls. The general 
arrangement may be similar to those shown in Fig's. 
IV and V, with a supply fan in the basement and an 
exhaust fan in the basement or on the roof as is most 
convenient. 

In the ventilation of tall office buildings, where it would 
be practically impossible to reach all of the rooms with 
separate flues from the basement, the best plan is to carry 
up one or mure large flues of sufficient capacity to supply 
the entire building- and at each floor connect with distrib- 
uting ducts formed by furring down the 
corridors, as shown in Fig. VIII. De- 
flectors are placed in the main flue at 
each floor for regulating- the air flow, and 
the inlets to the rooms lead directly from 
the horizontal ducts as indicated in the 
diagram. 

The fresh air supply for a fan system 
in city buildings should be taken from a 
point well above the street level in order 
to avoid surface dust as much as possible. 
There seems, how- 
ever, no particular 
advantage in placing 
the inlet more than 
20 or 3o feet above 
the street grade, for 
above that level the 
principal impurity is 
soot, which is found 
at all elevations to 

the top of the building-. In the case of schools, churches, 
etc., which are surrounded by a considerable extent of 
lawn, the air supply may usually be taken in at the 
ground level without picking up an excessive amount of 
dust. The supply duct should enter the building as near 
the fan as possible in order to keep the frictional resist 
ance at a minimum. In planning for indirect heating' the 
supply flues and heating stacks should first be located and 
the cold air inlets provided for with reference to them. 

Space Required lor \ 'entilating Apparatus. The space 
required for the fan and main heater will vary of course 
with the particular arrang-ement used. Three different 
schemes are shown in Figs. IX. X, and XI. In the first of 
these the heater is made up of cast-iron sections supported 
on iron beams above the fan as indicated. A fan with a 
three-quarter housing is used in this case, discharging 
into an underground duct, although an angular up-dis- 
charge may be employed if it is desired to use overhead 
distributing ducts. 

In making up Table III the required space is based on 
heating the air from zero to 110 degrees, using standard 
pin radiator sections rated at 20 square feet per section. 
For lower temperatures, such as are employed in purely 
ventilating work where direct radiation is used for warm- 
ing, shallower sections would be used, but the horizontal 
dimensions would be practically the same. Hence, Table 
III applies approximately to all ordinary conditions for 
this particular arrangement of fan and heater. The size 
of the fan is based on capacities and speeds given in the 
previous article in the February isstie. The dimensions 
are for fan and heater rooms combined, and allow for the 
space required for interior division walls, supports, etc. 



It is also assumed that direct connected motors or engines 
will be used for driving the fan. 

TABLE III. 1 Sec Pig. IX . i 



air per minute, 

5.0(1(1 
10,000 

15,000 
.'o.ooo 
25,000 
50,000 

40.000 

50,000 



Length of 

ri »>tn (A i- 

l.V 
14' 
16' 
20' 

JO' 

20' 

22' 
26' 



Width ..1" rot 

8' 

8' 

9' 

9' 
10' 
11' 
12' 
13' 




Fig. IX 



Cubit- feet of 
air per minute 

5,ooo 

10,00(1 

15,000 
20.000 

.'5,000 
50,0011 
40,000 
50,000 



1 [eight of roon 
9 

10' 
12' 
13' 

14' 

15' 
16' 
18' 

Another layout is shown in Fig. X, 
using the same type of heater based 
upon the same capacity. In this case 
the heater is suspended midway between 
the floor and ceiling and the path of the 
air is indicated by the arrows. 

Table IV gives dimensions for this 
arrangement. For capacities up to 20,000 
cubic feet per minute, full housed fans 
have been assumed, as shown in the 
accompanying diagram, while for larger 
air volumes the 
three-quarter hous- 
ing for the fan has 
bee n taken . as 
shown in Fig. IX, 
i n m akin g u 1 > 
Table IV in order to 
reduce the required 
height of room. 



Width "I r< on 

8' 

8' 

w 

15 
15' 
16' 
19' 
23' 




Table V refers to Fig. XI, in which a pipe heater of 
standard form is used. Two different lengths of room 
("A") are given, one for the apparatus as shown in the 
diagram, and the other when an air washer is employed. 





TABLE \ 


. 1 See 


Fig. XI.) 




Cubic feel of 


Height 


Width 


Length without 


Length with 


air per 


of 


of 


air washer 


air washer 


minute. 


room. 


ro< im. 


A 


f'A"). 


5,000 


9' 


8' 


12 


20 


10,000 


9' 


9 


13' 


21' 


15,000 


11 


11 


15' 


23' 


20,ooo 


11' 


16' 


17' 


25' 


25,ooo 


11' 


19' 


18' 


26' 


30, 


12' 


20' 


20' 


28' 


40,000 


12 


20 


ir 


30' 


50,000 


12' 


20' 


25' 


33' 



In special cases where room is limited, the space given 
in the tables can be reduced somewhat by laying out the 
apparatus to scale and by making arrangements espe- 
cially adapted to the case in hand. The dimensions given 
are for average conditions and are intended to give ample 
room not only for the apparatus but also working space 
for the attendants. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



121 



for an 



Space Required for Boiler Rooms. The first step in de- 
termining- the size of boiler room is to approximate the 
horse-power which for heating may be done by means of 
the charts given in the preceding article. 
The boiler horse-power for ventilation may 
be found by multiplying the cubic feet of 
air to be supplied per minute by 0.0026. 
When the building is to contain a power 
plant, or combined power and heating- 
plant, the total horse-power to be provided 
should be obtained from the engineer, as 
the problem of determining it becomes 
somewhat complicated and depends upon 
varying conditions. 

In all plants of any considerable size, at 
least one spare boiler should be furnished 
emergency. 

In laying out a boiler room there must not only be 
sufficient space for the boiler itself, but also for cleaning, 
firing, and drawing the tubes. Fig. XII shows a hori- 
zontal return tubular boiler placed in a corner of the boiler 
room. When this is done, the outer wall of the setting may 
be omitted by providing an air space, at least 4 inches in 
depth, between the setting and building wall on the side 
and rear. 

The space " A " for reaching the cleanout door should 
not be less than 3 feet. The space " B," in front of the 
boiler, should be about 6 inches greater than the length of 
the tubes. This amount of space is not required for firing- 
purposes but for drawing the tubes. 

Two boilers set in a battery are shown in Fig. XIII. 
In this case a space is allowed at the rear for reaching the 
cleanout doors. When possible the distance " C " should 
be made about 3 feet, although 2 feet may be made to 
answer when the available room is limited. 

Reference has been made above to the space required 
for drawing- the tubes of a boiler. There are different 
ways of reducing this, two of which are shown in Figs. 
XIV and XV. In the first of these a window is provided 
in front of each boiler, 
either in an outside or inside 
wall, furnished with a re- 
movable sash. The second 
case is sometimes used 
where the boilers are well p; g . \IV 

below the street grade and 

face an outside wall. Here a special excavation is made 
to a point slightly above the tops of the tubes as indicated, 
without carrying it up to the top of the boiler room. 











B 




A 





Fig. XII 






1 


=r-^ -r 


i .i 


i i 








H 


f b 


1 ! 



TABLK VI. 



Diameter < 
shell. 

30" 

30" 
30" 
36" 
36" 
36" 
42" 
42" 
42" 
48" 
48" 
48" 



Length 
tubes, 

7' 
8' 
9' 
9' 
10' 
11' 

10' 
12' 
14' 
11' 
12' 
13' 



Horse- 
pi iw er 

10 

11 

13 
15 

17 
19 
21 
26 
29 
33 
35 
38 



Diameter i 
shell. 

54" 

54" 

54" 

60" 

60" 

60" 

66" 

66" 
66" 

72" 
72" 
72" 



L eng 1 1 1 
tubes. 

13' 

14' 

15' 

14' 

15' 

16' 

1 I' 

15' 

16' 

15' 

16' 

17 



Horsi 
powe 

41 

44 

47 

56 

60 

64 

70 

75 

80 

91 

LOO 

106 



After determining the total horse-power required, the 
number of units should be decided upon, after which 
the diameter and length of shell may be taken from 
Table VI. 

The horse-powers given in the table are 
based on the tube arrangement recom- 
mended by the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Co. The lengths 
given are those of the tubes. 

Table VII, taken from " Power, Heat- 
ing, and Ventilation," gives the over all 
dimensions of horizontal tubular boilers 
with both light and heavy settings, and 
may be used in determining the required 
floor space. 

TABLE VII. 
Heavy Setting por Power. 

30" 36" 42" 48" 54" 60" 66" 72" 

3-6 3-8 3-8 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-2 

-4 7-10 9-0 9-6 10-0 10-6 

9-8 11-8 12-8 13-8 15-8 16-8 17-8 18-8 



Diam. ..I shell 



Length of setting = 

Length of tulies 



Width mi setting. 1 ^.vj 6-10 
boiler 



Width of setting 
boilers 

Width of setting- 3 j 3 _ 8 16 _ 6 18 _ 19 _ 6 2 2-4 23-10 25-4 26-10 
boilers 

Width of setting, t 17 . s 2 2-4 23-4 25-4 29-0 31-0 33-0 35-0 
bi Mlers 

Light Setting i'ok Heating. 

Diam. „f shell. 30" 36" 42" 48" 54" 60" 66" 72" 

Length of setting = 3 __, 3.4 3.4 3 „ 1() 3 _ 10 3 _ 10 3 _ ]y 3 _ 1( , 
Length of tubes ■,- 

Width of setting. 1 5 . 8 6 _ 2 6 _ 8 7.2 7.8 8-2 l']° 'i' 4 , 

bi'ller 9-4 9-10 

Width ..t setting. 2 9 .g 10 . 1Q J,.,,, 12 . 10 14-0 15-0 ] 7 'l }5"q 

boilers 16-8 17-8 

25-6 26-6 

24-0 25-0 

33-4 34-10 

31-4 32-10 

Note. —Upper figures at bottom of last two columns ti» be used when width "i 
jrate equals diameter of boiler, 

The minimum height of 

room is given below, which 

allows 3 feet above the 

boiler for pipe connections. 

When possible, an extra foot 

Pi g XV or two should be provided, 

especially in case of the 

larger sizes, when there is considerable piping over the 

boilers and numerous valves to be reached. 









1 


J^-IH-— 





TA1 J 


LE 


VIII. 






[eight of 








D 


ametei 


r u 










boiler 


9' 6" 










54" 


10' 0" 










60" 


in 6" 










66" 


11' 0" 










72" 



lleiKli! 


D M >m 


11 


6" 


12' 


6" 


13' 


6" 


14' 


6" 



I tiameter of 
boiler. 

30" 
36" 

12" 
48" 



The various makes of water tube boilers vary so much 
in form and size for a given capacity that the actual dimen- 
sions of the type and power of boiler to be used should be 
obtained before reserving the space. In general, a water- 
tube boiler requires less floor space than a return tubular, 
but usually needs more head room, except in ease of cer 
tain forms made especially for low basements. 



I 20 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R . 




Fig.X 



up in banks along- the corridor walls. The general 
arrangement may be similar to those shown in Figs. 
1\" and V, with a supply fan in the basement and an 
exhaust fan in the basement or on the roof as is most 
convenient. 

In the ventilation of tall office buildings, where it would 
be practically impossible to reach all of the rooms with 
separate flues from the basement, the best plan is to carry 
up one or more large flues of sufficient capacity t<» supply 
the entire building and at each floor connect with distrib- 
uting duets formed by furring down the 
corridors, as shown in Fig. VIII. De- 
flectors are placed in the main flue at 
each floor for regulating the air flow, and 
the inlets to the rooms lead directly from 
the horizontal ducts as indicated in the 
diagram. 

The fresh air supply for a fan system 
in city buildings should be taken from a 
point well above the street level in order 
to avoid surface dust as much as possible. 
There seems, how- 
ever, no particular 
advantage in placing 
the inlet more than 
20 or 30 feet above 
the street grade, for 
above that level the 
principal impurity is 
soot, which is found 
at all elevations to 

the top of the building. In the case of schools, churches, 
etc., which are surrounded by a considerable extent ot 
lawn, the air supply may usually be taken in at the 
ground level without picking up an excessive amount ot 
dust. The supply duct should enter the building as near 
the fan as possible in order to keep the frictional resist- 
ance at a minimum. In planning for indirect heating the 
supply flues and heating stacks should first lie located and 
the cold air inlets provided for with reference to them. 

Space Required for I 'entilating Apparatus. The space 
required for the fan and main heater will vary of course 
with the particular arrangement used. Three different 
schemes are shown in Figs. IX, X, and XI. In the first of 
these the heater is made up of cast-iron sections supported 
on iron beams above the fan as indicated. A fan with a 
three-quarter housing is used in this case, discharging 
into an underground duct, although an angular up-dis- 
charge may be employed if it is desired to use overhead 
distributing ducts. 

In making up Table III the required space is based on 
heating the air from zero to 110 degrees, using standard 
pin radiator sections rated at 20 square feet per section, 
for lower temperatures, such as arc employed in purely 
ventilating work where direct radiation is used for warm- 
ing, shallower sections would be used, but the horizontal 
dimensions would lie practically the same. Hence, Table 
III applies approximately to all ordinary conditions for 
this particular arrangement of fan and heater. The size 
of the fan is based on capacities and speeds given in the 
previous article in the February issue. The dimensions 
are for fan and heater rooms combined, and allow for the 
space required for interior division walls, supports, etc. 



It is also assumed that direct connected motors or engines 
will be used for driving the fan. 

TABLE 111. (See Fig. IX. I 



Cubic feel ol 

. , i r per minute. 

5,000 

111, (Kill 

15,000 
20,000 

.'5,i 

311,01m 
40.000 

511. nun 




Height •■! roam. r ,„„„ , \ . Width of room. 

9' 13' s 

111' 14' s 

12' 16' 9' 

1 5 21 1 9' 
14' 20' lo' 
15' 20' 11' 

16 >>' 12" 
IS' 26' 13' 

Another layout is shown in Fig r . X, 
using the same type of heater based 
upon the same capacity. In this case 
the heater is suspended midway between 
the floor and ceiling and the path of the 
air is indicated by the arrows. 

'fable IV gives dimensions for this 
arrangement. For capacities up to 20,000 
cubic feet per minute, full housed fans 
have been assumed, as shown in the 
accompanying diagram, while for larger 
air volumes the 
three-quarter hous- 
ing for the fan has 
b e c n t a k e n , as 
shown in Fig. IX, 
i n m akin g u p 
Table IV in order to 
reduce the required 
height of room. 




TABLE IN". (See Fig. X. 



Cubic feel - if 

air per minute. 

5,000 
10,000 

1.5,000 
20,000 
2.5,(H"i 
50,000 
40,000 
50,000 



Height nf rn 

9 0" 
9 6" 
m 0* 

10' 6" 
116" 
If 5" 
12n" 
12' 6" 



Length of 

,.»ni I A 

14' 
IS' 
20' 

:: 

26' 

2S 

30' 
32' 



Width of room. 

8' 

s 
11' 

15 
15' 

16' 
14 
23' 



Table V refers to Fig. XI, in which a pipe heater of 
standard form is used. Two different lengths of room 
("A") are given, one for the apparatus as shown in the 
diagram, and the other when an air washer is employed. 





TABLE V. 


See Fig. XI. ! 




Cubic feel "t 


Heighi 


Width Length with. nit 


Length with 


air per 


of 


«.t air washer 


air washer 


minute. 


room. 


room " A '1 


A"). 


5,000 


9' 


8 12' 


20' 


lo, 1 


9' 


9' 13 


21' 


15,01111 


11' 


11' 15' 


IS' 


20,000 


11 


16' 17' 


25' 


25,ooo 


11' 


19 IS 


26 


511,000 


12 


2ii 20' 


28' 


40,11110 


12 


2i 1 11 


30' 


50,000 


12 


2o' 25' 


33' 



In special cases where room is limited, the space given 
in the tables can be reduced somewhat by laying out the 
apparatus to scale and by making arrangements espe- 
cially adapted to the case in hand. The dimensions given 
are for average conditions and are intended to give ample 
room not only for the apparatus but also working space 
for the attendants. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



121 



for 



Space Required for Boiler Rooms. The first step in de- 
termining- the size of boiler room is to approximate the 
horse-power which for heating may be done by means of 
the charts given in the preceding article. 
The boiler horse-power for ventilation may 
be found by multiplying the cubic feet of 
air to be supplied per minute by 0.0026. 
When the- building is to contain a power 
plant, or combined power and heating 
plant, the total horse-power to be provided 
should be obtained from the engineer, as 
the problem of determining it becomes 
somewhat complicated and depends upon 
varying conditions. 

In all plants of any considerable size, at 
least one spare boiler should be furnishec 
emergency. 

In laying out a boiler room there must not only be 
sufficient space for the boiler itself, but also for cleaning, 
firing, and drawing the tubes. Fig. XII shows a hori- 
zontal return tubular boiler placed in a corner of the boiler 
room. When this is done, the outer wall of the setting may 
be omitted by providing an air space, at least 4 inches in 
depth, between the setting and building wall on the side 
and rear. 

The space " A " for reaching the cleanout door should 
not be less than 3 feet. The space " B," in front of the 
boiler, should be about 6 inches greater than the length of 
the tubes. This amount of space is not required for firing 
purposes but for drawing the tubes. 

Two boilers set in a battery are shown in Fig. XIII. 
In this case a space is allowed at the rear for reaching the 
cleanout doors. When possible the distance " C " should 
be made about 3 feet, although 2 feet may be made to 
answer when the available room is limited. 

Reference has been made above to the space required 
for drawing the tubes of a boiler. There are different 
ways of reducing this, two of which are shown in Figs. 
XIV and XV. In the first of these a window is provided 
in front of each boiler, 
either in an outside or inside 
wall, furnished with a re- 
movable sash. The second 
case is sometimes used 
where the boilers are well 
below the street grade and 

face an outside wall. Here a special excavation is made 
to a point slightly above the tops of the tubes as indicated, 
without carrying it up to the top of the boiler room. 











B 




k 





Fig. XII 



-c- 


i bzL^zJ 


B 




_J =- ■ -»L 




A 

* 



After determining the total horse-power required, the 
number of units should be decided upon, after which 
the diameter and length of shell may be taken from 
Table VI. 

The horse-powers given in the table are 
based on the tube arrangement recom- 
mended by the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Co. The lengths 
given are those of the tubes. 

Table VII, taken from " Power, Heat- 
ing, and Ventilation," gives the over all 
dimensions of horizontal tubular boilers 
with both light and heavy settings, and 
p- xiii ma y be used in determining the required 

floor space, 
an 



Diam. of shell. 

Length of setting = 
Length of tubes 

Width Of sotting 1 
boiler 

Width of setting 2 
boilers 

Width of setting'. 3 
boilers 



Liciht Setting for Heating 

30" 36" 42" 48" 54" 
3-> 3-4 3-4 
5-8 6-2 6-8 7-2 7-8 
9-8 10-10 11-10 12-10 14-0 
13-8 15-6 17-0 18-6 2(i-4 




Fig. XIV 



TAKLK VI. 



Mameter of 

shell. 


Length 
tubes 


30" 


7' 


30" 


8' 


30" 


9' 


36" 


9' 


36" 


10' 


36" 


11' 


42" 


10' 


42" 


12' 


42" 


14' 


48" 


11' 


48" 


12' 


48" 


13' 



Ibirse- 
power. 

10 

11 

13 
15 

17 
19 
21 
26 
29 
X>> 
35 
38 



Diameter of Lengl h "l 



si, ell 

54" 
54" 
54" 
60" 
60' 
60* 
66" 
66" 
66" 
72" 
72" 
72" 



13' 
14' 

15 
14' 
15' 
16' 

1 V 
15' 

16' 
15' 
16' 

17 



Horse- 
pi .we I 

41 
44 
47 
56 

60 

64 

70 

75 

80 

94 
100 
106 





TABLE 


VII. 










1 1 e \ w Setting 


FOR I 


OWER. 








30" 


36" 42" 


48" 


54" 


6(1" 


66" 


72" 


3-6 


3-8 3-8 


4-2 


4-2 


4-2 


4-2 


4-2 


5-8 


6-10 7-4 


7-10 


9-0 


9-6 


10-0 


10-6 


9-8 


11-8 12-8 


13-8 


15-8 


16-8 


17-8 


1S-S 


13-8 


16-6 18-(l 


19-6 


22-4 


23-K) 


25-4 


26-10 


7-8 


22-4 23-4 


25-4 


29-0 


31-0 


33-0 


35 -() 



Diam. of shell 



Length of setting = 
Length of tubes '• 



Width of setting. 1 
boiler 



Width Of setting, 2 
boilers 



Width of setting. 3 
boilers 



Width of setting. 4 
boilers 



60" 66" 



72" 



3-10 3-10 3-10 3-10 3-10 
8-2 
15-0 
21-10 



17-S 20-2 22-2 24-2 26-8 28-8 



9-10 11-4 

9-4 9-10 

17-8 18-8 

16-8 17-8 

25-6 26-6 

24-0 25-0 

33-4 34-10 

31-4 32-10 



Note. — Upper figures at bottom of last two columns to be used when width of 
grate equals diameter of boiler. 

The minimum height of 
room is given below, which 
allows 3 feet above the 
boiler for pipe connections. 
When possible, an extra foot 
or two should be provided, 
especially in case of the 

larger sizes, when there is considerable piping over the 

boilers and numerous valves to be reached. 













— 'r 58 " 










1- 






-1H--» 


— " 



Fig. XV 



1 Jiameter of 
boiler. 
30" 

36" 

42" 
48" 





TA1 


LE 


VIII. 




[eight of 








I liametei i >i 


room 








boiler. 


9' 6" 








54" 


10' 0" 








60" 


lo 6" 








66" 


11' 0" 








72" 



Height i 

room 

Mb" 
12' 6" 

13' 6" 
14' 6" 



The various makes of water-tube boilers vary so much 
in form and size for a given capacity that the actual dinien 
sions of the type and power of boiler to be used should be 
obtained before reserving the space. In general, a water- 
tube boiler requires less Moor space than a return tubular, 
but usually needs more head room, except in case of cer 

tain forms made especially for low basements. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D<? N O TES * * 

FOR.*THE*MO NTH 




ggggsgggg>s&aa»a^^ 



MODERN architecture has been discussed much of 
late to its detriment. We have heard how archi- 
tecture of the present day is the result of burrow- 
ing ; but we have ("ailed to note any instance which has been 
given or any suggestion which has been made as to how 
borrowing may be avoided or by what other means archi- 
tecture can be bettered. There are those who contend 
that an architectural system based upon borrowing either 
as a constructive or as a decorative principle is as preju- 
dicial to healthy artistic growth as a persistent habit of 
borrowing from one's neighbors in terms of dollars and 
cents is contrary to sound domestic finance and harmful to 
social amenities. Others claim that we are all borrowers 
and shall continue to borrow in architecture until the end. 

It is admitted that it is undertaking what seems impos- 
sible to create a new style in the present day. Traveling 
has become common and with the increased knowledge of 
things architectural, propounded by the literature of the 
day, sharp distinctions between the styles are bound to 
drop. The enormous number of books have helped to 
transplant into alien territories the different styles we see 
to-day. Some one has said that the evil genius of the art 
of architecture has always been the literary man. To 
go back a long way, the Romans were happily and success- 
fully building beautiful, ample, round, arched structures 
when the literary person of the age declared that true 
chasteness was to be found only by using the straight lines 
of Greece. The man in the street combined with the 
literary man (these two have much in common) forced the 
architect out of the way of his inclination into the paths of 
dulness. Again, at the Renaissance the men of letters, 
also in conjunction with the public, forced the designer to 
forsake his preference. Now when we have become ac- 
customed to our borrowed finery we are driven with 
suddenness into all sorts of styles until, with the latest 
extremists, we are threatened to be denuded of all our 
accumulated rags as being wholly unnecessary for cloth- 
ing the nakedness of our structural forms. 

Docs not constructive criticism of the situation suggest 
that the pressing hindrance to good architecture to-day is 
not alone attributable to the use of borrowed forms, but to 
the love of wealth for wealth's sake ? Can it not be said 
that the worship of wealth for wealth's sake alone has gone 
far in upsetting the production of good work? Rome set 
out to conquer the world, and her object was to increase 
her wealth. In the process she appropriated the architec- 
ture of Greece and debased it. With the arrival of the 
Renaissance there was a great output of wealth, a great 
increase in trades, a great striving for money for its own 
sake. Of what use was the architecture of Greece to the 
people of this age ? That was an intellectual effort, but the 
making of money was not. They could not understand 
the subconscious influence of the Greek, his high ideals 
and noble aspirations. They turned to the martial and 



wealthy people — the Romans — for their inspiration. 

Is the outburst of enthusiasm for classical forms evi- 
denced to-day due to the fact that we are still worshiping 
wealth for wealth's sake? Do we erect almost endless 
c )lonnades before our public buildings as did the Romans 
to satisfy our love for wealth and the ostentation which it 
encourages ? Are we really sincere in our efforts to indi- 
cate in terms of structural and decorative materials the 
function of a building which it is claimed is the primary 
object of architecture, or do we solve our problems in de- 
sign by formula based on the varying imposing effects 
which architectural contrivances will produce ? 

Intelligent study of economic and social conditions to- 
day should be the foundation of architectural style, and it 
must have an important bearing upon the development of 
any new architectural forms. If conditions to-day are the 
same as those that brought into being the imposing and 
masterful architecture of Rome, let us make use of their 
forms; for if architecture is really an expression of the life 
of the people, those same forms would be produced to-day. 
If there is to be developed an American style differing 
from any that has been produced in the preceding ages, 
it will be the result of differing conditions. If we are to 
abandon the old established forms for better ones, we have 
first to change the economic conditions of our time, to im- 
prove the people's thoughts and ideals, which give rise to 
architectural styles — then we may expect the stimulating 
impetus and need for newer and better architectural forms. 

THE jury of award of the George Washington Memo- 
rial Association has accepted the design of Messrs. 
Tracy & Swartwout for the proposed new auditorium. 
The building is to be not only a fitting memorial to the 
first president and his interest in higher education in 
America, but also a national headquarters for patriotic, 
scientific, educational, literary, and similar organizations. 
It is interesting to note that with the exception of the 
Mormon Temple in Salt Lake City, this Washington 
memorial will be the first large building in which the 
audience — in this case six thousand — will be seated in 
accordance with the modern theory of acoustics. To make 
sure that there would be no " deaf spots " or places where 
the speaker's voice could not be heard by a large part of 
the audience, the elliptical plan for the auditorium was 
adopted. The theory is that there is a line of equal sound 
extending from the speaker's platform around the room, 
and that this line is an ellipse. A man sitting in the last 
row and directly facing the speaker hears just as well as 
one who sits nearer but off to one side. The ellipse by 
permitting more people to sit facing the speaker within a 
given area is therefore regarded as the most economical 
arrangement. The auditorium will have a flat domed roof 
constructed of tile especially adapted to absorb sound and 
will be 27<> feet in length by 200 feet in width. 



122 





LETTERPRESS 

DRAWING OF RED BANK TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, RED BANK. N.J. 

WARRINGTON G.LAWRENCE. ARCHITECT: FLOYD YEWELL, DEL Frontispiece 

USE OF COLOR IN ARCHITECTURE. THE 

Illustrations from Photographs 
PRIVATE LIBRARY. THE .... 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
BATHING POOLS WITHIN AND OUT OF DOOMS Wilfred Carew 

Illustrations from Photographs 
COLONIAL DOORWAYS OF BALTIMORE. Ml). Riggin Buckler 

Accompanied by Photographs and Measured Drawings oj 
Selected Examples 
MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS ...... ....Ed. Review 

VI. The Work of Floyd Yewell 
Illustrations from Drawings 
COMPARISON OF THE STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF I BEAMS, A 

Frank II. ('.tutor. C..K. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



PVE LI SHE2" MONTHLY • SY - ■ ; ' m\ 

-RALPH- REINHOLB- • RESELL- FWHITEHEA!: ! '^ 

IDENT-S-TR-EAJVUESL' VltE-PRJBIDENPfrBVSlNLSSWHACER.- •SECRiTARY&WWfilNGEDIT y ■ •' I 

iTEREl>'ATTHE'B05TON'MA5S'p05T'OFFICE-A5'5LCOND-CL/\55/AAIL'MATTER.-MAR.rn-12'18S2 j ^J 

COPYRIGHT- ;914'&Y'RPGER£'AN>/MMSON'CONVPANY- ■ ' ' ■ 3 

■ 5VR5CR.IPTION • R.A1ES ■ 

iE , OR.'THE 1 VNlTED'5TATES-IT5TNSVLAR.-POSSES5lOhLSAND-CVaA'&5.o« 1 PER.-YEAR.- Ml 

F©'R.'CANADA-55. 50 PEfcYEAR- F o R , roi(XlCN<PVNTRlES'lN'THE'P<0TAL'VN10N-«69 o 'i'Ell-VEAR. 3 >jM 

■TRADE SVPPLlED'BY-TnE-A'WEaiCAM- NEWS -COiS\PANY'AND'lT5-BR.ANCHE5- Sgl 

( ■'']■ vu a- .!'..!'. p ■•■■: m • •....-.. , ... gl 

.it J iuiat' ^£ "'--'v"-'"*' "■■'■" ■" " ' ■I-""" """" ' " ' """""" '' "" n ii n i'i i iiiii i i i ii r i i —..,1111. ».i. l . ra^-»K .1 ft SEtfydj 

\ni^ii^iii^ii|nn»)"- 




RENDERED DRAWING OF RED BANK 
TRUST BUILDING, RED BANK, N. J. 

WARRINGTON G. LAWRENCE, ARCHITECT 
FLOYD YEWELL, DELINEATOR 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXIII 



JUNE, 1914 



NUMBER 6 



The Use of Color in Architecture. 



By BIRCH BURDETTE LONG. 



THE use of color in architecture is a problem than 
which there is none more fascinating to practitioners 
of the art, nor is there any branch of the profession 
in which failure is more frequent, nor disappointment 
more keen than in this. We have been here in America 
through an experience of a general and successful revival 
of architectural taste which has expressed itself not alone 
in our churches, our residences, and our public build- 
ings, but also in our hotels, stores, and even factories ; 
and examination of these buildings will show that we have 
depended immensely upon purity of line and delicacy of 
detail and little upon the factor of color, either for all 
portions of the building or for the decoration of specific 
portions. Our lack of success in this respect has been 
probably due to two causes — the first being that so much 
of our architecture of the Victorian period was lavishly 
colored, and in our revolt from the execrable work of that 
time we have come to regard its good qualities in the same 
rank with its bad. The other and principal reason is, I 
think, the difficulty of selecting materials to produce the 
desired effect ; it is, of course, easy to suggest a color 
scheme in a rendering, assuming that the man making the 
rendering has himself an accurate feeling of color ; but as 
the success of the color scheme of a rendered drawing 
depends, not upon the positive colors in the drawings but 
on their relations to each other, one can hardly use the 
rendering as a sort of sample and match the materials to 
it. Even if the coloring of the materials in the sketch 
could be exactly matched in the building, two of the colors 
in every rendered drawing, namely, the foliage and the 
sky, cannot be artificially harmonized in the completed 
work, and the result will not approximate that indicated 
by the sketch. This does not mean that the rendering is 
necessarily false, since its purpose is mainly pictorial, and 
if it conveys to the eye a correct impression of the com- 
pleted result, it is successful in its purpose because the 
comparative values of the colors are correct, and not their 
positive values. In order to make this point perfectly 
clear take, for example, an exhibition of paintings : one 
finds not infrequently landscapes which are similar in 
character, which convey to us the impression of having 
been painted, at not only the same season, but at the same 
time of day, and which impress us equally with their sin- 
cerity and accuracy ; but comparison between them will 
show that the color scheme is entirely dissimilar — the sky 
in one may be mauve, where in the other it is blue, and 
the grass yellow in one and blue in the other. 

These pictures are satisfactory, not because the absolute 



colors appear as they do in nature, but because the rela- 
tionship established between them varies in the same de- 
gree that it does in nature ; we are not apt to see color 
absolutely, but comparatively. The architect therefor who 
endeavors to follow the color scheme of a rendering should 
remember that he is seeking not for the identical colors 
but for those which will convey a similar impression. 

Most architects whose work is pleasing in its relation- 
ships of color have succeeded by begging the question, 
and by using in place of really positive colors, monotone 
schemes, or by including a few very simple colors which 
years of experiment have proven to be satisfactory. Let 
us take two examples of monotone color schemes which 
are each highly successful : the big waiting room of the 
Pennsylvania Station is perhaps one of the most beautiful 
rooms in America — warm, sympathetic and rich — but 
the scheme is essentially a monotone in a dull light brown 
or buff, relieved only with the pale blue and tan of the maps 
placed high up on the walls which are after all not so much 
different colors as variations of the brown tone. Of simi- 
lar type as regards color scheme, although an example 
completely different in character, is the house designed 
by Messrs. Albro and Lindeberg, at Easthampton, in 
which the basic tone is again the warm buff of the stucco, 
which is repeated in slightly darker color in the roof, 
brightened by white trim and very dull green blinds. It 
is essentially a one-color scheme, since the green is dulled 
to such a degree that it is hardly a distinct color, but 
rather a variation of the ground tone. 

The two examples above described have exactly the 
same qualities of suggestion of color that a first rate black 
and white drawing or etching has : one feels almost sure 
that they are full of color (as in a certain way they are), 
but it is one color with variations, not a combination of 
several colors. 

The other class of colors in which success is easy, be- 
cause there lias been so much experiment in them that no 
particular thought is required about the color scheme, has 
one prominent example — the green and white of Colonial 
architecture. A white house, with either light or dark 
green blinds, and a roof of a shade of green to harmonize 
with the blinds (easy for even an uncultivated color sense 
to find), or with a roof of any neutral colored brown or 
gray, could hardly fail to be a success from the point of 
view of color ; and the knowledge of this is so widespread 
that the first thing which an architect prescribes when he is 
asked to improve a house is often to paint it white with 
green blinds. Now I do not imagine that this combina- 



I2( 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



.f white and green is the only good one possible for 
a house, but as the average of Colonial houses which were 
painted in these colors was much higher than the average 
of our country houses painted in any other color combina- 
tion, we have l accustomed to regard any green and 
white house as being pretty good, and to accept it as 
pretty good, because of the slovenly ami unanalytical train 
of thought that we are to follow when our attention is not 
especially aroused. 

Aside from the classes of structures which we have just 
mentioned we find that pretty nearly all of our buildings 
have been done in a strict monotone, relieved only when 
the material is changed, and even then if the additional 
material can be made to approach in color the basic tone, 
it is very frequently so used. We have numerous exam- 
ples of this style which are so familiar that no illustration 
is necessary : perhaps the one we have most often seen 
being the office or loft building' in which the lower stories 
are of limestone, the shaft of brick, matching the lime- 
stone as closely as can be, the crown of terra cotta fash- 
ioned like limestone, and the window trims painted white 
or dull gray. Nor am I prepared to say for a minute that 
this decent and orderly succession of materials would be 
b ittered by varying them in color. As a matter of fact as 
most buildings of this type are designed, the reverse 
would probably be the case, and yet a much more inter- 
esting building- could be conceived in which the motives 
themselves were adapted to the use of color, and executed 
with its very liberal use. 

Nevertheless the fact remains that where color has been 
used in buildings of this class, even in a timid and hesitat- 
ing way a greater variety of effect and interest of treatment 
has been secured than could possibly have been the case 
without it. Take, for example, the Dreieer building ; this 
is a rather low store building of good proportions, and of ex- 
cellent detail, executed in limestone for the most part, but 



with the lower story of black and gold marble with gilded 
capitals; the metal work of the window and door frames is 
again gold colored, and this lower story has an extraordi- 
nary richness, which would hardly be possible in any other 
material. The building looks like a jewelry shop, and is 
intended so to look, and although in the photograph the 
lower story does not appear stable enough to support those 

ive, in reality there is no such feeling, except that one 
realizes that the pilasters are not structural, but purely 
ornamental, which is quite as it should be. Beyond the 
first story the architects dared not venture, and while the 
building is admirably successful as a whole, in monotone, 
it might have been still more attractive had a color scheme 
been worked through the upper stories so as to make the 
contrast between the upper and lower portions of the 
building- a little less hard and definite. 

Of course the use of color in a building composed of 
purely natural materials is always a little difficult, since 
nature affords us a limited palette with which to work. In 
stone there are few varieties, white, gray, reddish brown 
and buff being those readily accessible, although curiously 
colored green limestone has been used in some very poorly 
designed buildings of the University of Pennsylvania and 
the University of Virginia, and is never used now, princi- 
pally, I suppose, because those buildings were unattractive, 
and their faults were assumed to include their color. 
Now, as most of the decorative motives which were em- 
ployed have been transmitted to us through the medium 
of stone architecture, we have more or less unconsciously 
imitated with these forms, in our artificial materials the 
stone colors, with the single exception of brick, which has 
a natural color of its own. Even in brick there have been 
constant attempts made to produce a surface texture, 
graining and color like that of stone, and the same effort, 
many times magnified, is apparent in our buildings of terra 
cotta. Now, architectural terra cotta, like brick, is a rational 




Country House at Easthampton, Long Island, N.Y. 
Albro & Lindeberg, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



127 



and sensible building mate- 
rial, with attributes which are 
individual to it, and of which, 
up to the present time, we 
have not made the most, but 
have preferred to treat it as 
an imitation stone. This 
practice has been so universal 
that we can see terra cotta 
thus constructed without feel- 
ing its impropriety, although 
when we can go out into the 
country and see a building 
built of cement blocks sur- 
faced like rock-faced ashlar, 
we instantly realize its falsity 
and dislike it for that reason. 
Brick has had worked out for 
it during the many centuries 
of its use a rational and decent 
system of ornament and of 
construction ; brick cornices 
do not imitate stone forms, 
although they occupy the 
same positions and have the 
same apparent weight. 

It is good to see most archi- 
tects coming back to 
a simple and ration- 
al use of brick after 
fostering, in the at- 
tempt to achieve the 
unusual, a demand 
for textures and col- 
ors foreign to their 
nature. We are now 
able to find colors 
other than white 
which harmonize 
with the various 
tones of red of the 
brick. An excel- 
lent example of the 
current method of 
using brick is the 
Barge Office in New 
York City, which 
was designed dur- 
ing the term of office 
of Mr. James Knox 
Taylor, as supervis- 
ing architect of the 
Treasury. While 
brick is the principal 
material used, and 
the building is evi- 
dently a brick struc- 
ture, Mr. Taylor has 
not hesitated to in- 
troduce practically 
the whole range of 
other building ma- 
terials suited to fire- 




Dreicer Building, Fifth Avenue, New York 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects 




Detail of U. S. Government Barge Office, New York 
James Knox Taylor, Architect 



proof structures into the orna- 
mental parts of the design ; 
and while the result in the 
photograph is satisfactory, the 
executed building is still more 
so. Let us enumerate these 
simply for the sake of showing 
how many colored materials 
there are which can be used 
in combination with brick : 
the bases of the piers are 
granite, their capitals lime 
stone, the rope ornament 
around the architrave of the 
arches is also of limestone, 
while the concluding orna- 
ment of the architrave is 
terra cotta with some color ; 
the diamond pattern insets are 
of brick and matt glazed tiles, 
the tiles in a number of differ- 
ent shades, the corbels under 
the pilasters at the second 
story and the caps of these 
pilasters are of limestone, 
while the frieze between the 
little brick arches above the 
windows is again of 
colored tiles. The 
lower part of the 
cornice is limestone 
and the upper part 
of copper, with a 
green tiled roof. 
The columns, acting 
as mullions, are of 
marble with terra 
cotta caps; and thus 
we have an assem- 
blage of practically 
every one of the 
building materials 
which are ready to 
hand, but there is no 
incongruity appar- 
ent in their several 
uses, and they have 
an excellent fitness 
to their purposes in 
design as well as in 
color. The pattern 
brickwork in this 
building is again 
worthy of remark, 
since the patterns 
have been made 
quite as much by the 
selection of various 
shades of brick as 
by the jointing. 

Another of the 
schemes for intro- 
ducing color into 



128 

buildings which is of recent devel- 
opment is through the empl< 
ment of sgraffito work, and there 
are illustrated in this article two 
very notable examples of its use. 
The Alexander Building is a com- 
bination of limestone and sgraffito, 
with a marble trim around the 
show window of the first story. 
Some of the sgraffito is raised, 
but most of it is flat, and the 
colors are extremely simple, the 
background being brown, while 
the ornament is worked out in 
color, not very different from that 
of limestone. The other building 
in which sgraffito is used is the 
Booth Theatre. As has been un- 
fortunately the ease with much of 
the work in which color has been 
liberally introduced, the design 
cannot be as heartily admired as 
one could wish ; but the principles 
of the application of the ornamen- 
tation are sound and commend- 
able, as is the freedom of the 
building from too close imitation 
of stone forms. It is, of course, 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




■hi 

IS IE H 



Imm 





Alexander Building, Fifth Avenue, New York 
Canrere & Hastings, Architects 



true that much of it is evidently 
a derivative of stone ornamenta- 
tion, and yet is used in so free a 
way as to redeem it from a suspi- 
cion of stereotyped copying. The 
color of this building is derived 
from four different materials — 
terra cotta, marble, brick and 
sgraffito. Most of the fine orna- 
mental work of the bands and 
amusing detail is in a lavender 
or violet colored background of 
sgraffito with the patterns nearly 
white. For the most part the 
terra cotta is in monotone, but 
where color has been thought 
necessary by the architects, they 
have not hesitated to use it, and 
in fact the whole building has 
been worked out, not as a mono- 
tone scheme, but as a polychrome 
one, the colors employed being- 
gray, white and lavender for the 
brick, architectural terra cotta 
ami sgraffito, respectively. 

There is one other building 
which must be included in any 
diseussion of the use of color deco- 




The Booth Theatre, New York 
Henry Herts, Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



129 



ration, and unfortunately to my theory that colored terra 
cotta should not reproduce stone forms, it is the Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church in which a stone pattern as 
well known as the Corinthian capital has been executed in 
terra cotta with excellent results. This building- is in the 
main of gray brick with a little color introduced into the 
brickwork, the columns are of greenish marble, and 
the frieze of a curious blue and yellow marble ; but the 
cornice, the ornamental patterns, and the cupola are all of 
yellow white and blue terra cotta, and the sculpture exe- 
cuted by Mr. A. A. Weinman in the pediment, which is 
Delia Robbia in design, is likewise Delia Robbia in color- 
ing. Now, although this building is full of unusual and 
interesting colored terra cotta, the general effect is not 
that of a polychrome building, but that of a mono- 
tone one, and if there is anything in the principle 
that colored terra cotta should not imitate stone forms, 
which this most successful building seems to confute, 
the explanation may lie in the fact that the balusters, 
cornice, cupola and the cheneau are of low projec- 
tions and of an intricacy and delicacy of detail which 
is foreign to architecture which is really stone, and 
in spite of this tremendously successful building in 
colored terra cotta, I believe that color which is intro- 
duced into a building through an artificial material 



should not hesitate to express the material of which it is 
composed. 

One other point which should be borne in mind in de- 
signing a structure is the proper effect of age and dete- 
rioration on materials ; a good many of the colors, for 
example, those used in stucco, arc fleeting ; even brick 
and glazed tile change color through age, so we find that 
the architect must always bear in mind, not only the color 
scheme of his building at its completion, but also its prob- 
able change of tone during a few years after its construc- 
tion in a city where dust, soot, and the acid fumes from 
chimneys attack and change almost any color, no matter 
how permanent it may be when fully protected. 

I have taken up in this article the principal aspects from 
which the use of color is usually regarded, and also the 
principal materials in which colored work is usually exe- 
cuted ; but it is, of course, impossible to do justice to such 
an enormous subject in so few words and with so few 
illustrations. The subject is one which is immensely 
interesting to architects, and especially to a man whose 
livelihood has been dependent upon his knowledge of 
color, and while I have illustrated the article with photo- 
graphs of buildings of good design, they each represent a 
class of work of which the vast majority is not completely 
thought out and is unintelligently executed. 




Madison Square Presbyterian Church, New York 
McKim, Mead «t White. Architects 



The Private Library. 

(Continued from the tpril Issue.) 
By II. I. BOTTOMLEY. 



IX A private library the comfort and the decorative 
effect are both dependent upon two things: the general 
proportions and the lighting by day and by night. 
On these two fundamental considerations will be found to 
hang all the livableness of the finished room. Mere size 
has nothing to do with the charm of a library. < >ne of 
the most successful that 1 know measures only twelve 
by eighteen feet, but the relating of its component parts 
to each other and to the general measurements of the 
room is of vital importance. 

Proportion is that attribute of any design which con- 
cerns the arrangement and adjustment of its elements. 
If we would achieve good proportion in our libraries, there 
are rules to help us — simple enough most of them are — 
rules of composition which the dissectors of design have 
discovered for us. They are undoubtedly helpful, but we 
may follow all the laws that have ever been laid down and 
yet the result may be cold and dry. Balance, repetition, 
symmetry, contrast, are all factors of good proportion, and 
yet to attain success the designer must put vitality and 
imagination into his work — not a feverish striving after 
originality, but a constant seeking for " truth which is old 
and yet ever new." 
The component 
parts of the shell of 
the room are the 
openings : the fire- 
place, windows and 
doors ; and the sol- 
ids : the floor and 
ceiling and the wall 
spaces. The wall 
spaces, though really 
no more important 

than the other parts, 

should be given 

special considera- 
tion on the plan, for 

when the room is 

finished it is they 

that will appear to 

be the room ; they 

should be large and 

simple, punctuated 

symmetrically by 

the openings and so 

planned that the 

books and furniture 

and lighting fixtures 

maybe conveniently 

arranged. By tin- 
placing of the open- 
ings, the comfort of 

the room will be 

made or marred. 

The fireplace — 

there must be a fire- 



place if only because of its attraction for the idler — should 
be away from the main entrance door, so that those 
seated around it may have greater privacy. The windows 
should be accessible, and the doors as few as possible under 
the conditions governing the plan. 

In general, with reference to the design of the private 
library, it is safe to say : 

1. Make the windows large. 
1. Make the doors small. 

3. Make the ceiling high in proportion to the floor area. 
Usually the Moor area of any room, for one reason or 
another, is limited. Either it is to be in the city where 
party walls not only define but almost invariably confine 
it, or it is in the country where space is unlimited but 
where such practical questions as the number of books to 
be housed, or the relation of this room to the rest of the 
house, are determining considerations. ( )ften we cannot 
make the shell of a room conform to our ideas and preju- 
dices, or even to the laws of good proportion, but must 
accept what comes to us ready made : but in that case there 
are many tricks by which the eye may be fooled and bad 
sizes or shapes may be overcome or palliated. A white 

ceiling, for instance, 
will greatly increase 
the apparent height, 
while a beamed or 
coffered one or a 
frieze will decrease 
it. Large furniture 
will make the room 
seem smaller than it 
really is. If the cen- 
ter is kept open and 
free from furniture, 
the size to all intents 
and purposes will be 
greatly increased. 

The lighting of a 
library, that is the 
arrangement of the 
windows, is very 
closely allied to its 
proportions. Sym- 
metry and balance 
in their placing will 
be found to increase 
its livableness. An 
abundance of light 
is unquestionably of 
vital importance and 
the artificial lights, 
as well as the win- 
dows, should be so 
arranged with refer- 
ence to the placing 
of the furniture that 
any one wishing to 




Mantel in the Library of William G. Mather, Esq., Cleveland. Ohio 
Charles A. Plait. Architect 

1 31 I 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



131 




LIBRARY IN HOUSE OF MRS. S. A. HITT, WASHINGTON, D.C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 




LIBRARY IN HOUSE OF HENRY A.WHITE. ESQ.. WASHINGTON. D.C 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



l 3 2 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



read or write may have a flood of 
light upon his book or desk at any 
time. This does not mean that 
large sheets of plate glass must be 
used. Both from the point of view 
of the exterior and the interior of 
the house, it is well to make the 
windows a part of the architecture 
of the building — not mere gaping 
rectangles. .Small panes separated 
by muntins of wood or by leads do 
not materially decrease the light that 
comes into a room, while they serve 
an important purpose in harmoniz- 
ing the world outside with the in- 
terior. 

Under ordinary circumstances the 
small panes increase the charm of a 
view. Nature is by their interven- 
tion brought into accord with the 
pictures on the walls and the other 
objects in the room. 

The choice of the style and size of 
the windows is dependent upon the 

character of the house as a whole, but their treatment is 
largely governed by what is seen through them. A pleas- 
ant view is almost a necessity, and is usually obtainable 
by a little judicious planting; but if it is not all one could 
wish, an uneven glass may be used which will blur the 
outline of what is seen, and give it some of that charm 
which is always possessed by the unknown. 

The accompanying illustrations have been chosen largely 
because of the very successful arrangements for lighting 
shown in them. The artificial lights have been well placed 





Library of House in Gramercy Park, New York, N. Y. 
McKim, Mead & White. Architects 



Library in House of Mrs. Alfred A. Pope, Farmington, Conn. 
McKim. Mead & While. Architects 



in every case; low reading lamps with tables to put them 
on have been provided near the sofas and large chairs, and 
well shaded lights have been placed at intervals around 
the walls. The torches hanging on brackets in the house 
in Gramercy Park are almost indispensable in a library of 
any size. They may be unhooked and passed along the 
shelves whenever a special book is wanted. 

The exposure is another very important consideration 
in the choice of the decoration of a library, especially in 
the use of color. A north room should be, of course, warm 

in tone, and here paneling 
in natural woods is very 
effective. In a south room 
light, cool colors are best, 
and white woodwork is 
always lovely if the mould- 
ings and detail are in fine 
scale. 

A restful color scheme, 
however, for the entire room 
should always be sought 
after. Dignity and even a 
certain amount of somber- 
ness is the atmosphere 
which the decorative scheme 
should convey — qualities 
which are conducive to a 
serious, calm, and peaceful 
state of mind. Gay decora- 
tive treatment — intense and 
strong color schemes — 
should not be considered for 
a library. 

Brown oak finishes which 
approach the neutral in 
color are good. These are 
best when obtained on gen- 
uine oak, but can be imi- 
tated on other woods, by 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



133 





LIBRARY IN HOUSE OF WILLIAM G. MATHER, ESQ., CLEVELAND, O. 
CHARLES A. PLATT. ARCHITECT 



i.H 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




means of stains and fillers. The dignity of mahogany is 
excellent for libraries. Equally effective is the simplicity, 
beauty, and restfulness of mahogany and white. The 
white helps to reflect the light, thereby facilitating the 
illumination of the room —an important consideration as 
we have before demonstrated in a room where much read- 
ing is done . 
Whitewood, 
owing to its un- 
obtrusive grain, 
is the ideal wood 
for white enamel 
finish, although 
any other close 
grain wood may 
be used. Birch, 
red gum, and 
maple are excel- 
lent woods for 
the imitation of 
mahogany. An 
acid stain on 
woods of sut'li 
c i e n 1 1 y hard 
grain will give 
a clearer effect 
than an oil stain. 
In the illustra- 
tion of a small 
library in a city 
apartment (in 

the first part of this article, April, 1914), we see a 
white paneled room that is beautifully worked out, not 
only in the wall treatment but in every detail of the 
furnishing. 

In these days of countless fires from defective electric 
wiring and careless painters on the one hand, and of 
comparatively cheap fireproof construction on the other, 
it is rightly becoming more and more the custom to have 
the heavy construction of our houses made of incombus- 
tible materials. If the walls and floors of a house are 
entirely fireproof and the finished floors are made of tiles 
or some other material that cannot burn, there is very 
little clanger of fire. 

The furnishing of libraries is almost more important 
than the furnishing of any other room in a private house. 
I have always believed that the elements of good taste 
were in every human being — and yet how few of our 
rooms are really satisfactory. The library in Karmington, 
Conn., by McKim, Mead & White, is a perfect example 
of suitability in furnishing. To begin with, the shell of 
the room was well designed and well carried out. Its 
proportions are good (though the wide angle lens of the 
camera has distorted them in the picture), the paneling 
of dark wood, the mantelpiece, the doors, the lighting 
fixtures, are all admirable- These fundamental character- 
istics arc enhanced by the more temporary decorations — 
the table and chairs, the engravings, and the quaint clock 
over the mantelpiece. This room is simply furnished, as 
a room for books always should be. It is a fine example of 
a contemporary style, —a style that is — which has been 
used continuously since its origin by English and American 
architects to express the finer sentiment of the home! 



Library in House of Geo. L. Nichols, Esq., Katonah, N. Y 
Charles A. Piatt, Architect 



A tar more ambitious and very dignified room is the 
library of Mrs. Hitt in Washington, designed by Mr. John 
Russell Pope. It is interesting to note how well thought 
out it is in design — the line of the top of the bookcases is 
carried across the mantel and door and window transoms ; 
the cornice ami the architraves are carefully detailed, and 

the fine engrav- 
ings and rich 
tapestry have 
been framed in 
by the mould- 
ings of the pan- 
eling and placed 
w h ere t h e y 
would be most 
effective. 

A library is 
the room above 
all others where 
a painted ceiling 
is appreciated. 
The detail and 
the color are a 
delight to those 
who are quietly 
enjoying its hos- 
pitality. 

After the gen- 
eral proportions 
have been deter- 
mined, the first 
thing to be considered in deciding upon the decoration and 
treatment of the library is the number of books and their 
appearance. Are they to be the chief decorative feature 
of the room, or merely a small factor in the furnish- 
ing of it? Are they sufficiently numerous to line the 
walls, or will they fill only one or two bookcases ? Noth- 
ing is more decorative than built-in bookcases lining the 
walls with fine books — not necessarily first editions ; but 
books to be effective must be well bound, and size, as 
Arnold Bennett says, " has a distinct moral value." But 
this treatment is possible only when there are a great 
many books to be housed. 

Glass doors do undoubtedly protect books from dust, but 
on the other hand they mar the tine color effect of the 
bindings of the books and they prevent the air from cir- 
culating as it should to keep them in good condition. The 
best modern practice is to exclude dust from the library as 
much as possible, but to leave the books open to the free 
circulation of the air, which should be neither too dry nor 
too moist. 

After all books are easy to dust and they lose much 
of their charm and personality when they are shut be- 
hind imprisoning bars. It is better to have the shelves 
reach no higher than one foot below the ceiling, as extreme 
heat dries the bindings. 

In planning a library, let us remember that there are 
many beautiful models to study, that there are many 
possible arrangements, differing from those already made, 
and that the keynote should always be quiet, ease, literary 
coziness, private proprietorship; if anything more should 
be added, it must surely be refined hospitality to personal 
friends. 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 81. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCF 



PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDING. BEVERLY. MASS 
CASS GILBERT ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 82. 




in 

to 

< 



UJ 

> 

UJ 
CQ 

6 

z 

Q 
_J 

D 

CD 

> 
< 

K 



CD 

EL 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 82. 






- 




i 1 




1 1 


n 




LI 


■\ ■ Hi 

V "1 




! ! 




i 1 







< 

>-" 

_l 

(X 

> 

UJ 

CO 

d 

z 

Q 

-J 

co 

> 
< 

Qi 
CO 



y 

CD 

a. 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 83. 







DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



THORNDIKE SCHOOL. EAST CAMBRIDGE. MASS. 
CHARLES R. CRECO. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 84. 




< 

s 

ui 
o 
g 

CO 
< 

u 

H 

< 

UJ 

J 
O 
O 

I 

u 

1/3 
UJ 

a 

z 
a: 
O 

X 

I- 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 85. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



MUNICIPAL AND POST OFFICE BUILDING. SOUTHAMPTON. LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
F BURRALL HOFFMAN. JR . AND HISS & WEEKES. ASSOCIATE ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 86. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



POLICE HEADQUARTERS, DISTRICT COURT. AND ELECTRICAL STATION. SALEM. MASS. 

IOHN MATTHEW GRAY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 87. 



rij-'-w 






• ' V. 



■wY 









: I 



< 

UJ 
-1 
< 
CO 

i 

i 

< 

u 

5 

H 

U 

uj 
■J 

UJ 

Q 
Z 
< 

H* 

OS 

O 



U s 

i— - 1 - 
S 2 

Q 
en 

OS 
UJ 

OS 
< 
D 
C 
Q 
< 
U 
I 

Ul 

y 
o 

o. 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 




.SECTION 



~: ~) - J .Section Ellvation 

PLAN. 

POLICE HEADQUARTERS, DISTRICT COURT AND FIRE STATION. MARLBOROUGH. MASS 

BIGELOW & DYER. ARCHITECTS 
EDWARD PERCY DANA. CONSULTING ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 89. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE AND CORNER 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



POLICE HEADQUARTERS. DISTRICT COURT. AND FIRE STATION. MARLBOROUGH. MASS 

BIGELOW & DYER. ARCHITECTS 
EDWARD PERCY DANA. CONSULTING ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 90. 




Z 

£ 

o 
>- 

uj n 

Z uj 

. h 

h ^ 

UJ O 

UJ cc 

Qi < 

u~i a: 
ui 

s * 

I— .8 

< a: 

UJ o 

^. > 



< 

u 
w 

-I 
O 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 91. 











u 
z 
< 

a. 

I- 
z 

UJ 



^j*-'.'« 



^ 




(X 




o 




> 




UJ 


in 

B 


7 


UJ 




(- 


H 


I 


i,i 


U 


iij 


IX 


s 


< 


p 




W 


u. 

UJ 


I 


>" 


H 


(* 


x> 


-f 


r^ 


</) 


H 


•8 


< 


X 


UJ 


o 


t 


>" 


H 




< 




UJ 




en 




3 




O 




X 








, 






- K 




- 


- . r - 


■ 




: 


: 




■ ■ 


- 




- * 


- 


: - z 


: - - -. 










ii| 









t 

i d , 

- 
- 



















- 












: -E 










: . • 






z 

, k-A o 

if: I 5 
< ll Sj 

pi d 



[I 






VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 92- 




J <r*\ 



VIEW FROM BELOW TERRACE 



mmA 








VIEW FROM APPROACH 



HOUSE OF E. F. ROBBINS. ESQ.. PASADENA. CAL 
MYRON HUNT. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER 



PLATE 93. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION 



HOUSE OF E. F. ROBB1NS, ESQ.. PASADENA. CAL. 
MYRON HUNT. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 94. 




ENTRANCE HALL 



HOUSE OF E. F. ROBB1NS. ESQ.. PASADENA. CAL. 
MYRON HUNT. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 6 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 95. 




< 

UJ 

<n 

O 
I 



VOL. 23. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 96. 








REFRESHMENT BUILDING AND BAND STAND FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 

OF THE CITY OF BOSTON AT JAMAICA POND 
WILLIAM DOWNES AUSTIN. ARCHITECT 



Bathing Pools Within and Out of Doors. 



By WILFRED CARKW . 



THE attraction of the out of town home is its being 
in the country. One of the very definite tendencies 
in present day living- is toward a wider and more 
practical use of country life and the enthusiastic enjoy- 
ment of the pursuits and diversions which it makes possi- 
ble. This full acceptance of out of door living- makes for 
everything which could heighten the attractiveness of the 
country home, and architects began years ago to add to the 
out of town estate every possible adjunct for enjoyment 
and recreation for which the open country affords space 
and abundance of opportunity. 

Bathing pools have for many years been more or less 
well known in athletic clubs or associations, occasionally 
in hotels and frequently upon ocean vessels, the equip- 
ment of which often includes almost everything imagina- 
ble to make the passing of days at sea as attractive as 
possible. Perhaps it is the making the acquaintance of 
the bathing pool in some such more or less public place 
which has brought about its presence upon many country 
estates, whei-e it appears within as well as out of doors and 
in the simplest of forms as well as under the most mag- 
nificent of guises. 

The bathing pool can hardly be considered anything 
new. Like many of the details of a modern home it is 
merely a revival or, perhaps, an adaptation, of an idea 
exceedingly old. During the days of ancient Greece and 
Rome the despots and the Ca?sars instituted the most 
sumptuous of baths maintained by the state for the benefit 
of the people, and within the villas and palaces of the 
wealthy classes the bathing pool — impluvium — was a 
recognized necessity. An adjunct which could so read- 
ily be made to as- 
sume an appearance 
highly architectural 
could hardly escape 
the attention of the 
clever designers of 
the old Roman and 
Pompeian villas 
which are beautiful 
to-day even in the 
sadly defaced ruins 
whic'h yet exist. 
Very often such a 
bathing pool would 
be set within a court 
of its own about 
which there ex- 
tended a broad am- 
bulatory walled and 
paved with marble 
or mosaic, and with 
a row of columns set 
about the edge of 
the basin to support 
the roof of the am- 
bulatory, the space 
directly over the 



pool itself being left open to the sky. These cool and 
spacious courts and corridors formed most inviting re- 
treats from the heat and glare of an Italian summer and, 
adorned with the fountains, the lamps, and the bronze or 
marble furniture which the splendid craftsmanship of the 
day produced, and used as the setting of the gorgeously 
picturesque life of the period, they must have been beau- 
tiful indeed. There, surrounded by these magnificent 
accessories, the ceremony of bathing assumed a pomp 
and circumstance — a certain ritual which lent additional 
splendor to what is now considered one of the most com- 
monplace and prosaic details of the clay's routine. 

The ancients with the splendor of their bathing arrange- 
ments would have looked with complete disdain upon our 
modern facilities much as we ourselves, proud in the 
possession of our bath tubs of porcelain, are pleased to 
regard the tubs of tin or zinc which some of us remember 
were considered luxuries in the homes of a generation 
ago. But like so many details of ancient life this splendid 
picture possessed a reverse — another aspect — which was 
much less attractive, for these beautiful pools were often 
lined with marble or with mosaic made of various kinds of 
marble, both being highly absorbent and becoming in 
time more or less filled or saturated with impurities ab- 
sorbed from the water and the air even when the accumu- 
lation of such impurities was removed from the surface of 
the marble or mosaic. Then, too, the method of caring 
for the pool rendered inevitable the formation of more or 
less mud or slime at the bottom, and which was of course 
impossible to remove without emptying the pool of water. 
Men who have been trained in designing and in the 

selection of mate- 
rials best suited to 
the work in hand 
may be interested 
in the several phases 
of the development 
of the modern bath- 
ing pool . The earli- 
est of the modern 
examples were little 
else than large 
square or oblong 
holes in the ground, 
floored and walled 
with brick plas- 
tered over with ce- 
ment or, in some 
later developments, 
both floor and walls 
were of concrete. 
A pool built by 
either method left 
much to be desired 
upon s e v e r a 1 
grounds. Where 
the pools were out 
of doors, as was very 




Bathing Pool on the Estate of Mr. Mortimer F. Swift, Oyster Bay, Long Island 
C. P. H. Gilbert. Architect 

135 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



136 

often the case with those 
first built, the walls of 
brick and cement or 
concrete showed a de 
cided tendency to crack, 
particularly under the 
influence of the low 
temperature of winter, 
and the freezing of such 
water as might enter, 
even though the pools 
were carefully drained. 
The making- of repairs 
to a pool thus injured 
was both difficult and 
costly, and unless such 
repairs were very care- 
fully made the water 
might gradually escape 
through a crack imper 
fectly mended. There 
were also serious objec- 
tions to pools so con- 
structed upon the score 

of cleanliness, for both cement and concrete are more or 
less absorbent and will take in impurities from both water 
and atmosphere. Any one familiar with pools of these 
earlier days will recollect the lines of grease just above the 
water line, — a kind of scum which unless continually re- 
moved increased in thickness to become in time a menace 




Bathing Pool on the Estate of Mr. H. R. Rea, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects 



to health. Then, too, 
such pools could not be 
thoroughly cleansed un- 
less emptied, with con- 
siderable waste of 
water, and unless the 
pools were frequently 
thus cleansed the water 
became so murky with 
sediment that its use for 
bathing was anything 
but a pleasure. The 
bathing pools of that era 
were hardly an improve- 
ment upon those of an- 
cient days, being built 
and operated upon al- 
most exactly similar 
principles. It is singu- 
lar to have to record that 
since the days of antiq- 
uity until quite re- 
cently there has been 
very little improvement 
in the building' of such pools, but such is the case. 

The construction of plunge baths or bathing pools to-day 
has attained a high degree of mechanical and artistic ex- 
cellence. Such pools are often built upon the grounds of 
country estates and being' entirely open are naturally in- 
tended for use only during' the months of summer ; quite 




Bathing Pool within a Sunken Garden 
Charles W. Leavitt. Jr., Landscape Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDKR 



137 






*m$ 




■' A. ■ * - " . . 



agfa ^ 




g^J El 










OPEN AIR BATHING POOL AT " WOODSTON." MT. KISCO, N. Y. 
CHARLES A. PLATT. ARCHITECT 




BATHING POOL IN A BUILDING DEVOTED TO ATHLETICS AT "FERNCLIFFE." RHINEBECK. N. Y. 

McKIM. MEAD & WHITE. ARCHITECTS 



I3§ 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



as often, however, they are 
built within permanent and 
solid structures and being pro- 
vided with every device which 
could make them attractive dur- 
ing the winter as well as the 
summer, they may be equally 
useful at any season. 

The most approved method 
of bathing pool construction, 
used for pools in the open air 
as well as for those within 
doors, calls for the building, 
within the excavation, of a con- 
crete bed foundation and retain- 
ing wall which is frequently 
.reinforced to withstand the 
outer water pressure. The 
walls and floor thus laid are 
then covered with several al- 
ternating layers of tar and tar 
paper, or occasionally of tar and 
heavy burlap, and upon this 
foundation is built a thin wall 
of one course of ordinary brick. 
The inner lining' of the pool is 
apt to be of some such highly 

non-absorbent material as enameled brick or ceramic 
mosaic laid in cement which has been thoroughly water- 
proofed. Of whatever material the pool be lined the cove 
base used in the angle where floor and walls unite, and 
also the portions of the lining where the walls unite with 
the surrounding floor, are apt to be of terra eotta modeled 
and enameled or else covered with ceramic mosaic- 




Bathing Pool at 




Bathing Pool of Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, Irvington, N. Y.. Suggesting th. 

Crow. Lewis & Wickenhoefer, Architects 



Ft. Tyron Hall," the Estate of Mr. C. K. G. Billings, New York 
Guy Lowell. Architect 

like the facing of the lining of the pool. The high excel- 
lence of the pools now being built is due very largely to 
the ingenious method by which the water within the pool 
is freed from such impurities as must necessarily find 
their way into it. About the edges of the pool, and at 
precisely the water line, there extends a narrow out- 
let gutter generally of enameled terra cotta and which 

is so inclined that the water 
which flows into it is at 
once carried away through 
drains. The water which 
is being continually forced 
into the pool is first filtered, 
then frequently heated and 
sterilized, and the continued 
inflow causes an equally con- 
tinued overflow into the out- 
let gutter. By this method 
any particle of dust or any 
animal or vegetable germ 
which falls into the water at 
once rises to the surface and 
is removed by the continued 
movement of the surface 
water toward the drains. 

The floor about the pool 
frequently ends in a cap 
course of terra cotta enam- 
eled, sloping very slightly 
toward the pool. Water 
used for the cleansing of 
such floors thus flows 
toward, but not into, the 
pool but rather into the 
gutter, capillary attraction 
assisting. Quite as often, 



e " Impluvium " of a Pompeian Villa 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



J 39 



however, such floors may 
slope very gently away from 
the pool toward a valley 
provided with drainage 
valves of its own. The edge 
of the gutter performs a 
highly necessary and useful 
service as a life guard, 
placed as it is where a life 
guard should be, at the 
water's edge rather than 
some distance above the 
water where it cannot al- 
ways be readily grasped by 
a bather who may be in 
need of it. This provision 
for a life rail renders unnec- 
essary the use of unsightly 
and unsanitary ropes or the 
metal rails which project 




Reception Room in Building Containing the Bathing Pool on the Estate 
of Mrs. Finley Shepard, Irvington, N. Y. 
Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, Architects 



above the water and which may easily be the cause of 
accident to a bather beneath them in the water. 

It may be hardly necessary to dwell upon the architec- 
tural dignity with which a bathing pool may be clothed. 
Where the pool is placed out-of-doors it may be, and fre- 
quently is, made a part of a stately and formal setting of 
the garden. It may occupy a sunken space below terraces 
and be approached by flights of steps to increase the 
formal effect, or it may be placed between rows of tall pop- 



lars which will be reflected 

in the witter. In any event 
the usual shelter, including 
dressing rooms and lava- 
tories is often so designed 
as to heighten the stately 
effect. 

When the pool is intended 
for use during the entire 
year and is placed within a 
permanent structure, the 
opportunities for its deco- 
rative treatment are fully 
as great. It may be sur- 
rounded by very complete 
reception ami dressing 
rooms, retiring rooms, and 
apartments containing 
shower baths, and at the end 
of one bathing pool which is 
illustrated herewith there is a great fireplace. A most 
brilliant effect can be secured by the use of ceramic 
mosaic in color for the lining of a pool, for with the 
highly developed mechanism for supplying, purifying and 
renewing, the water should be of a crystal clearness be- 
neath which the mosaic may easily be seen. The sur- 
roundings of a bathing pool, like a greenhouse, must be 
maintained at a high temperature and in planning them 
together great economy of operating may be secured. 




Exterior of Building Containing the Bathing Pool on the Estate of Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, Irvington, N. Y. 

Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer. Architects 



J 4° 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




:\: 




n 



3 







tenon ■ 



a*A 





:c 



■No-ii-Eadt-Pl£A3ant3to:t- 
■Baltimore -Maryland- 



5CALE- 






DETAIL OF NO. 1 1 EAST PLEASANT STREET, BALTIMORE. MD. 
MEASURED DRAWING BY RIGGIN BUCKLER 



Colonial Doorways of Baltimore, McL 



By RIGGIN BUCKLER 



THE greatest charm of the Colonial 
house is in its doorway. Espe- 
cially in the city where the houses 
are built adjoining: one another and the 
opportunities for any elaborate details 
are few, the doorway is the touch that 
relieves the plain facade and gives to 
the whole the individuality and charm 
that is so much sought after to-day in 
modern work. The doorway also ex- 
presses the interior to a certain extent. 
In the old work the double doors with 
columns and side lights nearly always 
opened directly into a spacious hall, for 
there were no vestibules, and the ellip- 
tical arch over the entrance was gen- 
erally repeated in an interior arch sup- 
ported by either columns or pilasters. 

The requirements of the modern home are so very dif- 
ferent from those of a hundred 3 r ears ago that it is only in 
the use of detail that the spirit of the Colonial work may 
be caught. Modern adaptations of old doorways often 
fail because of the absence of this spirit. Many architects 
carefully follow old details in their drawings to have their 
work go for naught in the poor execution of some depen- 
dent and related feature, as the leaded glass ornaments, 
for instance. The ornaments of the old head and side 
lights were beautifully designed and executed. Unfortu- 
nately, the same cannot be said of the modern. Some 
architects nowadays remove the ornaments from the old 
lights and either use them intact on their own work or 
have castings made from them. 

The old doorways in Baltimore, as in every other large 
city, have suffered greatly from the hand of time and 
man. It is almost impossible to find any in their original 




Doorway at 9 East Pleasant Street 



more frequently the side lights and oc- 
casionally the fine old paneled doors 
have been replaced by a single door 
with a large plate glass light, and in 
almost every case the delicate mould- 
ings are obliterated with numerous coats 
of green or black paint. 

The doorways selected for illustration 
in this article show the great variety 
that Baltimore possesses. Even those 
of the small two-story houses have great 
charm, although they have little detail 
to boast of. The Whyte house, 207 
North Calvert street, is situated just off 
Battle Monument Square and, with 
its beautiful fan light and delicately 
moulded elliptical columns, is one of 
the best in the city. A curious feature 
is the slot behind the side lights for shutters to be put 
up in case of any disturbance. 

Several of the doorways illustrated are on Pleasant 
street. This street leads directly off Charles street, in 
the center of the shopping district, but due to the steep 
grade which makes it impracticable for business purposes 
the old houses have thus far escaped demolition. There 
are other houses in this block than those illustrated which 
are of almost equal merit, and the whole group, with its 
cobbled street, is a glimpse of the Baltimore of the past. 

Number Eleven, with its broad steps reaching out hos- 
pitably, is an excellent example of the double doorway 
with the elliptical arch treatment. The house is now 
used as an office building, a number of architects, the 
author being one, having their offices in it, and for 
this reason the building will probably be preserved until 
the'growing demands of business outweigh the sentiment 



condition ; sometimes it is the headlight that is missing ; attached to these early houses. 




5SSHBSS a55 SBMIS aK =^ai=j=nrii ^s«H»i w 





— -■ 



209 St. Paul Street 



417 North Charles Street 

COLONIAL DOORWAYS IN BALTIMORE, MD. 

141 



539 Columbia Avenue 



142 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




■ 



<S 9! 



s 1 

o ^ 






£ OS 



Q 
2 

s 



< 

CO 

h 
< 

>- 

< 

OS 
O 

o 

Q 

-J 
< 
Z 

o 

_J 

o 
u 

u. 

o 



< 



'. 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

VI. THE WORK OF FLOYD YEWELL. 



THE youngest of the men who have achieved any 
prominence as architectural renderers is Mr. Floyd 
Yewell, who has made himself known through his 
excellent colored drawings exhibited at the architectural 
exhibitions during the last two years. To become known 
in such a manner is in itself a mark of considerable dis- 
tinction, because the constant raising of the standards of 
rendering of the drawings shown at the architectural ex- 
hibitions has made these exhibitions almost as much paint- 
ing shows as architectural ones. There has been, in fact, 
within the last year or two, a reaction in the architects' 
offices in favor of drawings which can be made by drafts- 
men and not painters, many architects feeling that the 
expense of the wonderful colored drawings is an added 
burden which would be unnecessary if it were not cus- 
tomary. In other words, if all architects submitted the 
same sort of sketches to their clients, no man would feel 
that he had lost work because of the superior presentation 
of an inferior scheme by some one else, and many men 
have said of late that clients are being educated to expect 
far too much in this way from their architects. Without 
regard to the propriety of limiting the pictorial effect of 
architectural drawings, one can only say that the client 
with the untrained eye obtains a much better idea of 
what his building is going to look like, from a colored 
drawing, than he can in any other way, although the .black 
and white draw- 
ings required in 
The Brick- 
bvilder compe- 
titions are by 
no means a bad 
method of show- 
ing work, and 
judging from 
the great num- 
ber of excellent 
drawings re- 
ceived in these 
competitions are 
not so difficult 
of execution 
but that most 
offices can find 
men who can 
make them. 

Mr. Yewell is 
a Baltimorean 
who took a 
course in the 
Maryland Insti- 
tute of Art and 
afterwards went 




Country House at Great Neck, Long Island 

Aymar Embury II. Architect 

Floyd Yewell. Delineator 

143 



into the office of Messrs. Wyatt and Nolting of Baltimore, 
where he stayed for several years, at the same time work- 
ing in the Baltimore Beaux Arts atelier. Two years ago 
lie came to New York and since then has worked in the 
offices of Messrs. Guilbert and Betelle, and Mr. Aymar 
Embury II, but latterly has not been connected with any 
particular firm, doing independent rendering as Mr. Birch 
Burdette Long has done for so many years, and he has 
lately been working with Mr. Long. Like all young men 
in almost every profession, he has not yet fully developed 
a technique of his own : we see in his work reminiscences 
of the manners and methods of the best of our architec- 
tural renderers, and he is gradually working away from the 
imitative stage of his art and growing in sureness, indi- 
viduality, and strength. Even before he came to notice as 
an architectural renderer, some of his very delightful 
esquisse-esqitisses rendered in the various Beaux Arts com- 
petitions attracted notice, and several of them were 
selected by the school committee of the Beaux Arts Society 
for inclusion in the Annual Exhibition of the Architec- 
tural League of New York, to which the Beaux Arts Society 
send annually a handful of its best drawings. These were 
in most cases not so much water color renderings as black 
and white drawings, either in pencil or in ink, with a few 
flat washes — a way of working which will be readily recog- 
nized by any one who has tried to do ai-chitectural render- 
ing as a quick 
and effective 
method of mak- 
ing sketches if 
(and only if) 
the draftsman 
has a sound 
knowledge of 
his architecture 
and a sureness 
of draftsman- 
ship. Both these 
qualities Mr. 
Yewell has, and 
even in those of 
h i s drawi ngs, 
which are dis- 
tinctly w a t e r 
colors as dis- 
t inguished from 
colored black 
and white draw- 
ings, he exhibits 
this same char- 
acteristic grasp 
upon the archi- 
tectural skelet ni 



H4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



underlying the colored picture. He 
does not, however, render as do so 
many architects, with invariable 
attention to the "diagonal of a 
cube," shadow lines; but his draw- 
ings rather suggest paintings, in that 
he has realized that the time of day 
affects the angle of light as well as 
the coloring, and if we find in any 
of his drawings that the shadows 
are caused by a midday sun, we 
need not study the shadow angles 
to see why, for the color and tone 
of the drawings express it by them- 
selves. 

The five drawings which illus- 
trate this article display very well 
the various stages of development 
through which Mr. Ycwell has 
passed up to the present time, and 
it should be remembered in examin- 
ing even the latest of his drawings 
that these are representative of the 
stage of development and not of a 
final and definite conclusion. Any 
sort of art work which is made by a 

man in process of evolution is apt to have something 
fascinating about it, and though it may not show the 
power and ability that the same artist exhibits in the 
matured work, and it may not have the same mastery of 
technique or the same complete knowledge of the subject, 
and though none of the early work of a great artist would 
probably be included in the list of his masterpieces; all 
works of art executed during the formative period of an 




Masonic Temple, Toronto, Canada 



H. P. Knowles, Architect 



Floyd Yewell, Delineator 




Guilbert 4c Betelle, Architects 



Bird"s-eye View of Apartment House, Newark, N. J. 



artist's career have a quality which is lost in his later 
work ; his matured expressions are apt to become repeti- 
tions of previous experience, based on a result of previous 
experiment, and while they may be fine and sure and of 
exquisite taste and vigor, they do not have the delicacy 
and spontaneity and the instinctive response to a man's 
own need for artistic expression that his earlier work has. 
And though they may be less imitative of other men's 

work, there is after all 
something very charming in 
the eager response of a re- 
ceptive, sensitive tempera- 
ment to the appeal of fine 
things. So with Mr. Yewell, 
we must not look upon his 
work as being exactly the 
sort which will finally be 
known as the "Yewell" 
way of rendering. It is less 
a product of his previous ex- 
perience than a tentative 
(but not stumbling) search 
for his exact metier. 

The nearest in type to his 
atelier work is the render- 
ing of a house at New 
Canaan, designed by Mr. Al- 
fred Busselle. It is a pencil 
drawing, both delicate and 
lovely, the shadows hinted 
at not insisted upon, the 
surfaces distinguished as 
much by the penciled tex- 
ture of the walls as by their 
colors, and the relations of 
the various planes of the 
Floyd Yewell. Delineator building to the direction of 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



MS 



light are made known by faint luminosities rather than 
by brilliant high lights. It is a drawing- of quiet but un- 
doubted charm, and executed with almost complete free 
dom from the influence of other men. 

Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson says, in one of his essays, 
that the artist must learn to do two things — to omit the 
irrelevant and unnecessary, and to suppress the relevant 
and tedious — and the excellence of this particular drawing 
is due as much to the omission of unnecessary and to the 
suppression of necessary entourage as it is to emphasis on 
the building itself. 

The perspective of the Newark apartment house, de- 
signed by Messrs. Guilbert and Betelle, is of another type, 
and while it does not in method at all resemble the work 
of Mr. Hughson Hawley, it has both the good points and 
the defects of his work. One feels that too much has been 
made of the foreground, and that the building suffers be- 
cause of this emphasis, although close observation shows 
that the building has been rendered carefully and well. The 
background has been well treated, both in giving the im- 
pression of distance and in the manner of its subordina- 
tion ; but the over careful rendering of the schoolhouse in 
the foreground with its gardening, etc., makes us wonder 
which is the thing the drawing is intended to show. It is 
probable that there is a very good reason back of this, 
since the apartment house is evidently designed to har- 
monize with the schoolhouse opposite, and so that the 
parking and landscape work would count together, in 
spite of the cross street between the two gardens. 

In the renderings of the bank building (see frontis- 
piece) for Mr. Warrington G. Lawrence and the Masonic 
Temple in Toronto, designed by Mr. H. P. Knowles, 
Mr. Ye well has frankly made use of some of the tricks and 



mannerisms of Mr. Kggcrs, especially in the employment 
of the air brush on the foreground and the sky, and there 
might have been cause for complaint had Mr. Yewell 
handled this implement in a slovenly or unintelligent 
manner; but the success of any borrowing of this kind is 
the measure by which it may be justified, and while 
Mr. Yewell has not carried this sort of rendering nearly 
as far as has Mr. loggers, his results are hardly less ad- 
mirable. Especially in the rendering of the Masonic 
Temple we find that he has been able to successfully com- 
bine blown surfaces with ordinary brush work in a manner 
interesting and harmonious, securing admirable impres 
sions of distance to the right and left of the facade, as well 
as a vibrant quality in the whole drawing. The air brush 
is, of course, no new invention : they say it has been used 
for centuries in the Beaux Arts, but it is due to the tre- 
mendous success with which Mr. Lggers employed it that 
it has of late come so into favor. 

The fifth of the drawings illustrated, a small country 
house, is also suggestive to some extent of Mr. Jiggers, 
but the faintly shadowed trees in the foreground are evi- 
dently reminiscent of Mr. Guerin's work. 

While it cannot honestly be said that Mr. Yewell's work 
is as yet on a plane with that of Mr. Johnson or Mr. 
Eggers, it must be remembered that these men are nearly 
twenty years older than Mr. Yewell, and their maturity is 
indicated by a vigor and power quite distinct from the 
delicacy and freshness of youthful work. Of all our 
American Tenderers, we can look to him with the surest 
confidence in his continuing development, because he 
is still in the formative stage of his career, and is display- 
ing an ability in both draftsmanship and color which was 
not surpassed by the other men at so early a stage. 













UliUlIf! 



Alfred Buselle, Architect 



Country Mouse at New Canaan, Conn. 



Floyd Yrwrll. Drlineator 



146 



THE BRICKBVILDER 







" 



t_ i_ " • 



* "^zt 



-3 "iLr-n^rmrt— — r 1 ? 


S* i { t 

— 

1 « L 

-* 


»- 


1 









^■qr"-"iT rn_ TT Xirr 



fc^ 

L • I 

I Mmronun 

t a I » « » a » . 



DEPARTMENT STORE BUILDING, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 
VONNEGUT & BOHN. ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



H7 



A Comparison of the Structural Efficiency of I-Beams. 

By FRANK H. CARTER, Assoc. Mem. \m. Soc, C.E. 



SlanJcrd 



Heavy black lines show efficiencies of Standard I beams. 
— Show Bethlehem Girder Beams. 
Show Bethlehem Special Beams. 































FP 
































i: 


> 






200 Lbs. 


























,' 
































# 


1 ( 


> u 




























t 


' 


V 






























$ 


. 


? 


























I', 


Y+ 




-L' 
























,ry 


A 


(\ 


























o< 


^ 


i^n 


a 1 






















£| 






\ 





l- V 
1 






















c 


» 1 










1 






/' 


r 
















1 








A 


i 






1' 


















1 






k 


& 






1] 


& 


























u 






^ 










IOO Lbs 










-^ 






a 






< 










90 Lbs 










1 




O 








J* 


.0 










80 Lbs 








V- 


1 


* 


Jv 


^ 


"4 


f 














70 Lbs. 










iy 


:4 


'*\ 


4 


l»\ 




























\ 


< 

• 






r 














6O Lbs. 








l\ 


\ \ 




1 
























4 

\ 


§ 


$ 




• 


it 


e * 


• 
















50 Lbs 






v?. 


\* 
































X 


)" \ 




> 


k 






























\ 




























V, G9"c 


) / 


f. 


/ 


























W 


\o> 




It! 


























30 Lbs. 


X s ?. 


*\ 




t° 




























\ 






h 




























* 


Xv 5 -- 






























20 Lbs 


\ 


































\ 




1 





























200 



100 

90 o 

o 

SO "" 

< 

70 £ 



60 <Z 
111 

Q. 

(/) 
50 Q 

z 

D 
O 
Q_ 



40 



30 



20 



s£ 


^ 


£ 






{£ 


V 








O 














*f 


in 


10 


1^ 


CO 


0) 






PER CENT OF EFFICIENCY 

PER POUND OF STEEL 
BASED ON 24-INCH 10Q-LB I BEAM = IOO', 



IN making a study of the per pound efficiency of 
various types and weights of I -beams, the 
writer plotted the results of his computations on 
a logarithmic scale diagram after the manner of 
one drawn by William Fry Scott and published in 
his book entitled "Structural Designer's Hand 
book." 

A 24-inch standard L00-lb. I-beam was taken as 
the standard of efficiency (100%) and all others, 



both standard shapes and Bethlehem shapes, referred 
to the 24-inch standard 100-lb. I beam. The 
lighter weights of each depth are found most efficient 
per pound of metal. The Bethlehem shapes, particu- 
larly the girder shapes, are markedly more efficient 
per pound of metal than the standard types. In the 
30-inch 175- and 200-lb. Bethlehem girder type, a 
gain of 50% in efficiency is shown over the 24-inch 
standard 100-lb. shape. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D* N O T ES * * 
FOH*THE*MO NTH 




8 



IT IS sometimes valuable to turn to the past and to note 
that our problems are no less the problems of twenty 
centuries ago. Vitruvius, in writing: of the position 
of architects of his day, tells us that, " The other architects 
go round canvassing-. I was always taught rather to be 
sought after than to seek for work. What are we to think 
of the architect who advertises save that he hopes to profit 
himself at your expense ? And so before our day it was 
the custom to employ architects of social standing and 
secondarily to consider their education. They would 
rather trust a gentleman's honor than the protestations of 
a drummer. Artists would only educate their own sons 
or relatives, and they took care that they should be upright 
men such as might unhesitatingly be entrusted with large 
financial interests." lie goes on to say, "But when I 
realize how this noble calling is the plaything of the igno- 
rant, of men who know nothing of architecture, nay, even 
of practical building, then indeed am I driven to approve 
the action of those men of property who trust to the works 
on the subject and do their building themselves ; if it is to 
be a ease of an ignorant architect, at least let him spend 
his money on his own contrivances. And so it comes 
about that though you would never expect to come across 
an amateur cobbler, or an amateur anything else where 
skill is required, the amateur architect is common enough." 
It may not be quite in keeping with the methods of 
modern business to wait for recognition without making 
any worthy effort to obtain it, but in other respects the 
observations of Vitruvius may be a guide for the young 
architect in his professional conduct. 

THIS journal has so persistently and consistently 
advocated measures of tire prevention that it is a 
special pleasure to notice the recently published 
work on the subject of automatic sprinklers by Mr. Gor- 
ham Dana.* The automatic sprinkler is almost the only 
absolutely dependable means of preventing the spread of 
fire, and the device itself, as now perfected, practically 
never fails to accomplish its purpose when properly in- 
stalled and maintained. With standard equipment and 
proper maintenance and adequate water supply, the auto- 
matic sprinkler is practically certain to control any lire that 
may occur, and even greater than the protection of property 
is the safe-guarding of human life. The records of the 
Factory Mutual Insurance Company show that in thirty- 
eight years out of L.500,000 people employed in covered 
risks only five lost their lives because of fire, and the 
records seem to show that within the past ten years there 
has not been a single loss of life due to a fire in a building 
properly protected by sprinklers. 

The whole trend of modern legislation and fire preven- 
tion activity is towards the increasing use of this most ex- 



cellent device and the rendering of it compulsory by law. 
Mr. Dana's book is a very admirable presentation of all 
the facts connected with the origin and development and 
present use of this system. The subject matter is pre- 
sented clearly and in a readily accessible form, the illus- 
trations are most ample, the statistics are sufficiently 
complete to answer every practical purpose, and the 
book is reinforced by a very carefully prepared index. 
It may not be a book for light reading, but it is certainly 
a valuable addition to the library of every architect, 
engineer, and real estate owner, and Mr. Dana is to 
be commended for the thoroughness with which he has 
treated the subject. 



T 



•"Automatic Sprinkler I i 
Thomas Groom & Co., Boston. 



ham Dana S.B Published by 



iHE widely different opinions of the medical pro- 
fession make it very hard and often impossible for 
architects to decide as to the necessities and require- 
ments of mechanical ventilation of hospital buildings. 

The questions, " Is artificial or mechanical ventilation 
harmful or beneficial?" and " Is it a step forward or 
backward?" should be definitely answered. Mr. T. J. 
Van der Bent has written a very timely article upon this 
subject in the April number of The Modern Hospital. The 
points raised are interesting and instructive and should 
stir up some action among architects and engineers. 
From his experience he cites as facts that : 

1 . The need of ventilation in hospitals is variable and 
dependent on the climate, the location, and general design. 

2. Under certain weather conditions and during a cer- 
tain number of days per year, air in hospital wards will 
be stagnant without mechanical ventilation, window open- 
ings not being sufficient to create draft. The number of 
days that this happens is dependent on the three factors 
named above. 

3. Even if theoretically possible to obtain sufficient ven- 
tilation through windows, these windows will not be 
opened during severe weather conditions, and, if opened 
at all, not sufficiently to obtain the required amount of 
fresh air. 

4. The best installation can be made useless or unsatis- 
factory if run by an incapable engineer. 

As pointed out by Mr. Van der Bent, it would be very 
satisfactory from a purely architectural point of view to 
omit all consideration of mechanical ventilation in build- 
ings if it can be considered unnecessary. The complica- 
tions which arise from the installation of a mechanical 
ventilation plant are extremely annoying and expensive 
for the architect, and frequently interfere with the most 
successful solution of other very desirable features. Aside 
from the cost of such plants themselves, they materially 
increase the area of a building and therefore its cost. If 
unnecessary, the money expended on the plant would be 
better spent otherwise, and the increased area of the build- 
ing devoted to other purposes. 



148 



UF?i 



I \J^illiSlS 5 ^ !! 3Jt f J J'i 






? J)?M\M* 



m 



m 



s3h iP 



(i 



!j... 



7 ; B Rj 



- "g ■ „ ■ — , — -.» j >2 

r> rim l 



mmm 



^FA. 



M 



^ iw .'i y 'fV ji "J K ' ye * 



-fr 



!E>" ■ 



« 



iSfif- 



VOLUME XXIII 



*«s 



NUMBER 7 



CONTENTS /or JULY 1914 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS Architect Plate 

BANK, THE COLLATERAL LOAN COMPANY, BOSTON, M ^SS. C. //. Blackall 107, 108 

CITY HALL. OAKLAND, CAL. Palmer. Hornbostel & Jones 97 LOO 

CLUB, THE HARVARD, OF BOSTON, BOSTON. MASS—Parker, Thomas & Rice 101-106 






HOUSE. MRS. LUCIE A. FISKE, AUBIRNDALE. MASS. 

Henry /•'. Ludeman and C. V. Snedeker, Jr., Associated 

LETTERPRESS 



109-112 



Page 



DRAWING OF TOWER, CHURCH OF ST. MARY, NEW LONDON, CONN. 

EWING & CHAPPELL, ARCHITECTS: ROCKWELL KENT, DEL... Frontispiece 

THE 'DEAD HAND" IN ARCHITECTURE Claude Bragdon 

or A New Space-Language for To-day 
HOSPITAL DOORS AND WINDOWS William li. Stratton 

Illustrations from Drawings by the Author 
ARCHITECTURAL JURISPRUDENCE ...William I., Bowman 

The Architect and Criminal Law 
DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Aymar Embury II 

The Oakland Citj Hall, Oakland. Cal. : Palmer. Hornbostel & Jones, Architects 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 
THE SMALL APARTMENT BUILDING Hugo H.Zimmerman 

Accompanied by Plans and Illustrations of Selected Examples in Chicago. III. 
MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS ....Ed. Review 

VII. The Work of Rockwell Kenl 

Illustrated from Drawings 

THE SALEM FIRE FROM AN VRCHHECrS POINT OF VIEW (I alter II. Kilham 
EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



I l'i 



153 



157 



l.V) 



163 



167 



-. jest j 



J 

Mr 



j^s^^smmM 






'•*& 



r>\ 



-T 



-r*, 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AM) M ANS( >N iCOMP ANY, Roston, Maes. 

K R i). ROGI RS RALPH 111 INH01 D III SSEI I I will 1 1 III \n 

\ i< . Pre i lent and Buaineaa M.mngcr So retar) and Managing Editof 

Single ( !opies, 50 cents 
prion, payable in advance, I .S. A.. Insular Possessions and ' !uba, $5.00 
..... - §.")..")() Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 
All Copies Mailed Flat 

le Supplied 1 by the American New ' panj and li Branch) Enli 

Mailer, March 12, 1892, al lha Poal nil...- al Boalon, Maaa. 
I I ofnpenf 



T liWS~ ■ yft\ "l*j 



mmm 




WATER COLOR DRAWING OF CHURCH TOWER 

ST. MARY'S STAR OF THE SEA CHURCH, NEW LONDON. CONN. 

DELANO & ALDRICH, ARCHITECTS 

ROCKWELL KENT. DELINEATOR 



See article on page I 67 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXIII 



JULY, 1911 



NUMBER 7 



The 'Dead Hand r in Architecture, 



or 



(A NEW SPACE-LANGUAGE FOR TO-DAY). 
By CLAUDE BRACDON. 



WHEN an architect is called upon by the editor of 
a magazine to discuss some subject more or less 
germane to the practice of his profession, the 
last thing: that is looked for from him is a confession of the 
failure of that profession to live up to its high oppor- 
tunities and responsibilities. Candor, nevertheless, com- 
pels the present author to express this opinion. 

The paramount responsibility which we architects have 
thus far failed to meet, consists in the finding- and formu- 
lating" of a space-language which shall express modern life 
in terms of beauty. I use the term " space-language " 
because the time-language of to-day already exists in the 
modern drama, the modern novel, and modern music — 
new art forms made to meet new needs of expression. The 
need is not less urgent to express modern psychology 
through and by means of the arts appropriate to space. 
This is preeminently the work of the architect, yet for the 
most part he arbitrarily limits himself to the great styles 
of the past, with the result that as yet our age has no 
architecture eloquent of it. 

Now it is true that architectural styles are not created 
merely by taking thought of the matter, but grow imper- 
ceptibly, new conditions modifying old traditions. Con- 
servatism in architecture is, therefore, a good and 
necessary thing ; but there comes a time when conserva- 
tism ceases to be a virtue. The architect who clings 
blindly to precedent in dealing with the unprecedented, as 
he is now constantly forced to do, is much in the position 
of the boy who stood on the burning deck. This habitual 
attitude of looking backward at the past over the shoulder 
of the present, instead of fronting the future, has resulted 
for the architect in the atrophy of his creative faculty. 
Too long a contemplation of the beautiful Medusa face of 
an art which is not ours curns us to stone. 

Of course, no architect can afford to dispense with a 
knowledge of his art as practised down the ages. It is 
well that he should train himself to think and work in 
terms of this style or that, if only to learn that a style is a 
garment which takes its shape from the materials and 
methods of construction employed, and its ornament from 
the racial and national psychology. We cannot eliminate 
the past. Let us assimilate it, therefore, and learn its 
lessons. 

What are these lessons? One is that a change of con- 
struction or a change of consciousness demands fresh 



architectural forms for its expression. To-day we use a 
kind of construction unknown to the ancients, and our 
psychology is different. The architect of to-day must be- 
lieve in himself and in his time ; he is face to face with an 

urgent, arduous, and sacred dut> that of bringing to 

birth the essential spirit of this democracy in a body of 
new beauty. Instead of fulfilling this sublime destiny, he 
is discovered in the act of palming off some foundling of 
alien parentage, under pretense that it is the legitimate 
offspring of the age. 

These are hard words, but are they not true ones ? I 
think the architect who is honest with himself, and not 
blinded by the glamour of Paris and of precedent, will 
acknowledge that they are, though he may reasonably 
plead in extenuation the many difficulties which beset his 
path . 

These difficulties are too numerous to name, too obvious 
to need naming - ; the chief are : the necessity for haste, 
the necessity for profit, the institution of the middleman, 
the incompetence of artisans, the lack of critical discrim- 
ination on the part of patrons and public. But when all 
is said, the greatest hindrance to the architect is absolutely 
self-imposed ; it is the ghost of Europe by which he 
insists upon being haunted. He is as much an ancestor- 
worshiper as any Chinaman. 

The retort to all this is easy, obvious — yes, and effec- 
tive. " Say the gods we worship are dead ; say they are 
false ; look at the work of the men who consider themselves 
emancipated from tradition : is it any better than ours ? 
Is- it as good? Is Chicago any more inspiring a spectacle 
architecturally than New York ? " 

Candor compels me to concede that with a few eminent 
exceptions the fruit of the tree of liberty is as bitter as the 
academic apple is rotten. In presence of emancipated 
architecture we must needs exclaim, with Madame Roland, 
" Oh, Liberty, what crimes are committed in thy name ! " 
She, poor lady, was the victim of political anarchy mas- 
querading as political liberty, and architectural anarchy 
masquerades as liberty in similar fashion. Ours is an art 
in which the element of restraint should never be absent, 
and herein lies the value of schools and precedent : they act 
as a curb upon ignorant and irresponsible originality. 
Their restrictions can only be removed with impunity when 
a wise self- restraint is practised. What do our young nun 
know of this rare and precious virtue ? where is it taught ? 



i5° 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



where practised ? It may be answered that the schools 
supply this need ; that the study and analysis of the archi- 
tectural masterpieces of the past form the best possible 
preparation for original creative effort. So it may be in 
some cases ; perhaps it might be universally if the pupil 
were continually reminded that he must throw away his 
laboriously acquired knowledge and keep only the fine 
gold of his discrimination and his facility. But this would 
bankrupt the man who is taught only to discriminate be- 
tween French Gothic and English, Rococo and Baroque, 
or some such matter; whose facility is exercised only in 
the sedulous aping' of the mere externals of style. 

Yes, were our young man urged always to repeat to 
himself in the presence of any masterpieces Michael 
Angelo's apostrophe to Brunelleschi, " Like you I will 
not build," he might discover and develop his own per- 
sonal tastes and talents. So long, however, as education 
in design takes the form of mere imitation, followed as an 
end and not as a means to an end, it will do more harm 
than good — for it enslaves. 

The trouble with our architectural education is that it is 
based upon totally false premises. It is conducted on the 
assumption that we are inheritors of certain modes and 
methods developed through the ages which are useful 
and useable — the current coin of the realm. As a matter 
of fact, we are castaways on an Island of New Endeavor, 
and our inheritance is of no more use to us than Robinson 
Crusoe's gold was to him. Education is not to be dis- 
pensed with, but it must be modified to suit our changed 
condition. Ours is not an old and artificial civilization : 
we are pioneers — founders of the future. Teach us, then, 
not to remember, but only to forget. 

Let us re-state our problem and suggest a manner in 
which it may be met. We are to weave, with new materi- 
als, new patterns on the loom of space. How shall we go 
about it? By learning the art of space-composition unre- 
lated to any of the so-called styles. We have the tools, 
which are the eye and mind ; and the materials are all 
about us in nature — the source of every kind of formal 
beauty. Let us, dedicated to the production of beautiful 
organisms, learn from nature how beautiful organisms are 
produced. 

This injunction is simple, but it is vague, and needs elu- 
cidation. I shall not attempt to elucidate it here, since 
such is not the purpose of this essay. Besides, to do so 
would only be to repeat what I have already written.* 
The purpose of this essay is to urge that we give up our 
inheritance — the spoils of Europe — in order to use the 
opulence which is here at hand. What we need most is 
mastery ; but what we need first is courage, and mastery 
will come of itself. And our courage must consist in con- 
fessing that we have wandered blindly and far, that we 
are lost in a Sahara of sterile sestheticism. Our immedi- 
ate business, therefore, will be to ascend the nearest emi- 
nence and look about. 

Suppose we concentrate our attention upon burnt clay 
products and consider the relation of the architectural 
profession to these alone. 

In point of technical excellence — precision, durability, 
workmanship, speed and economy of manufacture —burnt 
clay products stand to-day at a higher level than ever be- 
But when they are examined from the .-esthetic 
" " The Beautiful Nece 



standpoint, as to style, design, color, they suffer in com- 
parison with the corresponding products of past ages. 
Then the artist was himself the artisan : now, on the 
contrary, these two functions are fulfilled by separate in- 
dividuals, differently educated, differently circumstanced. 
This fact may in itself account for our aesthetic inferiority ; 
but if so, it makes the artist, in his own proper capacity, 
inferior to the artisan in his. And may not this be be- 
cause the finest talents have not been enlisted ; because 
the men who ought to have interested themselves — the 
architects — have held aloof? Such is my personal belief. 

This is. an opinion easily challenged, and arguments 
might be marshaled, both pro and con. As against such a 
view, it is certainly true that several distinct advances in 
the direction of more beautiful brickwork have been taken 
by architects — by Richardson in his Sever Hall, at Cam- 
bridge ; by the Philadelphia triumvirate associated in the 
Archeologieal Building of the University of Pennsylvania ; 
by McKim, Mead & White in the introduction of Harvard 
and Roman brick, and by such innovations as are em- 
bodied in the Colony Club and in the Parkhurst Church ; 
for though some of these represent reversions, they mark 
advances beyond the standard of the then current work. 
When it is considered, however, that these developments 
were the work of only three firms or individuals, there is 
still ground for my opinion that the rank and file of the 
architectural profession have had small part in the modern 
development of the aesthetic possibilities of brick as a 
building material. In the field of ceramics and architec- 
tural terra cotta there is still less to show. What advance 
these arts have made has been due to the manufacturer 
who was himself an artist, or who enlisted the services 
of artists. I can mention no architect, in the strict sense 
of the word, whose name is indissolubly connected with 
the development of these industries on their aesthetic side. 

At this point I hear a clamor of voices telling me that 
every architect interests himself in these matters ; that the 
rapport between architect and manufacturer is exceedingly 
close. I should like the testimony of the manufacturer 
himself on this point. How much real enthusiasm and 
devotion do his architectural friends bring to the solution 
of the problems vital to them both ? How many details 
does the manufacturer make which ought properly to be 
made by the architect ? How much attention do shop 
drawings and models get from the architect? How often 
does he visit the works, and how much time does he spend 
there ? I can only judge of all this from my own personal 
knowledge and experience. On the few occasions (yes, 
few, mea culpa) when I spent a day with my coat off at 
two of the large terra cotta factories, it was treated as an 
unusual event. I was informed that once only in that 
year had an architect spent an entire day informing and 
inspiring the workmen engaged in carrying out his 
designs. 

This is sad enough and bad enough, but the architect's 
failure to follow the fabrication of his work in all its details 
is after all due to the impossible and preposterous demands 
made upon his time and attention. Being human, he can 
only follow a line, whereas he is expected to cover a plane 
— he would doubtless gladly do it if he could. His real 
remissness lies in another direction altogether, and one 
quite within his power to correct. It is primarily a matter 
of taking thought, though it involves his honesty and sin- 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



l 5 l 



cerit\ not towards persons, but towards principles which 
do not change from age to age. I will put what I have in 
mind in the form of a threefold indictment. 

First. The architect fails to think and work in terms of his 
materials . 

A proof of this failure is the common practice of substi- 
tuting one material for another — wood for iron, terra 
cotta for stone, stone for concrete, or vice versa — by reason 
of their differences in cost, without essential modifications 
in design. One of the most important functions of archi- 
tecture is thus violated — the showing forth of the splendor 
and beauty (be it a beauty of strength or of fragility) 
of different materials, making the most of their unique 
characteristics. 

Now the beauty of terra cotta is not less than that of 
stone, but it is different. Witness a Delia Robbia lunette, 
and a granite or black basalt carved Egyptian statue. 
Imagine, for example, the terra cotta arcades of the Cer- 
tosa of Pavia carved in stone. One would fairly ache at 
the thought of so much labor, and feel a sort of terror at 
so great a weight so insufficiently supported. On the 
other hand, were the rusticated street front of the Pitti 
Palace translated without change from stone to terra cotta, 
the result would be not less distressing, but for an oppo- 
site reason. There would be no charm of detail, color, 
and texture to compensate for the splendid ponderosity of 
stone. These are some of the lessons which the past might 
teach us, but which we have failed to learn. 

Second. The architect fails to think and work in terms of 
his place. 

One proof of this failure is the unsuitability of so many 
of the commonly used architectural forms and features to 



practical needs and to climatic and other conditions. Cor 
nices, made for the projection of strong shadows and for 

protection from a tropic sun, are used in our cloudy north- 
ern cities, where they gather dust and soot in summer and 
in winter become traps for snow and ice ; arcades and 
colonnades originally designed for shade and shelter now 
unnecessarily rob overstrained eyes of the precious light 
of day. Expensive balustrades protect waste spaces of 
roof where people could not take their pleasure if they 
would. In brief, much of our architecture has no vital 
relation to its environment, nor to the common life of 
every day. 

Third. The architect fails to think and -.cork in terms of 
his time. 

One proof of this failure is in the perfectly meaning- 
less character of architectural ornaments in common use. 
What are they ? The acanthus scroll, the egg and dart, 
the Greek fret and waterleaf, the festoon and wreath, a 
cartouche, a shield, a lion's head, an eagle, a helmet — 
not one eloquent of the things and ideas of to-day. 

Need I go on ? Is it not plain enough that we are 
attempting to put the new wine of life into old, cracked, 
and musty bottles ? Unless we break them now, the fer- 
ment of the potent liquor will break them in the end. 

This essay is deliberately iconoclastic, but it is not upon 
this note that I would close. While there is life there is 
hope, and not in Athens, Rome, nor Florence, at their 
prime, did the tide of life flow stronger than here in 
America to-day. I have said my worst of the profession 
which I love and practise, whose brother members I honor 
and respect. In some future essay I hope to write in a 
more gracious and constructive strain. 




Interior of Church of St. Francis at As9isi 



152 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



3trA 



\y^i tile , 



ST it*r,e,l UrA 



Dark. 




J_T_T leU ~ GEBMAN TYPE WITH 
WA2D 0OO25 BIGGS'HQSPITAL PLAIN ANGLE TB1M 



COPENHAGEN 



WITH LIP ON DOOEl 



Li^ht- fcr. 



DarL 



a ^ai 





■0 



Floor dark, hexagonal 

WAITING E.OOM ^ 

EYE CLINIC N°l 
BUDAPEST 




DOOBSTO 31C1L ROO M5 
ST GEO&5 HOSPITAL- HAMBURG 



WOMEN.5 HOSPITAL 
MO5C0W 



HOSPITAL DOOB.5 



D2AWN 5Y W b 5TKATTON • AECM1TECT 
DEXBOIT MICHIGAN- 



EUROPEAN HOSPITAL DOORS 
DRAWN BY W. B. STRATTON. ARCHITECT 



Hospital Doors and Windows. 

By WILLIAM B. STRATTON, Architect of the Detroit General Hospital. 



THE principal requirement for a hospital door is that 
it shall be wide enough for all possible traffic. This 
includes provision for the kind of bed selected, with 
ample additional width to allow easy handling-. The doors 
should be easy to operate, and frequent cleaning demands 
a perfectly plain surface. Double veneered doors built up 
on a framed core are easily obtained. These can be 
enameled or stained to any color desired and varnished. 
The latter finish forms a pleasant variety to the usual 
monotony of color seen about our hospitals. Where there 
are apt to be great differences in temperature on opposite 
sides of the door, plain steel doors should be used. In 
rooms where there is cross ventilation, double doors can 
be used to good advantage and the room entirely insulated 
from the sounds of the corridor. 

If a wooden trim is used, a plain band casing should 
cover the joint between the jamb and the plaster. The 
use of a wooden jamb, flush with the plaster, almost 
invariably shows an open joint from shrinkage. 

The perfect trim is of metal, as there is no shrinkage, 
and the secure anchoring to the mason work helps the 
frame to withstand the heavy strain of the large doors. 

The form used at the Detroit General Hospital is of 
heavy rolled steel, with welded angles and cast fittings. 
The door is hung on concealed, wrought steel hinges that 
throw the door entirely clear of the opening and leave it 
flush with the jamb when open. 

While the rolled sections seem perfect in all respects, 
there are also satisfactory trims formed of heavy sheet 
steel made to a similar section. Roth types are well 
anchored to the masonry work and form a perfect and 
permanent joint with plaster or tile. 

I prefer the lever handle to the knob, as it can be oper- 
ated without grasping with the hand. In contagious 
wards, this handle is lengthened into a loop and operated 
with the elbow. The handle should be about ten inches 
higher than is usual in residence work. 

In Continental hospitals, the decoration seems to be 
concentrated about the doorways. A dark wainscoting 
will have bands of stencil work above and these will be 
continued around the doorway and elaborated to form 
a panel for the word designating the purpose of the 
room . 

It is in the window that building tradition and even 
hospital tradition has held us most firmly to the old 
type. 

Miss Nightingale, at the time of the Crimean War, 
pointed out the advantages of fresh air in abundance, and 
the speedy removal of foul emanations from the neighbor- 
hood of the sick. 

The open window still gives the nearest approach to the 
out-of-door conditions she found so efficient. 

The introduction of direct sunlight through the wide 
open window, and air fresh from the sunlight with its stim- 
ulating changes of temperature, is very desirable in most 
cases. 

A certain sterilizing quality exists in direct sunlighl 



that sunlight through glass docs not possess. This is 
proved by the fact that the sterilization of water by the 
Ultra Violet Ray has to be through quartz, and thai 
the same sterilization cannot be accomplished through 
glass. 

Of the forms of windows in hospital use, the double 
hung type with which we arc familiar seems to be the 
least efficient. The fullest opening obtainable is only one- 
half of the total sash area, and it is usually difficult to 
operate. 

Were it not for our problem of screening, some form of 
pivoted sash would meet all our requirements. 

The type of window used in the wards of the King's 
College Hospital, London,* is a great improvement over 
the double hung type. The windows extend to the ceil- 
ing, having transom sashes with glass side cheeks. The 
lower sashes are of the austral type. This window is very 
easily operated, a single pull opening the lower sash in 
and the upper sash out at the meeting rail. By deepening 
the rebate at the stool, considerable ventilation in an up- 
ward direction ca^ be obtained at the meeting rail before the 
lower sashes clears the bottom. The sash when fully opened 
gives somewhat more open area than the double hung, 
and screening is possible. Both sashes pivot so that they 
can be fully cleaned from the inside. 

Another type is that used in the CharingCross Hospital, 
where the sashes form a series of transoms operating to- 
gether, and give a 100 per cent opening, with an upward 
deflection of the air. 

The casement form, opening inward, seems to meet the 
hospital requirements more perfectly than any other type. 
Casements are easily and quickly operated, easy to clean, 
can be fully screened, and give 100 per cent of opening. 
They are sufficiently weather tight and can be equipped 
with any good form of outside shutter, and can be decorated 
with the only kind of curtain permissible about a hospital, 
that is, a curtain hung on a rod so that it can be easily 
removed for washing. 

Various types of double sashes are shown which give 
ample control of the direction of air and have all the ad- 
vantages of perfect and free opening. The chilling of the 
air along the glass surface, which requires additional heat- 
ing and in no way aids the ventilation, is very ingenuously 
taken care of by the double arrangement used at St. ( reorg, 
Hamburg-. The flexibility of design desirable in order to 
meet the various hospital requirements is easily accom- 
plished by the casement form. The Continental form of 
casement adjuster works on the scissors principle. It is 
rather clumsy in appearance, but very effective, as it 
grasps tlie top of the sash at the point of best advantage, 
and a single throw of the lever handle opens the transom 
to the fullest extent. 

While waiting for the doctors to decide on the question 
of the desirability of washed air, plenum ventilation, etc., 
it would be well to furnish our hospitals with the simplest 
and most complete opportunities for natural ventilation. 
• See article on King's College Hospital in Thb Brickbvildbb May 1914. 



153 



154 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




i—^ - - t 













•^=^^=^r Hi 



JAM5 



MULL10N 





DETAIL5 OF WINDOW 
SHOWING DEVICE FOE 
OPEEATINQ DOUBLE 
TEAN50M5 



DETAIL OF SECTION 



■• 




JAMB 



MVLLD/1 




HEAD 



TEA/VCM 




DETAIL OF PLAN 



DETAILS OF WINDOW 
FEOM THE -3T OEOEQ 
SENEGAL HOSPITAL 
HAMBUEQ CjEBMANY 
FEOM DEAWINCvS BY' 
FEUPPEL. ARCHITECT 



NOTE DOU6LE CA5EMENT .SASH 
HUNq. AT 3IDE WITH 3INQLE 
5A.3H TBANiOM HUNQ. AT 
60TTOM-TO OPEN INWACD.5 





DETAIL OF SECTION 



DEAWN 5Y W & 5THATTON ACCHITECT 
DE.TE.01T MICHIQAN 



DETAILS OF EUROPEAN HOSPITAL CASEMENT WINDOWS 

DRAWN BY W. B. STRATTON. ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



155 





.SECTION 




ELEVATION 



JAM 5 



MULLION 




HEAD 



TB.AN.SOM 



DETAIL OF PLAN 






SKETCH JHCWINQ TBARSOM 
OPE.NINQ DEVICE 



5HE.TCH 5MOWINC) .5WINQ1NCV 
RADIATOE. 

DETAILS OF WINDOW FBOM 

THE HOSPITAL OF THE 

LANDE5 IN5UT2ANCE IN- DETAIL OF SECTION 

5TITUTION OF BEBLIN AT 

&EELITZ" G-E&MANY 



• ~ ;, r:* 7 




JAM 5 



MULLION 




HLAD 



TEAN50M 



ELEVATroN 



.SECTION 



PLAN 

DEAWN BY WD' JTRATTON ARCHITECT 
DETROIT MICHIGAN. 




DETAIL OF- PLAN 



DETAILS OF HOSPITAL 
WINDOW" 5UDA PEST 
FEOM DRAWINGS BY 
FLOEI5 m$> AKJMITECT 



NOTE. INDIRECT ADM1.55ION 
OF A1B.. 




DETAIL OF .SECTION 



DETAILS OF EUROPEAN HOSPITAL CASEMENT WINDOWS 
DRAWN BY W. B. STRATTON. ARCHITECT 



156 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



nr 

1 

1 


rr 



AUGU3TE VIODBIA HOSPITAL 
SCHONEBEBG-BEBLIN 





CITY HOSPITAL 
MUNICH 



FR 






HOSPITAL AT GOVERNMENT ASYLUM 
BEELITZ AM 5TEINH0F'- VIENNA 



[^ 



INTERIOR ELEVATION 






mtm 



PLAN' 



PLAN 



IMPERIAL CLINIC CHLDHEN3 CLINIC 
OF OBS ANDGYN VIENNA" (CASEMENTS 



RUDOLFlNEHrlAUS '■' 

VIENNA CITY HOSPITAL 5J PETERSBURG OPENING OUTWARDS) 

ICARLSE.UHE 








j n 


H ' 




d, 


T" 


i 


£=^^=^== 


- — 






L_ _= 


^^~ ■■— l . ■■ 








. 1 , i . 

'■•..-.'■ 


1 


1 





UUDOLF V1PXHOW HOSPITAL bEEUN 



•■"■■--■ 



COENEB. OFAUGU5TA VICTORIA 

CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
CHAE.LOTTEN5UR.G -BER.UN 




'• 



J"~ 



INTERIOR. ELEVATION SECTION 

CHAB.ING CR.055 HOSPITAL 

LONDON (LOUISE WARD) 



CHANNEL GUIDE 

SECTION Yl 
FULL JIZE 
ROLLING .SHUTTER AND 
AWNING. 



nr; 

r. 



LJ 



Q 



SECTION OF ELEVATION SHOWING 
VARIATION OK WINDOW5 

"AM 5TEINHOF" 

DRAWN BY W-B-.5TRATTON- ARCHITECT 
DETROIT MICHIGAN 



CASEMENU OF VARIOUS 

TYPE3 3EEN IN EUROPEAN 

HOSPITAL WABD5 



INTERIOR. ELEVATION 



j* SECTION 



E.1GG5 H05PITAL 
COPENHAGEN 



EUROPEAN HOSPITAL CASEMENT WINDOWS 
DRAWN BY W. B. STRATTON, ARCHITECT 



The Architect and Criminal Law. 



By WM. L. BOWMAN, C.E., of tlw W ) ork Bar. 



A CRIME is defined as a violation or neglect of legal 
duty of so much public importance that the law, 
either common or statute, takes notice of and pun- 
ishes it. A crime need not be morally wrong. For exam- 
ple, the architect who does business without complying 
with a state statute or with a city ordinance is guilty of a 
crime and can be punished as provided' by the statute 
or ordinance. The tendency to restrict the practice of 
the professions by requiring proof of certain qualifica- 
tions, and to supervise professional work, is bound to 
cause trouble for those who are not aware of this ten- 
dency and for those who do not keep track of the state and 
municipal laws governing their profession. Our familiar 
maxim, " Ignorance of the law is no defense," is the pre- 
dominant factor in causing the annoyance and often serious 
criminal prosecution of professional men. Another prin- 
ciple of law which adds somewhat to the force of that 
maxim is the ruling that a person can be punished even 
though the statute making the act illegal is of so recent 
promulgation as to make it impossible to know of its exis- 
tence. It is only fair in this connection to state that under 
such circumstances the punishment meted out would prob- 
ably be the minimum provided. Generally speaking, most 
of the crimes that affect the architect in his professional 
capacity are set forth in statutes so that he can easily learn 
what they are and read them for himself. 

In ordinary cases two elements are necessary in the 
commission of a crime, criminal intent and the act itself. 
However, in most of the statutes which interest us now the 
necessity of criminal intent has been eliminated by the 
legislative body passing the act. This is especially true 
in city by-laws or ordinances and police regulations. A 
specific example of this is shown by the punishment of an 
owner of a building for the infraction of the building laws 
of which he was ignorant and of which his architect did 
not inform him. 

The crimes which might affect the architect profession- 
ally are felonies and misdemeanors ; the first named is pun- 
ishable by death or imprisonment in a state prison ; the 
latter, by fine or imprisonment, or both. These names 
to-day mean little, since there are undoubtedly some mis- 
demeanors which involve more turpitude than some felo- 
nies and for which the punishment may be much more 
severe, though not of the same kind. Prosecutions for 
crimes may be made by the national government, the 
state, or any of its subdivisions, such as cities, counties, 
boroughs, towns, villages, etc. What is a crime in Illinois, 
California, and New Jersey may not be a crime in any 
other state in the Union. This is true to-day as regards 
the licensing of architects. For this reason a paper of this 
sort cannot attempt to specify the criminal laws of any 
state nor cover the differences between the various states. 
However, we will call attention to most of the important 
crimes which may affect the architect in his professional 
work, so that knowing that such crimes exist he can then 
ascertain whether they are the law governing him. 

Prior to Contracting. Several states now require that 
persons intending to follow the architectural profession 



prove their qualifications and secure a state license before 
practicing. A failure so to do is usually a misdemeanor 
and punishable with line or imprisonment, or both. It 
might be pointed out here that failure to comply with 
such a statute not only involves the commission of a crime, 
but the would-be architect cannot get any pay for the 
work that he may have done. And generally, it will be 
found that the doing of a criminal act involves two punish- 
ments, that provided by the criminal law and some liability 
given the injured person by a civil action. 

The state municipalities, such as cities, boroughs, towns, 
etc., often have local regulations limiting the practice of 
the architect by requiring a tax to be paid for the privilege 
of working within their boundaries. These are usually 
revenue-raising laws and hence the punishment is a line. 

While most architects carry on their work under their 
own names or under partnership titles, a caution must be 
given where this is not- done. Statutes are now very 
common punishing as a misdemeanor the person who 
transacts business using the name as partner of one not in- 
terested with him as partner, or usin.q- the designation ' ' and 
company" or " & Co." when no actual partner or part- 
ners are represented thereby. If business is carried on in 
the form of a corporation, then the many regulations, taxes, 
etc., now provided for that form of doing business must be 
obeyed, subject usually to heavy fines. Another popular 
regulation is the requirement that the wages of employees 
must be paid in cash at the time payment is due. With a 
minimum fine of $25 and a maximum of $50 for each of- 
fense, as is provided in one state, this is matter worth atten- 
tion. The "Labor Laws" usually have requirements 
that are binding upon an architect in the conduct of his 
business. As a precaution, read over your state " Labor 
Law" and see if you are transgressing it in any respect. 
The law says you have knowledge, why not have it in fact '. 

Architectural Work. Most municipalities require that 
the plans and specifications for a proposed building be filed 
in a certain department. There are cases where architects 
have properly gotten possession of such filed plans and 
innocently made thereon changes which were minor or 
which seemed to them so immaterial as not to require 
notice to the department. One state statute would punish 
such action with imprisonment for not more than five years 
or by fine of not more than $500, or both. These statutes 
usually provide that a person is guilty who wilfully and 
unlawfully removes, mutilates, destroys, conceals, or oblit- 
erates a record, map, paper, or document, filed or deposited 
in a public office or with public officers, by authority of law. 

In the drawing of plans and specifications the architect 
is required to exercise skill, and the failure to exert the 
needed skill from want of ability or from inattention mas- 
he considered gross negligence. Gross negligence which 
amounts to a reckless disregard for one's own or other's 
safety, and a wilful indifference to the consequences liable 
to follow, creates criminal negligence. The punishment 
depends upon the result. Thus, if improper plans are 
followed, and a building collapses and kills some workmen, 
under certain circumstances the architect would be guilt] 



157 



i58 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



of manslaughter, which ordinarily carries a state prison 
term not exceeding fifteen years. In such instances 
honest mistakes in judgment will not excuse the crime if 
it resulted from negligence in observing and obeying any 
rule or precaution which it was the architect's duty to 
obey In all of these cases the carelessness supplies the 
criminal intent, which is one of the elements of a crime. 

In a very late case where a chimney had fallen, killing 
a man the question before the court was whether the con- 
tractor was liable. The opinion was interesting, as it laid 
down a rule that there was prima facie evidence of the 
negligence of the architects; also, that the contractors 
could not be held except by showing that the plans were 
SO obviously defective that a contractor of average skill 
and ordinary prudence would not have attemped the con- 
struction according to the plan. 

Similarly, in his inspection work, the architect must know 
that he is giving the building the attention that it requires 
and which it is his duty to give. If there is gross negli- 
gence of the architect in directing a departure from the 
plans or specifications, or by the use of improper materials, 
or by knowingly suffering such departure or such wrongful 
use, or by failure to condemn improper work, he would 
doubtless be guilty of criminal negligence. Even though 
the architect may not actually be guilty of a crime, yet 
when a serious accident occurs on his work, he is more 
than likely to be arrested upon the charge of criminal negli- 
gence. This is serious from a business standpoint, even 
where the prosecution is dropped or where a jury declares 
him to be innocent. Just a few days ago the city papers 
contained an account of the failure and collapse of a retain- 
ing wall for a theater, resulting in the death of three work- 
men and the serious injury of another, where the architect 
and superintendent of construction were arrested on this 
charge and held in $5,000 bail for examination. 

Doubtless there are many architects who have never 
imagined that their carelessness or lack of knowledge or 
of skill could involve such serious consequences. Those 
who have escaped punishment in the past because of laxity 
on the part of the prosecuting officials, or because of the 
failure of the deceased relatives to press their vengeance 
that far, cannot expect to continue such practices with the 
same result. To-day responsible parties are being called 
to account as never before, and it is not to be expected that 
architects will be any exception to the rule. 

One of the most widespread statutes is that which 
is passed to prevent the corrupt influencing of agents, 
employees, or servants. In securing a contractor for the 
owner, it is a practice with some architects to allow bidding 
only by those with whom he has previously had some 
arrangement for personal advantage. Or to show another 
phase of this, after the architect knows who is the low 
bidder, he advises such contractor, and some secret ar- 
rangement of benefit to the architect is then made as a 
requirement to actually secure the contract. These 
statutes punish not only the architect who asks such per- 
sonal gift, gratuity, or benefit, but the contractor who 
gives it. It also punishes both, in ease the contractor is 
the offerer and the architect the acceptor. In one case 
the punishment is not less than $10 nor more than $500 
fine, or one year's imprisonment, or both. This statute 
is so broad, and the knowledge of such a statute so neces- 
sary, that I quote the following part: 



"or an agent, employee or servant who, being author- 
ized to procure materials, supplies or other articles either 
by purchase or contract for his principal employer or mas- 
ter, receives directly or indirectly for himself or for another 
a commission, discount or bonus from the person who 
makes such sale or contract or furnishes such materials, 
supplies or other articles or from a person who renders 
such service or labor ; and any person who gives or offers 
such an agent, employee or servant such commission, dis- 
count or bonus shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." 

Since the architect is so often drawn into the legal con- 
troversies between the owner and the contractor, he should 
know some of the most important statutes governing evi- 
dence, witnesses, etc. Forged or fraudulently altered 
documents, records, etc., offered in evidence knowingly, 
make the person offering or procuring them to be offered 
guilty of a felony. One who bribes or influences or at- 
tempts to influence a witness is also guilty of a felony. 
Among the most common crimes held to be misdemeanors 
are the following : the destroying of evidence or of plans, 
documents, records, which it is known would be required 
as evidence ; persuading a person to not act as a witness ; 
inducing a person to commit perjury, etc. Perjury by 
witnesses has gone to such an extent that there seems, by 
the experienced, to be no limit to which they will not go. 
This is doubtless due to the fact that the statutes against 
that crime are not strictly enforced. The punishment for 
this crime is usually from ten to twenty years' imprison- 
ment, a large fine, or both. 

Public Work. Since there are so many architects hold- 
ing offices of public trust, it is deemed wise to give a few 
of the most important statutes that affect such positions. 
Whether the architect is occupied with his public work all 
or but a small portion of the time, there is no difference 
as to the application of these laws. The corrupt use of a 
public office, or of the power of the same to secure votes 
by promises of any character, is a crime with a maximum 
punishment of probably two years and $3,000 fine. The 
taking of unlawful fees to do or not to do what the official 
duties require is a felony, which in one case provides for 
ten years or $4,000 fine, or both. What might not be c .n 
sidered serious in private work becomes a duty in public 
work. For example, in letting a public contract where the 
architect has the power to act, he is bound to take the 
most advantageous terms for the performance of the work, 
and for any corrupt or wilful dealing in the placing of 
the contract payable in public money, he is criminally 
liable. Where we have the requirement that no contract 
shall be let without previous advertisement, the letting of 
a contract without such preliminary step wilfully and with 
evil intent constitutes a criminal offense. In this con- 
nection it is specially called to attention that a person may 
be just as guilty of a crime by failure to do something as 
by doing something affirmatively. 

( o>„ fusions. Probably most, if not all, of the serious 
crimes which affect the professional work of the architect 
are statutory. Hence they are easily found and read. 
Knowledge of the law in one state is no safety in another. 
One must know the statutes in these regards where one re- 
sides and does business. Luck and the escaping of punish- 
ment in the past, whether merited or not, are no criterions 
for the future. Present legislative policy seems to be a 
combination of investigations, new laws, and punishment. 



DISTINCTIVE AMERICAN ARCHITECTVRE 




A 

MESSRS. Palmer, 
Hornbostel & 
Jones have never 
been remarkable for doing 
the expected, and when 
one thinks over their 
schemes for the number of 
competitions which they 
have won, one seldom finds 
that they have succeeded 
through working out the 
problem in the obvious 
way, but almost always, 
that they have found a new, 
ingenious, and entirely rea- 
sonable solution. Perhaps 
the most conspicuous ex- 
ample of this was their 
scheme for the Carnegie 
Technical School, and the 
designs of all the other 
competitors lookedcrowded 
and cluttered by compari- 
son with theirs ! So to a 
minorextent is their scheme 
for the Oakland City Hall, 
unusual, unexpected, and 
logical. 

There is no reason ex- 
cept tradition why vertical 
circulation and vertical 
juxtaposition of depart- 
ments whose functions are 
related, is not as good in 
these days of full and rapid 
elevator service as is hori- 
zontal, and there is no 
doubt but that the higher 
we can lift offices above 
the street, the more they 
gain in quiet and comfort ; 
the proof of this is that the 
upper stories of an office 
building invariablyrent the 
most readily, and much of 
the occupancy of a modern 
city hall is practically the 
same as that of an office 
building, since where the 
city is not too big, the legis- 
lative, administrative, and 



~\ SERIES OF ILLVSTRATIONS 
Jr\ OF THE MOST NOTABLE 
WORK OF THE TEAK WITH 
APPRECIATIVE TEXT BY 

Y M A R EMBURY 

The Oakland City Hall 
Oakland, California 

PALMER. HORNBOSTEL & JONES, ARCHITECTS 




> . . . i m~m 






■ I 






-■■—■■ 

■1 


II 


II 


II 


II II 


II II 


II 


II 

■ i 


II 


II II 


II II 

■i 


II 


II 

■ ■ 


1! 


11 II 


II 10 
■I 


II 


II 

■ ■ 


II 


II II 


II II 

■1 



Upper Part of Tower and Belfry 




I> 'l_ 







I I 



First Floor Plan 

159 



judicial functions can be 

combined with economy 
both of size and of money 
in running expense. Prob- 
ably a single two-story 
building of great floor ex- 
tent and with separate en- 
trances to most of the 
departments would be the 
ideal city hall (although 
even this is open to ques- 
tion), but the lot on which 
the Oakland City Hall was 
to be placed was not large 
enough to permit a struc- 
ture of this type, and a 
building covering the en- 
tire lot having the neces- 
sary courts for lighting and 
ventilating the interior 
would have run to six or 
seven stories. The pro- 
portion between height and 
width thus fixed would be 
difficult to treat architec- 
turally with dignity and of 
no particular merit in plan, 
since the large chambers 
for the court rooms, coun- 
cil, etc., would necessarily 
have had to be placed below 
smaller units for the offices - 
and the logical treatment 
of the exterior would very 
likely have required the 
expression of the differ- 
ences of the functions of 
the two parts of the build 
ing to be as inconspicuous 
as possible. Now in the 
Oakland City Hall the 
architects have deliber- 
ately separated the build- 
ing into two portions, and 
have expressed this differ- 
ence in elevation : they 
have built a low building 

of monumental character 
to house the judicial and 
legislative functions, and 
in the center of that have 



i6o 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



erected a rather tall office 
building for the administra- 
tive offices — a scheme so en- 
tirely natural and practical 
that after its utility is thus 
demonstrated one is rather 
surprised it has not been pre- 
viously done. 

Even from the purely tradi- 
tional point of view, the 
scheme as executed does not 
appear extraordinary ; most 
city halls have a tower, and 
in this city hall the tower has 
only been developed and ex- 
panded — the principle of a 
low mass with a tall central 
emphasis has not beenaltered. 
The especial interest of the 
exterior arises then from the 
revisions of traditional 
motives necessary to convert 
the tower into an office build- 
ing: and to architecturally 
connect it in scale and in de- 
sign with the more grandiose 
treatment of the base. This 
has been done in an exceed- 
ingly interesting and able 
fashion by treating the fenes- 
tration of the lower building 
with a series of arches be- 
tween pilasters, opening it 
up as far as possible, and by 
making the base of the tower 
extremely solid and sturdy, 
so that one feels 
the tower is not 
supported on the 
roof of the lower 
building, but 
passes through 
it to the ground, 
making the 
lower building 
more or less of 
a decora t i ve 
feature around 
the base. 

The regional 
sentiment of 
California has 
been hinted at 
rather than per- 
mitted to domi- 
nate the design, 
which is derived 
as far as possible 
from well- 
known classic 
motives, treated 
in a very free 
way, with a sug- 



I 




Eton 1 | 



Second Floor Plan 




Third Floor Plan 



'! ii (I i f fl 




Lower Stories of Principal Facade 



gestion of the exotic in the 
cornice of the tower, and in 
the cupola and belfry which 
surmounts it ; this belfry, by 
the way, being unusually 
picturesque in silhouette, as 
well as admirably adjusted 
to form a termination to the 
balance of the building. It 
is the study of the plans which 
gives us the most complete 
comprehension of the real 
simplicity of the apparently 
complicated design and of 
the logical treatment through- 
out. In the ground floor the 
main portion of the building 
is accessible from three sides, 
although the principal en- 
trance is, of course, at the 
front, w'ith a monumental 
staircase which leads easily 
and readily to the legislative 
chamber on the third floor. 
But the elevators leading to 
the office part of the building 
are close to the entrance, and 
are admirably placed for util- 
ity and appearance ; and par- 
ticularly interesting is the 
manner in which the fire 
house is included in the de- 
sign, entirely secluded from 
the balance of the building, 
and yet readily accessible 
The ground floor, 
beside the fire 
house, includes 
a. police station 
and special ele- 
vators to the 
detention cells, 
placed high up 
in the building, 
and communi- 
cating also with 
the police courts 
on the second 
floor. The sec- 
ond floor in- 
cludes offices for 
the chief of 
police, the police 
courts, and a 
dormitory for 
the firemen and 
the police de- 
partment. The 
court rooms are 
so arranged that 
they are readily 
accessible to 
those persons 



from it. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



161 




DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA CORNICES AT FOURTH AND ELEVENTH FLOORS 

OAKLAND CITY HALL, OAKLAND, CAL. 

PALMER, HORNBOSTEL & JONES. ARCHITECTS 



162 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



who have business there, and are yet shut off from observa- 
tion by the general public. 

The third floor is the Legislative Department, and the 
general circulation in the center is admirably lighted 
through the base of the tower. Private corridors lead to 
the committee rooms and offices, accessible either from 
the main part of the building or from 
the council chamber, as may be re- 
quired. The plan of this floor is of 
them all perhaps the most interest- 
ing, because of the excellent monu- 
mental character obtained without 
sacrifice of space, convenience, light, 
and accessibility. The fourth floor 
to the tenth floor, inclusive, are re- 
served for the different administrative 
functions, and it is interesting and 
well worth while to go through the 
plans to see how admirably the se- 
quence of departments is arranged, 
as well as to see how good the plan 
of each department is, although each 
unit is closely related to one or two 
others to secure economical adminis- 
tration. Thus we find the assessor, 
the tax collector, the treasurer, and 
the auditor grouped on the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth floors; while above 

them cm the seventh, eighth, and ninth floors are the 
Department of Street Cleaning, the City Engineer, Build- 
ing Department, Park Department, and Hoard of Health, 
each of which is in most cities housed separately from the 
others at a great expense of time and lack of co-ordination 
in administration. The eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth 
floors contain the prison and quarters for the keepers, war- 
den, and janitor, completely removed from all outside 
activities and each a unit. There are, of course, many 




Detail of Lamp Standard 



related to one another, and equally as many buildings 
which arc monumental city halls of good architectural 
characteristics, but this is one of the very few, if not the 
only one. where the quality of public building is so admira- 
bly retained without sacrificing any of the convenience of 
the usual office building. 

It may be recalled that Palmer, 
Hornbostel & Jones some years ago 
developed a not dissimilar scheme for 
an extension of the court house at 
Pittsburgh, and it seems quite prob- 
able that the treatment which was in 
that case forced by existing condi- 
tions was so distinctly advantageous 
that it influenced them in developing 
the present one. But whether this 
be the fact or not, we do know that 
this is the first American structure 
of this character, and one which is 
bound to act as a precedent to a host 
of imitators. 

The advantages of the scheme as 
to the natural lighting of its various 
parts are sufficiently obvious. The 
great windows in the lower part pre- 
vent the shadowing of the street 
floors by adjoining structures, and 
the freedom from light courts makes 
for quietness, since there is no reverberation. An in- 
genious scheme is the lighting of the upper row of cells, 
placed in a story behind the main cornice, from skylights ; 
another is the lighting of the central monumental hall on 
the third story from great arched windows above the roof, 
— a system admirable in itself because of the thorough 
ventilation and the agreeable light. 

Mr. llornbostel's ingenious mind revels in 'devices of 
this sort, but he has seldom thought out a scheme more 



other buildings in which departments have been admirably useful, satisfactory, and beautiful than this one. 




Seventh Floor Plan 



Ninth Floor Plan 

Oakland City Hall. Oakland, Cal. 

Palmer, Hornbostel & Jones, Architects 



Eleventh Floor Plan 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 97. 




OAKLAND CITY HALL, OAKLAND, CAL. 
PALMER. HOKNBOSTEL & JONES.*ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PI-ATE 98. 




DETAIL OF WASHINGTON STREET ENTRANCE 



OAKLAND CITY HALL, OAKLAND, CAL. 
PALMER. HORNBOSTEL & JONES. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE W. 




FOURTEENTH STREET FACADE 









14 


-,r- r ,A~ 






DETAIL OF FOURTEENTH STREET ENTRANCE 



OAKLAND CITY HALL, OAKLAND. CAL. 
PALMER. HORNBOSTEL & JONES. ARCHITECTS. 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 100. 











-J 
< 


6 




( ) 


UJ 


Ill 




H 


■rf 


Q 


I 


o 


/i 


U 


a: 

< 


< 


< 


H 


^ 


uj 


tfl 


<r 


Q 
Z 
< 


o 


O 
4f 


cc 


_i 




u! 


< 


—I 
hi 


o 


X 


01 


u. 
id 


p 


O 


( i 




<i 


7- 


u 


X 


< 

rr 


Q 




I 


H 


-i 


. 


Z 


<r 


££ 


UJ 


_j 


Ld 




^ 


i 




< 


< 




o 


0. 



VOL. 23, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 101. 




BUILDING OF THE HARVARD CLUB OF BOSTON, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE, BOSTON. MASS. 

PARKER. THOMAS & RICE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 102. 







DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



BUILDING OF THE HARVARD CLUB OF BOSTON, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE, BOSTON. MASS. 

PARKER, THOMAS & RICE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 103. 




& Suk tkvofioo d feci Ut, 



„ Jecto ftno frccf Ifltaax/ 



DETAIL OF FACADE 



BUILDING OF THE HARVARD CLUB OF BOSTON, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. BOSTON. MASS. 

PARKER, THOMAS & RICE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 104. 




THIR.D TLOOK PLAN 




FOVRTH FLOOR. PLAN 



Plf IH TLOOR PLAN 




BAILMENT PLAN 



IIPOT I LOOK PLAN 



.« (. ONI) TLOOR PLAN 



BUILDING OF THE HARVARD CLUB OF BOSTON, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE. BOSTON. MASS. 

PARKER. THOMAS & RICE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER. 



PLATE 105. 




< 



Z 

o 

H 
m 
O 

CQ 
Uj" 

D 
Z 

UJ 

> 
< 



X 
H 

< B 

uj u 



z 

o 



111 
H 

I 
u 
a: 
< 

O ui 
U u 



z 
o 

H 

</) 
O 

CQ 



CQ ul 
D V 

- C£ 

< 

a. 



u 

Q 

2 

< 



UJ 

I 
H 
u. 
O 

a 
z 

Q 

_J 

D 

QQ 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 106. 



TBSB" 




< 



z 

I 

QQ 
Uj 

3 



5 



UJ o 

2 < 

O ui 

u y 



z 

o 

H 
tn 
O 

CO 



w a: 

CD N 



-J 
-J 
U 

Q 

cc 
< 

< 
X 

Id 

I 

H 
u. 
O 

o 
z 

Q 
5 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 107. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THE COLLATERAL LOAN COMPANY BUILDING, CORNHILL. BOSTON, MASS. 
C. H. BLACKALL, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 108. 



"■"j t 




DETAIL OF CORNHILL ELEVATION 



THE COLLATERAL LOAN COMPANY BUILDING. CORNHILL. BOSTON, MASS. 
C. H. BLACKALL. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 109. 




ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF MRS. LUCIE A. FISKE, AUBURN DALE. MASS. 
HENRY J. F. LUDEMAN AND C. V. SNEDEKER. JR., ASSOCIATE ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 109. 




ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF MRS. LUCIE A. FISKE, AUBURNDALE. MASS. 
HENRY J. F. LUDEMAN AND C. V. SNEDEKER. JR.. ASSOCIATE ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 110. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF MRS. LUCIE A. FISKE, AUBURNDALE, MASS. 
HENRY J. F. LUDEMAN AND C. V. SNEDEKER. JR.. ASSOCIATE ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE III. 






UJ K 

U. Q 
UJ 

s. 



< 
y 

o 

CO 

05 



VOL. 23. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 112. 




I^B 


4 




B 


^B 


-■ 






H 


iS 


IMIMHHi.j 


»ny i 


\8u> 




IMflffl 






■ t^Pt« 






r" 7 ^ 




;_:^ Bp 


?f r i SHlj ' 


t 


■: _l_ , BrlpP J 






LJliPi 








-k <j 




\SJ 






IB . B2^ 






Jftf 


~~jj i 


wT 




en 

< 



UJ 

< 
Q 
Z 

s 

CQ 

D 
< 

00 

E 
< 

UJ 

u 
_l 
«/> 



UJ 

O 

X 



The Small Apartment Building. 

ACCOMPANIED BY PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 
OF SELECTED EXAMPLES IN CHICAGO, ILL. 



By HUGO H. ZIMMERM \ Y 



WHO the inventor of the 
flat building was, history 
does not state. But two 
and three story houses, with 
apartments for not more than 
two or three families, have long 
been an important feature of 
life in Chicago. And when one 
compares the flat building of 
twenty-five years ago, built on 
a lot with a street frontage of 
twenty-five feet, with some of 
the really clever plans of to-day, 
we can see how far we have 
advanced in health, sanitation, 
and comfort. Of course the 
well-to-do have always been able 
to make themselves comforta- 
ble, but this article refers only 
to the average city man who is 
compelled to found a home on a 
small lot and make the best of it. 
Until about ten years ago the 
average size city lot was twenty- 
five feet by one hundred and 








¥ 



m& 



TYPICAL* 5TOBY 



— C 2 



W 



Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, 111 
Walter Burley Griffin, Architect 



twenty-five feet, running to an alley sixteen feet wide. 
The increasing demands and restrictions of the health and 
building departments, 
however, have made this 
unit unsuitable for small 



Hats, and subdivisions are now 
generally laid out with lots 
thirty to thirty-five feet wide 
and sold with restrictions as to 
cost of the future building and 
the distance it must be placed 
back from the street line. An- 
other restriction often made 
where a promoter wishes to 
enhance ' ' the appearance of 
his subdivision is to require that 
all flat buildings shall be of a 
residential type ; that is, a build- 
ing with the conventional "flat" 
effect, disguised with pitched 
roofs, flower-boxes, etc. Such 
demands were an incentive for 
the " plan factory," and the de- 
signing of flat buildings early 
fell upon evil ways for stock- 
plans were advertised for sale 
at $5.00 and up. However 
banal the effect of such build- 
ings is, dollar plans reduce the 
cost of the building and enable 
the speculative builder to present an " attractive proposi- 
tion " to the prospective buyer, and the proposition does 

appeal with special force 
to the wage earner, who, 
with his limited means, 




fittST Stoky 




Fie st .Story 



Fig. I 



Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, III. 
Huehl. Schmid & Holme*, Architects 

163 



Fig. II 



i()f 



THE BRICKBV1LDER 



finds it within his power to finance it. 

The investor thus secures a home for 

himself and an income from the other 

tlat, which helps him pay the taxes, 

up-keep, and interest on the inevitable 

mortgage. 

With the advent of spring begins 

the quest of the " tlat hunter," for 

May 1 is moving day. Then must 

the owner or agent be ready to dilate 

upon the features of his tlat designed 

to meet the demands of the modern 

housewife. To enumerate some of 

the talking points — ice box in the 

pantry, iced from porch; fireplace in 

the living room Hanked with built-in 

bookcases ; beamed ceiling in the din- 
ing room : art-glass in the buffet ; out- 
lets for electric table lamps, vacuum 

cleaner, and washing machine. That 

the Hat is heated with steam or hot water, has modern 

plumbing, electric light, and hot water for domestic use, is 
all taken for -ranted. 

Aside from municipal restric- 
tions, competition among- builders 
is working a continual change in 
the appearance and plans of the 
small flat building'. Figure I is 
the plan of a typical two-flat build- 
ing erected about ten years ago 
and shows the regulation parlor, 
sitting- room, and small front porch, 




Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, 111. 
Hatzfeld & Knox, Architects 




the latter for the use of both tenants. 
The second story would have an addi- 
tional bedroom above the vestibule. 
Figure II shows a variation of this 
plan, providing- a separate entrance 
for each flat, thus securing greater 
privacy. Hut the ceaseless quest for 
something new has now produced a 
building- with a side entrance and a 
large living- room with private porch 
across the front. 

All flat buildings in Chicago are not 
erected from plans at $5.00 per set, 
and there are many which show a real 
study of the problem, for fortunately 
there are still some people who are 
wise enough to commission reputable 
architects to design their buildings. 
( )f such work there are four designs by 
.Messrs. Hatzfeld & Knox, reproduced 
herewith, which represent the work that is being done. 
Figure III shows a building- for a lot having a frontage 
of thirty feet with a bed- 
room in front which can be 
rented out to a roomer " 
or converted into a library 
in connection with the liv- 
ing room. This plan 
shows the kitchen and din- 
ing- room across the rear of 
the house. Figure IV 
shows a clever arrange- 



First Floor Plan of Build- 
ing Shown Below 





First Floor Plan of Apartment Building Shown Above 



First Floor Plan of Building 
Shown Below 




Brown ft Walcott, Architects 



Two-Apartment Buildings, Chicago, 111. 



Huehl 5: Schmid, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



165 




"AIL 




1 . 


1 ■«£ 


j 
f 

■J 


n 


Jin • 


11 

ft 1 


-L.-. ■ - / I 
- H 

,NJft 

1 ■* 

r 


• 1' 


> 3 


mmmmmmm 




-owwgwii nwinuwwy 



' . ./ B Fig. VI 

Exterior View of Apartment Building Shown First Floor Plan of Apartment Exterior View of Apartment Building Shown 
in Plan Below Building Shown Below in Plan Below 




-rtCCCPLAN 

Fig. IV 



Exterior View of Apartment Buildi 



Plan Abe 



r~vn 




THREE SMALL APARTMENT BUILDINGS, CHICAGO, ILL. 
HATZFELD & KNOX, ARCHITECTS 



1 66 



THE BRICKBVILDKR 



ment of two bedrooms and bath, 

all connected with a private pas- 
sage, ensuring a maximum of 

privacy, also rear stairs arranged 
so that first story porch is pri- 
vate. Figure V is an ingenious 
plan on a corner lot only twenty- 
tour feet wide. Figure VI illus- 
trates a more ambitious plan of a 
tlat building designed for a lot 
thirty-six feet wide. This plan 
shows an additional porch or sun 
room opening from the dining 
room, and inside stairs for trades 
people, which also give access to 
two servants' bedrooms (one for 
each flat ' located on third floor. 

Because the appropriation for 
this type of building is always 
painfully limited, elaborately de- 
signed elevations are out of the 
question. The four designs of 
Ilatzfeld & Knox show a direct 
presentation of the problem stated 
in plain brick, with the wall sur- 
faces varied by panels and bands, 
and the galvanized iron confined 
strictly to gutters and down- 
spouts. 

Although lots for Hats are now laid out wider than they 
formerly were, the twenty-five-foot lot is. still with us to 
plague the architect who attempts to plan a modern flat 
building for it. Messrs. Hyland & Green present a study 
of such a problem in Figure VII. They place the building 




First Floor Plan 

Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, 111. 

L. E. Stanhope. Architect 



on the one-lot line and light the 
rooms from the other side. By 
placing two buildings on adjoin- 
ing lots, an open court is obtained 
eighteen feet wide, which could 
be made attractive with shrubs 
and grass plots. By running a 
hedge midway down the court, 
individual walks for each building 
would be secured. The scheme 
has much to commend it. but its 
one serious fault is the great 
depth of the building — seventy- 
tivc feet exclusive of the front 

porch. 

What comforts and innovations 
the future Hats will hold, remains 
to be seen. Kitchenettes, sun 
parlors, sleeping porches, disap- 
pearing beds, table beds, etc., 
arc all words to juggle with ; but 
whatever changes occur, they will 
always be for additional comfort 
and an additional charge to the 
high cost of living. 

The small apartment house is 
primarily a commercial building, 
for it must be so designed and 
equipped as to please the public 
and influence them to rent. With t,he increasing cost of 
building the plan will demand greater ingenuity from the 
architect, and to those interested in the problem the accom- 
panying designs may be suggestive of further economies 
in the use of limited space. 




First Floor Plan 

Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, III 

John A. Nyden, Architect 



A Scheme for Two Small Apartment 
Buildings on Adjoining Lots, Each Hav- 
ing a Frontage of Twenty-Five Feet 

Hyland & Green, Architects 



First Floor Plan 

Two-Apartment Building, Chicago, III. 

Hugo H. Zimmerman, Architect 




Delano & Aldrich, Architects 



Pencil Drawing of Connecticut College for Women 



Rockwell Kent, Delineator 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

VII. THE WORK OF ROCKWELL KENT. 



A NUMBER of the men whose work has been illus- 
trated in this series have been painter-renderers; 
that is, men who have either been trained as paint- 
ers, and who have turned to architectural rendering, or 
men who still occasionally paint, although architecture is 
their means of livelihood. 

With Mr. Rockwell Kent the reverse process has taken 
place, since, while he has always been to some extent in- 
terested in painting, he began his life-work as an architect, 
and is turning more and more to the brush as his perma- 
nent and serious vocation. He studied architecture at 
Columbia University, and after graduating did some work 
on his own account ; but has been usually associated with 
the offices of several of the New York architects, among 
whom should be mentioned Messrs. McKim, Mead & White 
and Messrs. Ewing &Chappell, the latter office being the one 
in which he has passed the greatest part of his time, and 
where he has made his headquarters, since he is always 
welcome there because of his attractive personality as 
well as his artistic ability. 

His study of painting began almost simultaneously with 
his study of architecture, and during the summer vacations, 
while he was pursuing his college course, he worked in the 
Chase Summer School at Shinnecock, and he with Gifford 
Beal and Marshall Fry formed a trio of men whose great 
promise as fellow-students has been borne out by the bril- 
liancy of their maturer work. Neither as an architectural 
renderer nor as a painter has he been accustomed to follow 
the accepted academic standards ; and while, in rendering, 
his methods have been unique and even without imitators, 
as a painter he belongs to the group which includes Bellows, 
Luks, Davies, Glackens, and Shinn, and he has long been 
with these men a moving spirit in the Society of Ameri- 
can Artists, the organization which was responsible for 
the extraordinary exhibition of modern art shown in the 



Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory in New York two winters 
ago, and afterwards exhibited in part all over the United 
States. The statement that he belongs to this school 
must be accepted in its loosest general significance, since 
the work of these men does not possess the similarity, 
either in technique or subject, that we are accustomed to 
regard as constituting a " school " of painting. Each of 
them has developed his own metier, without much more 
regard for the work of his associates than for the work of 
the Classicists who have preceded him, and it would be 
rather easy to demonstrate that paintings of, let us say, 
Glackens and Bellows possess no more points of similarity 
than do works by Bellows to those by one whom we are 
accustomed to regard as such a confirmed Classicist as 
Blashfield ; but the fact remains that this group of men 
does evidently constitute a distinct school, since certain 
important characteristics of painting are remarkable in 
the work of all these men, either for their presence or 
absence'. Pages, and indeed volumes, have been written 
in an endeavor to tell what this new movement in art is, 
and what it is trying to get at ; but, without adding to this 
literature, it may be said briefly and with certainty that its 
aim is to reproduce movement rather than form, and that 
the contempt for actual and absolute natural colors has 
been carried to violent extremes. 

As Mr. Birch Long, in his article on " Architectural 
Rendering'," says, the success of a color scheme as repre- 
senting natural conditions is dependent upon the relative 
lather than the positive colors employed, and tin's is ap 
parently the dictum which the new school has set up for 
itself as being supreme in painting, and it is very interest- 
ing to see how Rockwell Kent in his renderings has been 
able to combine the rigid regard for architectural form 
with the freedom characteristic of the new school in treat- 
ing natural objects, both in form and color. To the 



167 



1 68 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



writer, at least, the whole Armory 
show did not afford its as lucid an 
explanation of what the men of the 
modern school were trying to do as 
do these water-colors of Mr. Kent's ; 
for, while he paints trees of shapes 
which never were seen on sea or 
land, orange skies, red grass, and 
blue foliage, when these component 
parts have been assembled on one 
sheet of paper by him they appear 
plausible, credible, and even ac- 
ceptable, and the untrained laymen 
and rigidly trained architect both 
find that somehow the whole scheme 
is a most faithful presentation of 
actual conditions reflected on prob- 
able future facts. 

All this, in spite of the fact that 
Mr. Kent does not regard his archi- 
tectural rendering" very seriously, 
but rather as something" which is 

an inexpensive and easy way of helping to make a living, 
since his work is done with incredible speed, and leaves 
him much time to devote to his more serious purposes. 

His renderings are a demonstration, too, of the sincerity 
of much of this new work, a point about which there has 
been quite as much dispute as there has been about its 
artistic merit, many critics holding that the extraordinary 
color schemes and lack of detail were due to carelessness 
and conscious affectation searching for startling effects at 
a minimum of effect. In Mr. Kent's case, at least, his 
color schemes are by no means conscious, but accurate 
reproductions of the way he sees things ; and he tells with 
much quiet amusement the story of an architect for whom 
he had made several renderings imploring him in the next 
one to make at least the skies blue and the grass green, 




Dela 



Delano & Aldrich. Architects 



Water Color Drawing of House at Tarrytown, N. Y. 
o & Aldrich, Architects Rockwell Kent, Delineator 

and, says Mr. Kent, " I did it, and he was not satisfied 
then, but complained that the sky was green and the grass 
yellow." And yet there is no doubt in Mr. Kent's mind 
that he had accurately fulfilled the requirements of the 
architect for whom he was working. The extraordinary 
part of it all is that he can, and usually does, in the purely 
architectural parts of the drawings, produce something 
approximating the natural colors ; his brick is red, his 
white shingles are painted with Chinese white, and his 
green shutters are exactly the color of the faded green of 
Colonial work. And .vet with a reasonably faithful rendi- 
tion of colors thus far, he combines the must extraordinary 
tones in the setting, with perfect congruity of result. 

It ii very unfortunate that no black and white reproduc- 
tion of colored drawings will show this quality, and we 

can only get from them 
some idea of the tonal 
relations or values of t lie 
color scheme ; and even 
these, because of the 
mechanical difficulties 
attendant upon photo- 
graphing of color work, 
will not produce very 
desirable pictorial ef- 
fects, since the element 
of form to which we 
have before alluded is so 
inextricably associated 
with color in his work, 
that forms either excel- 
lent or at least of nega- 
tive quality in the 
original drawing become 
positively bad in the re- 
production because of 
false reproduction of the 
colors of the painting. 

Nor is Mr. Kent a 

colorist only, but is as 

Rockwell Kent, Delineator completely a master of 




Water Color Drawing of House at Greenwich, Conn. 



THE BRICKBVIL D E R 



169 



the hard and exacting- processes of black and white as he 
is of color. He knows very fully his composition, and that 
form must be perfect and accurately drawn where there is 
no color to help it out ; so in his black and white drawings 
reproduced in this article, we have evidently the same 
man that does the slashing - color work, but 
a man who is self-controlled, restrained, 
and quiet. Timidity and dryness are just 
as absent from the black and white draw- 
ings as from the colored ones, and even 
in the black and whites we feel a strong 
and unusual color sense as dominant as 
in his painted work. Neither his black 
and white drawings nor his colored ones 
present quiet patterns of interwoven neu- 
tral tones ; they are remarkable for strong- 
accents liberally, sometimes too freely, 
applied, and while perhaps some of his 
work falls to pieces, because of too great 
an interest in the subordinate parts, the 
result is only that we have several smaller 
and not less interesting pictures on the same sheet, instead 
of a stupid and tiresome single rendering, and the deft and 
daring way with which we find these accents applied in 
most unexpected places, and yet in places which are evi- 
dently natural, will be a never failing source of interest 
and surprise to the student of his work. 

Like most other architectural renderers, Mr. Kent's 
design is not limited either to architecture or to painting ; 
he has made many book plates, seasonal cards, headings, 
vignettes, and things of that kind, as well as designs for 
metal work, ornament, etc., and one of his cards illus- 
trated above is worth studying with some care, since it 



BlAIXW3W«IfO^EH 




Seasonal Card in 
Rockwe 



its designer's bent of mind. In the first place, its shape 
is not only unusual, but one which we are accustomed to 
regard as wrong ; it is neither a square, which is always 
good, nor a long rectangle, which is also always good ; it 
is just a little longer than a square should be, a shape 
which is usually apt to worry us because 
we feci that it should be a square, and 
yet that is not the case with this card. 
Next, the disposition of the lettering will 
be found such that it cannot be continu- 
ously read, no matter where one starts, 
but it is perfectly obvious what the letter- 
ing says, which is the aim and purpose' of 
lettering, but the ordinary mind would 
have strained the conventional way of 
lettering into some form which would 
never have been satisfactory. And one 
may notice here that the lettering itself 
is unusual and exquisite. The diagonal 
balance of the block rosettes in the corners 
is a curious thing, as are the forms of the 
rosettes themselves, and the thought behind the composi- 
tion is as amusing as it is kindly. The whole thing has 
a pleasant sentiment that we like to associate with a 
Christmas card or a New Year's card, but without banality, 
timidity, or fuss. 

Yes, there seems to be something in the new art move- 
ment as practised by men like Rockwell Kent, but if there 
had not been any new art movement, would not Mr. Kent 
have turned out just as brilliant work in a more academic 
way, work perhaps not so startling, but no less beautiful ; 
or would perhaps his genius have been stifled under a load 
of conventions which he would have been trained to regard 



Pen and Ink by 
11 Kent 



has so many interesting and characteristic indications of as essentials ? 




Pencil Drawing of Science Building, Connecticut College for Women 



Delano & Aldrich, Arch 



Rockwell Kent. Delineator 



The Salem Fire from an Architect's Point of View. 



By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



T( ) the thousands of weary refugees who passed 
the night of the twenty-fifth of June under the stars 
a statement that anything remotely resembling 
"mitigating circumstances " had attended the events of 
the day would have seemed like the hollowest of mock- 
eries. Most of them had failed to comprehend their dan- 
ger until the stalking conflagration which roared down the 
narrow streets had in a few minutes wiped out home, fur- 
niture, employment, and in most eases the meager savings 
of a lifetime. In their ease a truly stoical philosophy would 
be needed to contemplate the preservation of the homes 
of the aristocracy while their own belongings lay in ashes. 

The architectural profession of America, however, will 
rejoice to know that as far as any great fire could ever 
be said to be "discriminating," that of Salem showed 
a rare discretion in the selection of its food. Starting 
just before two o'eloek on a hot afternoon in one of the 
notorious conflagration breeders of "Blubber Hollow" 
on the west side of the city, it bore down, fanned by 
a strong wind, directly upon the splendid old mansions 
of Chestnut street. In the nick of time a slight shift of 
wind carried it around a curve into a crowded tenement 
district to the south, missing the old Colonial quarter by 
not over two hundred feet. After several hours, during 
which the destruction of South Salem was accomplished, 
another shift of the wind in the evening drove the flames 
back towards the Custom House and the old buildings in 
the east end of the city, but by a desperate stand they 
were again beaten off and old Salem was saved, though 
shorn of the homes of fifteen thousand of its people. 

To the writer, who stood at the upper end of Chest- 
nut street at three o'clock in the afternoon, a different 
ending seemed certain. A solid wall of flame was driving 
across the upper ends of Essex and Broad streets, half a 
block away, and the fire, which had already gone a mile to 
the south, seemed sure to close in also from that direction. 
The efforts of the engines, massed here and there at stra- 
tegic- points, seemed pathetically futile. Priceless old fam- 
ily mahogany was being hastily brought out from the 
white pillared porticoes and loaded into vans, and the 
sidewalk display of Colonial " pieces " would have ex- 
cited the envy of any exhibition ever held. 

There is something appalling about the oncoming of a 
great calamity which seems to dull the sensibilities of the 
population. Here was the summer sunlight playing 
through the elms and lindens of the fine, pleasant old 
streets, and the people quietly passing to and fro, intent 
on their individual affairs. The fire alarm caused no spe- 
cial comment, any more than did the sight of the appa- 
ratus dashing along as it had done hundreds of times 
before. Even the second alarm (Salem has the vociferous 
steam whistle kind) did no more than attract the idle from 
the business streets. But with the continuous blowing >>\ 
fire whistles, rumors began to spread : " That is the sig- 
nal for out of town help! " " They say there are fifty 
houses on fire in Blubber Hollow! " "There goes the 
militia call ! " " They say there are. three fires in South 
Salem anil all the apparatus is busy ! " Now the streets 



are alive with hurrying crowds, not excited, but dazed, 
wondering if it is really as bad as it appears. Motor 
trucks and express wagons piled high with furniture 
begin to appear ; automobiles loaded with militia rush 
by : with great clanging of bells powerful motor engines 
dash in from near-by cities, and over all hangs that 
great cloud of smoke cutting off the brilliant sunshine 
with a sharp division line and hiding half the city under a 
menacing black shadow. Even in the path of such a dis- 
aster as this the irrepressible American civic pride comes 
to the front. " This is worse than Chelsea ! " one citizen 
was heard to say about four o'clock. " Chelsea ! " said his 
neighbor with fine contempt, "we've got Chelsea skun 
a mile ! 

Speaking in terms of Colonial architecture the loss was 
small. Architects all over the country will be glad to know 
that the Custom House, the House of Seven (tables, the 
" old Bakery," Washington Square, and the streets to the 
east, the picturesque market, and Federal, Chestnut, and 
Essex streets are intact except a few of the less important 
houses near Boston street. The retail business district, the 
City Hall, the Court Houses, and that medieval relic, the 
railway station, escaped. The " Tontine " block is gone, 
as are the old houses in Lafayette street. 

Architects will not be able to draw many new lessons 
from the fire. The dangers of dry shingle roofs, un- 
sprinkled conflagration-breeding wooden factories, and 
small water mains are but too familiar, and Salem was 
only a type of hundreds of American cities in this respect. 
Given a small nucleus of moderately fire-resisting build- 
ings, surrounded by thousands of inflammable wooden 
structures, the result may be a long time coming, but its 
arrival is none the less certain when all the conditions arc- 
ready. As was the ease in Chelsea, the worst fire hazards 
were on the west side, and west is the prevailing wind on 
the Xew England coast. A dry spell, a high wind, a none 
too careful watch on dangerous chemicals, and off it goes. 

City planners might glean from this a suggestion to keep 
manufacturing sections to leeward rather than windward 
of model cities, but it is doubtful if trade would submit to 
such restrictions. As long as the insurance companies con- 
tinue to compete for risky business, just so long will the 
annual American ash heap remain in evidence. The fact 
that brick construction costs not over five per cent more 
than wood seems to make no impression on builders. In 
fact, it is really pitiful to see how even wood will resist 
a fire if given half a chance. The writer watched the 
attack of the flames upon a four story wooden factory 
about two hundred feet long, flat-roofed and sheathed 
with slate and galvanized iron. It was exposed for its 
entire length to the blazing conflagration at close range, 
and protected by only two steamer streams. Even with 
this meager support it resisted the fire for over an hour, 
then caught in the upper story, and the two lower stories 
were finally saved by the firemen and the conflagration 
checked at that point. If wooden Salem had even enjoyed 
the poor protection of metal sheathing, it might have been 
saved. 



170 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



171 



Due to beneficent Providence and not much else, those 
shady old streets, swept by the salt breezes fresh from the 
harbor islands, may still tempt the footsteps of delighted 
architects. Hollyhocks and dahlias bloom undisturbed in 
the old g-ardens, and will continue to link the newly built 
industrial city to the stately life of the past. But Salem 
should take to itself a warning. More of her priceless 
heritage has been destroyed in the last ten years by a too 
enterprising commercialism than was threatened by the 
fire. Dozens of old mansions have been torn down to 
make way for shops, or "modernized" out of all sem- 
blance to their former beauty. 

In France the best of the older buildings are " classed " 
by the Ministry of Fine Arts so that their demolition may 
be prevented, and in other European countries cities seem 
to feel that their ancient atmosphere is a real asset, to be 
jealously guarded. America has not yet arrived at the 



dignity of a Ministry of Fine Arts, and perhaps Colonial 
houses are not architecturally worth classifying anyhow, 
except by antiquarian societies ; American citizens in gen- 
eral seem to enjoy the sight of a dapper business block, 
Rathskeller style, or a stucco apartment house, better than 
a dignified but slightly wistful old brick mansion that has 
seen better days. Hut distinction of any sort in America 
is scarce. Salem always had, and still has, distinction to 
an unusual degree, both architecturally and in the fine 
spirit of its people. In rebuilding, the Colonial tradition 
might well be followed, and a city more unique than ever 
would rise above the old harbor. As in Chester, Xurem- 
burg, or Siena these quaint streets and ancient buildings, 
now doubly precious, are the property of the nation, and 
Salem citizens may well feel that their birthright having 
been spared by Providence from tire it behooves them t<> 
safeguard it against a greater danger. 



Special Announcement. 

yfN exhibition is to be held in Salem 0/ plans, drawings, photographs, and structural details of fireproof or semi me 
^cl proof dwelling houses, especially such houses as ia// be rented at from $10 to $18 per month. All contributions will be 
gratefully received. Contributions should be sent to City Half Salem, Care of City Messenger, and marked ' Salem Housing 
Exhibition." 



'HKOl T C,H the generosity of a private citizen a prize of $r>0(> has been offered for the best plan for a $2,500 house. Details 
of the competition can be obtained upon application to C II. Blackall, Advisory Architect to the Salem Rebuilding Con/- 



T 

mission, 20 Beacon st., Boston, Mass. 




Photo Copyrighted, 1914. by The Boston Journal 

THE BURNED AREA OF THE CITY OF SALEM, MASS. 

A remarkable photograph taken from a hydroplane on the day following the disaster, showing the greater portion of the 

city devastated by the conflagration of June 25, 1914 



s 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D*N O T ES * * 
F O R * THE * M O NTH 




g 



D 



[SASTROUS fires have come to be so thoroughly 
a part of American civic economy that we hesitate 
to go very much into detail regarding the causes 

and results of the Salem lire. Measured by the importance 
of the buildings destroyed, it would not be ranked as a 
great conflagration. Most of the buildings were of wooden 
construction and the one conspicuous exception, the power 
house of the Electric Light Company, was notable in that 
standing directly in the path of the flames and surrounded 
on all sides by burning- buildings it was not injured at all 
by the fire, simply because it was what is known as fire- 
proof construction and there was nothing to burn. But 
although this building- by itself oilers so obvious a moral, 
we doubt if this fire will be taken to heart by the munici- 
pality or by the country at large. The insurance com- 
panies are so much more interested in placing new 
insurance than they are in any improvement in construction 
that it will take a far greater lesson than Salem to arouse 
the public conscience to something- definite. We hear a 
great deal of talk about how Salem will be rebuilt, and 
how fireproof buildings will arise in the path of the con- 
flagration, and how the new Salem will show that at least 
one municipality can profit by its experiences ; but in the 
meantime all of our cities are in just the same fix, and what 
happened in Salem is but a circumstance to what might 
happen in many of our cities, and what surely will happen 
in time. 

Indeed, the only tangible outcome of the Salem fire is an 
indirect one. The so-called Metropolitan Fire Hazard bill, 
which has been before the Massachusetts Legislature, in- 
tended to provide for a better prevention of fires in the 
metropolitan district, has just passed the Senate by an 
extremely narrow margin ; but that it passed at all is 
undoubtedly due to the Salem fire. The time must come 
when the commu nity, which in the last analysis pays all the 
bills, will be aroused to an appreciation that insurance does 
not and cannot wholly insure; that the insurance com- 
panies largely do not care whether our buildings burn up 
or not, and that the community itself must organize and 
demand laws which really mean something, which will 
oblige the individual to consider the public good rather 
than his own selfish desire to avoid the expenditure of 
money, and when as a question of pure economies the 
construction of tinder-box surroundings to our great cities 
will be abolished. The Boston Chamber of Commerce has 
been organizing a campaign tor " safety first." We need 
just such a campaign in regard to fire prevention— a cam- 
paign that will arouse the better elements in our civiliza- 
tion and stop this wicked and terrible annual waste. Ways 
and means are perfectly clear, but so long as the law-mak- 
ing- parties do not care, and so long- as the insurance com- 
panies will put a premium on a cheap construction by 
insuring anything whatever, just so long will we be throw- 
ing millions into the annual ash pile. And this does not 



mean that fire prevention is wholly a matter of construc- 
tion. A well built fireproof building will interpose an 
effectual barrier against some conflagrations, but the right 
place to apply preventive measures is at the very inception 
of a fire ; and while the biggest conflagration that ever 
started could have been extinguished at the beginning- by 
a bucket of water, no construction of any sort is proof 
against a great conflagration if it once gets sufficient head- 
way. So while we have constantly urged for years the 
abolition of wood as a material for exterior construction 
in our cities and suburbs, we urge most strongly the pre- 
ventive measures which are so well known to architect^ 
and engineers, and which, if properly applied, will mean 
real safeguarding of the community. 

The prevention of fire ought to be the chief lesson to be 
derived from fires like this in Salem. By all means recon- 
struct fireproof, semi-fireproof, or at least with non-in- 
flammable roofs ; but carry further and let the body politic 
insist upon the installation of sprinklers, fire stops, and 
other perfectly well known, understandable, and easily 
applied methods of stopping- the fire at its source, and let 
the campaign for the future be not for the lowest cost, not 
the quickest construction, but real safety first. 

IT has been practically decided by the Rebuilding 
Commission of Salem that the wooden "three-decker " 
apartment house will not again be allowed to be built 
in that city. 

In this indication of the intention on the part of the 
Rebuilding Commission to forbid the building of these 
structures, we now see the first material assurances that 
a better Salem will arise from the ashes of the old. The 
disaster is in no sense mitigated, but some of the errors, 
at least, which aggravated it, will not be repeated. It is 
hoped that Salem will, perforce, drive the entering wedge 
for saner building in all parts of the country. 

It is indeed hard to understand that so great a confla- 
gration as that in Salem is needed to effect reform. It 
would be pathetic if no lesson were learned. For the ben- 
efit gained, the new and greater Salem, as well as sur- 
rounding communities, which can profit by its example, 
may well be grateful. 

RALPH ADAMS CRAM has been appointed senior 
professor of architecture at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology to succeed James Knox Tay- 
lor, resigned. 

Mr. Cram will have practically the same faculty now 
employed, but he cannot fail to bring some new elements 
into the methods of teaching already established. 

Mr. Cram, as chairman of the Committee on Education, 
A. I. A., has long and systematically studied educa- 
tional conditions in America as these apply to architecture. 
Two facts of salient significance have resulted from the 



172 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



173 



process : first, that while definite steps have been taken 
toward making- the more strictly architectural training- 
continue through a graduate course, many degrees in 
architecture still represent courses that embrace too little 
training in those branches of study that tend to broaden 
the development of the student. Second, that there is 
apparently a considerable lack of interest among architects 
as to the kind and quality of education that is or may be 
offered by the recognized schools. 

The Institute of Technology will see to it that even- 
architectural student is, first of all, an educated gentleman, 
in the old sense of the phrase ; that he does not give all his 
time to designing problems or rendering exercises to the 
exclusion of history, both general and architectural, liter- 
ature, and philosophy, or to structural engineering, with- 
out a compensating study of that civilization both past and 
present that should condition all he does. The five-year 
course will be strongly recommended. 

Provision will be made in the curriculum for a regular, 
.even if brief, course in architectural practice as this mani- 
fests itself through the relations of an architect to his em- 
ployees, his clients, his fellow architects, the public, and 
the American Institute of Architects. 

It will be urged by Mr. Cram that Technology should 
be in constant consultation with leading members of the 
architectural profession in Boston and the entire country, 
and particularly with the A. I. A. as to the essentials de- 
manded by the practice of the day. Education, to be 
worthy of its purpose, must satisfy these essentials, and 
it should always be cognizant of the best tendencies of the 
architectural profession as expressed through the leaders 
in the various schools of design. Architecture, it is 
pointed out, is continually advancing, and any school 
should be kept mobile and in condition to adapt itself to 
the developments of architecture itself. 

Mr. Cram's ideas as to the essentials of architecture and 
of architectural training are now thoroughly well known 
through his various books, as well as through the color 
he may be assumed to have given the reports of the Edu- 
cation Committee under his chairmanship. It is safe to 
assume, therefore, that his influence at Technology will 
be strongly exerted in favor of the determination of de- 
sign in accordance with the materials employed, and also 
toward the conceiving of each piece of design in three 
dimensions rather than in two. He has made it quite 
clear that he has little sympathy with design that is not 
conditioned by the materials used, and that the true test of 
good work is its actual appearance when translated from 
the two dimensions of the sheet of drawing paper to the 
three dimensions of actual construction. In holding to 
these beliefs, the profession of architecture as a whole will 
support him, since they arc both of the nature of self- 
evident propositions, though not always recognized, and, 
at all times, in the different schools of architecture. If 
we are right in this interpretation of the convictions of 
the new professor of architecture, it will be interesting to 
see just what methods are developed at Technology for the 
purpose of putting these two principles into practice. 

ANEW edition of the "Catalogue of Hooks Relating 
to Architecture, Construction and Decoration in the 
Public Library of the City of Boston" has been 
prepared to supplement the one first published in 1894. 



The books relating to architecture have increased in such 
great number that the new edition became imperative. 
Work was begun in 1909 upon the present catalogue, the 
Boston Society of Architects and other friends of the 
Library contributing $500 toward the cost of the work. 
Miss Mary H. Rollins, who prepared the first issue, is also 
chiefly responsible for the present edition. The only spe- 
cific enlargement of its scope is a section on City Planning, 
prepared by Mr. Frank A. Bourne. 

The scheme of classification includes Bibliography, 
Biography, Dictionaries, History and Theory, Periodicals, 
Architecture of Countries, Illustrations of Architecture, 
Architectural Details, Technical Details, Decoration, 
Handbooks, Related Topics, City Planning, and a very 
complete Index according to Authors, Subjects, and Places. 

To those familiar with recent archeological investiga- 
tions it will be realized that it is almost impossible to draw, 
in such a catalogue, a distinct line between archeology and 
architecture. In the present work it was decided advis- 
able to err, if at all, by expanding the first named subject. 

The catalogue contains five hundred and thirty-five 
pages and weighs, ready for mailing, forty ounces. The 
price is $1, plus postage. 

BUILDING operations throughout the country for the 
year are improving slowly month after month and 
now make favorable comparisons with a year ago. 
The official reports of building permits, issued during the 
month of June in 63 cities, as received by The . Xmerican 
Contractor, New York, reach a total of $68,364,893, as com- 
pared with $65,938,930 for the corresponding month a year 
ago. This is a gain of four per cent, small but encour- 
aging when compared with the less favorable statements 
for some months past. As shown in previous reports, the 
gains are not uniform. One interesting development is 
that some of the larger cities are doing better. Those 
cities making the relatively better returns include the fol- 
lowing, with percentage of gains : Albany, 419 ; Bridge- 
port, 201; Springfield, 111., 513; Wilkes-Barre, 365; 
Toledo, 117; Paterson, 121 ; Cleveland, 73; Duluth, 73; 
Harrisburg, 61 ; Hartford, 98 ; Kansas City, 80 ; Brook- 
lyn, 73; Borough of Richmond, New York, 90; Okla- 
homa, 56 ; St. Paul, 91 ; South Bend, 87. 

The statement of building operations for the half year 
must also be regarded as favorable in view of" the present 
trend. The decrease, as compared with the first half of 1913, 
is less than one per cent, the more unfavorable showings 
earlier in the year being almost extinguished. The total 
cost of building permits issued in 63 cities for the first six 
months of 1914 was $364,276,795, compared with §M^- 
848,792 for the first half of 1913. 

THE plans for the circular building for the new Court 
House for New York County, submitted in com- 
petition by Guy Lowell, architect, have now been 
approved by the Board of Estimate and the Court House 
Board, and a contract given to proceed with the work. 
Mr. Lowell is granted six per cent of the total cost of the 
building, which is estimated to be $10,000,000. Out of 
his commission, however, he must bear the expense of 
retaining any experts the Court House Hoard may from 
time to time direct him to consult upon subjects requir- 
ing expert engineering advice. 



Plate Description. 



City Hall, Tin: Oakland, Oakland. Cal. ; Palmer, 

HORNBOSTEL & JONES, ARCHITECTS. PLATES u 7-100. 

Sec article "Distinctive American Architecture," i 
159 to 162. 

Club, The Harvard, of Boston, Boston, Mass.; 
Parker, Thomas &Rice, Architects. Plates km 106. 

In this new club house the alumni in Boston and its 
environs have a home which admirably fills all the require- 
ments of a large and exacting membership. 

Although the site of the new building is upon made 
land in the old Hack Bay, it was decided not to build on 
wooden piles, but rather to carry the footings for the walls 
down to a level bed of firm gravel thirty-five feet below 
the grade of the street. 

It was especially desired that the new club house should 
suggest to all Harvard men the echoes of the older halls 
in College Yard, and this was the problem solved. The 
materials of the exterior are brick with a spotted Milford 
granite for the base; gray limestone for the portico, the 
first story, the window heads, and the cornice. 

Hank, The Collateral Loan Company, Hoston, 
Mass.: C. II. Blackall, Architect. Plates 107, 108. 

It has always been the policy of Hoston to erect moderately 
low buildings. This building is in a new phase of the 
Georgian style, which is familiar in our domestic archi- 
tecture, but here is adapted to modern commercial uses 
and seems particularly appropriate on Cornhill, a curved 
street in one of the older sections of Hoston. 

The exterior walls are of red brick laid in the manner of 
the old State House, Hoston. A granite base course was 
used with a water table of white marble. Marble was also 
employed for doorway, window lintels, cornices, date and 
name panels, ornamental cartouche, and cap. The window 
frames are kala- 
meined and the 
heavy outside 
shutters are of 
metal. 

The cartouche 
over the cornice 
suggests modern 
French r a t h e r 
than the chosen 
style, and t h e 
breaking of the 
roof line is much 
after the manner 
of the newer work. 
The door frame 
and sash are quite 
Colonial, but the 
semi-circular 
pediment and its 
supporting con- 
soles are nearer 
the English. The 
lintels with the 
key blocks, how- 




Reading Room 
Building of The Harvard Club of Boston, Boston, 
Parker. Thomas & Rice. Architects 

174 



ever, are equally Colonial. It will be noticed also the 
name and date panels are raised in this building rather 
than sunk, as in the older work. 

During the past two years the growth of this phase 
of the Georgian style has been turned to buildings of 
a business and semi -public character with marked 
success. 

House for Mrs. Lucie A. Fiske, Auburndale, Mass. 
Plates 109 11-'. The house is built of red brick laid in 
Dutch Bond with special pattern work as shown in the 
illustrations. A one-half-inch cream gray mortar joint 
was used, rough cut Hush. All half timber work is hand- 
hewn cypress, finished in light tobacco brown color. This 
is genuine timber construction, mortised, tenoned, and 
pinned — not batten work. The seven brickwork patterns 
are reproductions from Gifford Hall, England. 

The roof is slate, of soft variegated colors in varying 
sizes laid irregularly, English fashion. All flashings, 
gutters, and conductors are of copper with leader heads 
bearing the initial of the owner. The windows through- 
out are of the outward opening casement type and all have 
leaded glass and a complete equipment of hardware for 
adjusting the window to any position. 

The hall and library are paneled nearly to the ceiling, 
the living room and dining room being treated in pilaster 
and plaster panel effect with a heavy wooden cornice. Oak 
was the wood chosen for these four rooms. It was sand 
blasted and finished in soft, dark brown color. The 
plaster panels are painted in oil to blend. The bedrooms 
are finished in white paint with birch-mahogany doors. 
The rear halls on second floor and the entire third floor 
are in cypress of dark finish. The floors throughout are 
of oak. 

The hardware is finished to harmonize with the color of 

the room in which 
it is located. 

The house is 
well equipped with 
public and inter- 
com muni da ting 
telephones with 
stations conven- 
iently located. In 
the basement a 
vacuum cleaner 
machine has been 
installed with 
eight outlets in 
different parts of 
the house for at- 
taching clean ei- 
hose. A low pres- 
sure steam boiler 
furnishes the 
heat. The four 
main rooms on 
the first floor have 
the indirect sys- 
tem. 



M., 






iqcn 



^ ' ^ jg Q jr j ffl; 



rJ7r^l^'^^^ Vil ' ^JtVyii^i t j^ t ^ T tJ cnr x Tf ,Jii < :>^ i > M'-j/V- ^ r . ? j ;t 7 j i t j, ^ . 



B 



•TKi-BRfCKBVILDER 



Mi 



Hi 



m 



'IfS 



.■ 



VOLUME XXIII 




' r .TZ 



NUMBER 8 



CONTENTS /or AUGUST 19 14 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

HOUSES IN BALTIMORE. MD., for 

Mrs. Gabrielle E. Gambrill, Universirj Parkway, Roland Park 

James R. Hagerty, Esq.. 0\erliill Road. Roland Park 

Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, Guilford 

llcni\ F. Baker. Esq., Charlecotte Road, Guilford 

Semi-Detached, " A-B," Chancer} Square, Guilford 

Semi-Detached, "C-D," Chancer] Square, Guilford 

Semi-Detached, "E-F," Chancer) Square, Guilford 

John S. Bridges. Esq.. Charles Street 

H. Rowland Clapp, Esq.. Guilford 

G. Emory Morgan, Esq.. Kenwood Road. Roland Park 

University Parkway. Roland Park 

University Parkway. Roland Park 

University Parkway, Roland Park 

Thomas L. Jones, Esq.. Overhill Road. Roland Park 

LETTERPRESS 



Architect 



Plate 




Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 



If alter M. Gieske 



DRAWING OF THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK HI ILDING. BOSTON. \I \SS. 
R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, ARCHITECT; \. B. LE BOITII.I.IER. DEI 

STORE AND LOFT BUILDING Julius Franke 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 

THE ATELIER SYSTEM OF ARCHITECTI HAL EDUCATION IN 

AMERICA lustin W. Lord 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS Ed. Review 

VIII. The Work of A. B. Le Boutillier. 
Illustrations from Drawings 
THE CIRCULAR PRISON AND JAIL PLAN » i Zarbys Zimmerman 

A Discussion of its Merit- as Exemplified in the New Illinois State Penitentiary 
Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
\ SI BURB CONFORMING TO IRCfflTECTl HAL SI \NDM<I)S 

Roland Park, Baltimore, Md - Irthur B. Cranford 

Illustrations from Photographs aiol Plans 

SUBURB \\ HOUSE WD GARAGE, COMPETITION FOR \ 

Presentation ol Prize and Mention Designs Report of the Jury oj livard 
EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES 01 THE MONTH 



Page 
Frontispiece 



177 



H 



189 




PJ 

I 



U- 1 



t 



%&u 



toiiiP 



,*& 



^ i 



Published Monthly I'Y 

ROGERS AND M IlNSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

It h ROGERS RALPH REINHOLD ELL 1 WHITEHEAD 

.. , Vi i*gn in| I iii'T 

Single ' lopies, 50 cents 
Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, I .S. A., Insular Pc indCuba 

Canada I • ■" Foreign Countries in the Postal I nion <>.(K) 

All Copit - Moiled Flal 

| I.-. |hfl \"<- - It ir*\ fl« 






t (WS>«Nk/ '*»|A"*< 



i • 



Si Jf 



M mer, March 12, 1892, 



II. ..i..„. M«. 
■ nii'l M.ui-iiri Companji 






i. i m m t ' WWM 





PEN AND INK DRAWING OF THE 
FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, 
BOSTON, MASS. 

R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, ARCHITECT 
A. B. LE BOUTILL1ER. DELINEATOR 



See article on page 1 85 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIII 



VI (;i ST, 1914 



NUMHKK « 



Store and Loft Buildings. 



By JULIUS FRANKE. 



THE modern so-called " loft building " is an American 
invention and is indigenous to a few of the large 
cities. Elsewhere, for what serves the same pur- 
pose or approximates its use, the term " store " or " ware- 
house " is used. 

The term ' loft" is, however, very ancient and signi- 
fied originally the sky or the air ; from thence its meaning 
was transferred, very naturally, to the upper part of a 
ship's rigging, or the top part of a barn, and then to what 
we now designate garret, where it was at the time of 
Chaucer when he wrote, — 

" And hym she roggeth and awaketh softe 
and at the wyndow lep he fro the lofte." 

The term "loft building" did not come intouseuntil floors 
in what were then designated as stores or warehouses were 
rented to separate tenants, when the simple word " floor " 
apparently did not express enough, and the term for the 
top floor, namely, " loft," was used for all floors above 
the first. 

Up to about twenty-five years ago the term " loft build- 
ing," when used, brought to mind a four or five story 
non-fire-resistive building, extremely plain, with open 
rope hoists and open stairs and with exposed floor beams 
and unplastered walls. 

With the advent of the elevator, the upper floors, which 
had heretofore been used mostly for manufacturing and 
storage, became available for show and sales purposes, 
and took on a better aspect and had plastered walls and 
ceilings ; and in New 
York the cast-iron front 
was born, and though 
the facades became more 
ambitious they remained 
infantile, though simple, 
and did not, until the 
twelve story loft building- 
came in, become ginger- 
bready and shoddy, as 
many of them are. 

During the last few 
years the term "loft 
building ' ' has taken on 
an additional signifi- 
cance and now means 
any building, no matter 
how tall or how occu- 
pied, where the floors 
are " open," that is, 
without corridor parti- 
tions, and with enclos- 
ures around stairs and 




Typical Plan of a 
Maynicke & F 



elevators only ; but so arranged that tenants may con- 
tinue clown the stairs without entering any loft, or enter 
or leave an elevator by a door directly on the loft, so that 
upon leaving the elevator you find yourself" in the tenant's 
premises. The entire building is so arranged that each 
floor may be rented separately. 

If the modern loft building has a good facade, is well 
finished and equipped, there is no practical difference be- 
tween it and an office building, except that the office build 
ing generally has subdivisions on the various floors for 
separate tenants, so that should a good modern loft build- 
ing have tenants occupying entire floors, such as is com- 
mon for large clerical forces, and there arc no sales rooms, 
no space used for storage or manufacturing, the loft build- 
ing would justly be called an office building, and this des- 
ignation would apply without one single change or addi- 
tion to the building. 

That the dividing line between office and loft buildings, 
in some cases, is scarcely discernible, is evident in the 
case where the same building is used for both purposes, 
and where some floors are devoted to office use and other 
floors to loft use, where the space is fitted up for display- 
ing goods, for sales rooms and sometimes for manufac- 
turing. 

Since some recent disastrous fires in factories, new 
laws have been passed in the state of New York, 
and also in some other states, which would make a loft 
building where manufacturing is done slightly different, 
in point of law, from what is ordinarily considered a 

loft building. 

These new laws re- 
quire certain fire exits, 
known as inside enclosed 
stairs, outside enclosed 
stairs ( sometimes known 
as smoke-proof towers ) , 
and horizontal exits, 
either through a wall to 
an adjoining building or 
adjoining space where 
refuge may be found 
from fire, or through 
bridges or balconies 
from one building to 
another, or from one 
space or area to another 
space for the same 
purpose. 

There is also the extra 

precaution of sprinklers 

now deemed essential 
for such manufad u 



Loft, New York City 
ranke, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Note -Walls of brick or 
other approved material 
built solidly rrom foundation 
to at least 36 inches above bo 
unless building is fireproof 
Stair treads etc must 
be of fireproof material 



loft buildings, which minimize materially the fire hazard. 

The plan of a manufacturing; loft building should be 
simple. Staircases should be as far apart as possible, and 
maximum window surface should be provided, and all 
staircases should be so arranged that there is an unin- 
terrupted free passageway to the street from each stair- 
case or fire tower. 

The location of the passenger elevators and freight 
elevators should be carefully considered, and should be as 
far apart as possible, so that customers entering the build- 
in-- at the passenger elevator are not obstructed by freight 
going to the freight elevators, and for the additional rea- 
son that the office is always located 
near the passenger elevator on the 
various floors, where it would ob- 
viously be wrong to handle freight. 

The entrance and first story ac- 
commodations at the freight ele- 
vators should be commodious and 
direct. 

Toilets for both men and women 
should be provided for the building 
on each floor, unless it can be de- 
cided in advance what the occu- 
pancy shall be. 

Where railroad ami water trans- 
portation for freight in conjunction 
with the manu- 
facturing loft 
building' is to be 
considered, both 
sides of the build- 
ing on the first 
story should have 
ample platform 
facilities, one side 
being" devoted to 
the railroad and 
the water front, 
if there is such, 
for the reception 
and discharge of 
freight, and the 

other should be devoted to trucking for city or town 
delivery. 

If possible, it is well to have the trucks enter the build- 
ing so as to be under cover in bad weather, although this 
is not essential. 

The planning of a manufacturing loft building for rail- 
road and trucking traffic is apparently a very simple prob- 
lem, but many serious mistakes have been made. The 
elevators in such buildings have been so located that either 
the traffic to the railroad cars or the trucks is handicapped. 
The staircases have been provided in such places as to ob- 
struct the free handling of freight on the first story. The 
elevators have been located so that the aisles, which arc- 
not shown on plans, but which arc necessary for manufac- 
turing or for storage on the upper floors, could not be 
provided in direct lines, in order to have proper circula- 
tion. 

Altogether, the planning of such a building requires an 
intimate knowledge of the economic handling of freight, 
both by rail and wagon or automobile, and demands a 




Note-Walls or brick OR 
other approved material 
built solidly from foundations 
to at least 36 inches above roof 
unless builo'ng is fireproof. 
Stair treads etc. must be 
of fireproof material 




careful study of the process of manufacturing for each 
particular industry, in order to evolve a successful scheme 
and provide accommodations for the right number of em- 
ployees, with proper allowance for expansion. 

The plan should be simple and direct, and all ideas of 
"axis" and balance and appearance of the plan should 
be subordinated to the practical, even though the eye be 
offended at the "presentation" on paper. It is more 
important that there be proper circulation of freight and 
merchandise than that there be balance, also natural light 
for manufacturing purposes should be considered before 
the relation of voids and solids for the facade. If the 
intensely practical be allowed free 
sway in these matters, the building 
can be made an architectural suc- 
cess by certain refinements of line, 
color, and texture, and the result 
will be much more satisfactory from 
a truly artistic point of view, for the 
design will be more apt to express 
the use to which the building is to 
be put. 

It is of more importance that the 
occupants of a building do not un- 
necessarily waste energy or time 
due to a plan which is injudicious, 
or that their health and comfort are 
not sacrificed 
when light and 
"air are made sub- 
ordinate to de- 



EBB 



z> 



t 



ffl 



I I 

r ' I 
Elevation 

I I 

, I 

I I 



Interior of 
Building 



Interior o» 
Building 




sign. 
There 



is, on 



wsntu ■ o* 



INCHES ABOVE ROO 

S Building 15 fireproof. 

TREADS ETC MUST BE 
REPROOF MATERIAL 



the other hand, 
no excuse for the 
many repulsive 
and sordid look- 
ing factory build- 
ings scattered 
over our land, 
and the ugly 
trestle, with 
sprinkler tanks 
extending over the roofs of so many, could be enclosed 
with towers that would be made a feature capable of artis- 
tic treatment, and have the advantage of keeping the water 
from freezing without extraordinary precautions, and also 
reduce repairs. 

The safety of the occupants of lofts and factories, in 
case of fire, is now given considerable attention, and 
although modern factories are generally built "fire-re- 
sistive," they are also sprinkled, in addition to which 
enclosed staircases are now almost universal. 

It might be advisable, in some cases, to go a step further 
and provide fire-walls subdividing all shops into two or 
more areas ; but care should be taken not to overdo this, 
as fire-walls have a tendency to shut off natural light and 
ventilation, lack of which, every one admits, does not in- 
crease the health of the worker. It should be borne in 
mind that tens of thousands die of tuberculosis, due to in- 
sufficient light and air ; certainh by many thousands more 
than die by fire. 

When a " fire-resistive " building- is sprinkled, the fire- 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



179 




CORNER OF I8TH STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE 



CORNER OF 32D STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE 





SiniinHiH ididSSS 

mill ill 1H lit SIS^I 




11-19 WEST 19TH STREET 

GROUP OF STORE AND LOFT BUILDINGS. NEW YORK, N. Y. 
MAYNICKE & FRANKE. ARCHITECTS 



H4 ''(I l-ll-TH AVENUE 



i8o 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



wall is not of such great impor- 
tance, and unless the area is exceed- 
ingly large, it should not be intro- 
duced unless it does not shut off 
light and ventilation. 

For an ordinary inside city lot it 
would be wrong to run the lire-wall 
parallel to the street, thus shutting 
off the front from the rear : it should 
rather be run perpendicular to the 
street so that the cross- ventilation 
be maintained. 

I mention this point about fire 
protection, because too much re- 
liance has been and is being placed 
on the character of fire- resistive 
building construction, kind and num- 
ber of enclosed stairs, to save life 
from fire, and too little attention is 
given to fire prevention. It is 
readily conceivable that lives mas- 
be lost by fire in non fire resistive 
buildings when the building itself 
is not damaged, due to fire from the 
contents of the building, and, in 
fact, most lives arc lost in fires 
before the building itself starts to 
burn, and then again, many lose 
their lives through panic. 

To prevent this loss of life, fire 
prevention is more important than 
tire protection ; and sprinklers and 
other means to extinguish a fire at 
its incipiency, together with cleanli- 
ness, sweeping up rubbish, careful 
storing of goods, prohibition of 
smoking or carrying matches, fire-resistive fittings and 
shelves, metal lockers, etc., are subjects which should be 
more seriously considered and regulated. 

There have been some well meaning critics who point to 
our enormous fire hazard as being due to defective con- 
struction. They make uncomplimentary comparison to 
tlie European records, but they forget, or are not familiar 
with the fact, that our modern construction is far superior, 
from a fire-restrictive standpoint, than the modern con- 
struction of Europe. They also forget that the laws are 
most stringent all over Europe against the incendiary ; 
that fires are thoroughly and carefully investigated and 
there is very seldom a miscarriage of justice. 

Too much confidence is placed in " fire-proof build- 
ings " ; many people imagine that because a building will 
not burn there is no danger to the lives or goods within ; 
they do not realize that the contents of such buildings often 
burn out without materially affecting the building itself. 

The term " fire-proof" is a mistake, as everything will 
burn if you get it hot enough ; the term " fire resistive " 
is better and has for that reason been adopted by the 
National Fire Protection Association at its last convention. 

After the plan has been more or less established, a 
SL-riotis question fur this class of building is that of in- 




Store and Loft Building, Philadelphia, Pa 
Magaziner 8c Potter, Architects 



surance. This is a study in itself. 
The requirements of the under- 
writers in the various sections of 
the country, although more or less 
uniform, should be studied for each 
building, to arrive at the most ad- 
vantageous rate of insurance con- 
sistent with the cost of providing 
certain fire-resistive and preventive 
features. 

Of course many things would 
naturally be provided in some build- 
ings, even though the underwriters 
did not make the requirement, and 
also many clients will provide better 
construction than the underwriters 
require, because of their desire to 
have the best and most modern build- 
ings, irrespective of insurance. 

There are, however, cases where 
the owner or architect will advocate 
certain fire-resistive features which 
the underwriters would not approve 
of and which would be as costly as 
the underwriters do require. In 
such a case, it would be better to 
provide the underwriters' require- 
ments than to follow the individual 
opinion of the owner or the architect. 
The loft buildings of the future 
where manufacturing is done will 
be mostly on the water-front or 
along the railroad lines, where the 
handling of freight will be mini- 
mized ; and as expense is a great 
factor in the construction of all 
commercial buildings, the loft buildings of the future 
will undoubtedly be mostly of structural concrete, 
which, in addition to cheapness, has the advantage 
over steel of rigidity for vibrating loads and allows of 
larger windows nearer the ceiling, in fact, up to the ceil- 
ing, thus giving better light and ventilation. The objec- 
tionable large diameters of reinforced concrete columns 
will be substituted by smaller steel columns covered 
with fire-proof material and by use of the flat slab construc- 
tion, now so universally used in the West, the columns 
will be further apart. The concrete facades are being fast 
substituted by brick and architectural terra cotta, as the 
texture is more pleasing and less painting is required ; 
besides, it is as cheap in most cases. 

There will also be better washing facilities for em- 
ployees, recreation rooms, lunch rooms, gymnasiums, and 
swimming pools, and, in general, the surroundings of the 
worker will be made cheerful. 

Some of these items, which manufacturers now consider 
as superfluous, will be supplied with the deliberate inten- 
tion of increasing the efficiency of the men, and the lunch 
room, with its coffee and tea, will be considered an asset, 
as tending to diminish the amount of alcohol consumed 
during working hours. 




r H E BRICKBVILDER 
1 



181 




MASON BUILDING, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
WILDER & WIGHT, ARCHITECTS 



TOWNSEND BUILDING, BUFFALO, N. Y. 
CREEN & WICKS, ARCHITECTS 





STORE AND LOFT BUILDING, BURLINGTON, VT. 
W, R. B. WILCOX. ARCHITECT 



McKNIGHT BUILDING. MINNEAPOLIS. MINN. 
HEWITT & BROWN, ARCHITECTS 



GROUP OF STORE AND LOFT BUILDINGS 



182 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




z 
o 

h 
O 
z 

x 

< 



<S1 

U 

z 

5 

_j 

D 
CQ 

h 

u. 
O 

_i 

Q 
Z 
< 

u 
a: 
O 
H 
to 

_I 
< 
t« 

ce 
I 
P 



The Atelier System of Architectural Education in America. 



By AUSTIN W. LORD. 



THE first problem that confronts the young- man of 
artistic inclination is to determine along what lines 
his energies shall be directed. In this country 
great opportunities are open to the well equipped man in 
art and in the wide field of the applied arts, but in none of 
them is the demand for thorough academic preparation so 
insistent as in the profession of architecture. 

It is not my purpose to write a treatise on design, but 
rather to point the way one must travel to prepare himself 
for the study of architecture and to pursue the art from 
the broadest viewpoint. It is not too much to say that to 
make a true artistic success in architecture, one must be 
endowed with the art instinct. That endowment is of 
paramount importance, for, without it, the so-called archi- 
tect becomes merely a constructor, and he must rely upon 
others for that inspiration and artistic quality which marks 
the work of the artist. At the outset, therefore, I would 
advise those students who have architectural aspirations 
to be quite sure of their tendencies in this direction, and 
not attempt to assume the role of the architect unless they 
are drawn strongly in the direction that a professional 
career must take them. It may be argued, however, that 
there is uncertainty in the minds of young men as to 
whether this artistic tendency is of sufficient strength to 
warrant the choice of this profession. At this point we 
should consider his practical side, whether his taste leads 
him to choose the scientific rather than the artistic side of 
his work, or whether the two be about equally balanced in 
his estimation. This uncertainty can, to a great extent, be 
removed by a study of the student's environment and his 
past accomplishments. If he has the artistic inclination, it 
will undoubtedly have shown itself in many ways ; that is, 
in his observation of works of art, in his love of nature, in 
his tendency to read and study, and attempts actually to 
produce even, in the most elemental way, anything of an 
artistic nature. This tendency to combine units or motifs 
manifests itself at a very early age. Children are pre- 
eminently builders in their particularly free and untram- 
meled way. 

This tendency is encouraged in our kindergartens and 
in the elementary schools, but, unfortunately, totally lost 
sight of in our high schools and colleges. 

Our work is of too serious a nature to be trifled with by 
those who are ill prepared or who enter into the study of 
its mysteries without some realization of the tremendous 
problems that confront them. This, I grant, is rather 
difficult to impress on the mind of the average student 
desiring to take up the study of architecture. The condi- 
tions of admission to our architectural schools and acade- 
mies and to our offices are based more upon scientific than 
upon artistic fitness. This is as it should be, for without 
the scientific equipment there is nothing to guide us in the 
course to be laid down for our students — and what is 
more important, our students have no foundation upon 
which to work. The impression generally prevails that 
there is a royal road to proficiency in architecture and 
that success lies within the grasp of him who has a certain 
artistic tendency unsupported by a very necessary academic 



equipment. To-day the profession is crowded with men 
of indifferent education, and the schools of the country are 
attempting each year to raise the standards and to secure 
assorted material rather than a conglomerate mass. The 
schools are criticized for this discrimination, on the ground 
that in this conglomerate mass may occasionally develop 
the brightest star of all. It can only be said that where 
the art inclination exists preeminently in the make up oi 
a student he will eventually come to the top, no matter 
what restrictions may be placed upon him ; and we con- 
clude, therefore, that standards should be raised and 
maintained, that general educational fitness combined 
with definite artistic temperament should be the ruling 
conditions under which men should undertake this work. 
This means long preparation prior to actual study of the art, 
study of languages, — French and German, in particular, 
— and a thorough equipment in mathematics, arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, and the higher mathematics, if one has 
the opportunity and the ability. Above all, for those who 
are specializing in architectural work, descriptive geometry 
holds a very important place. 

The educational requirements in architecture are per- 
haps broader than in any other art, owing directly to the 
broad demands that are made upon the architect in the 
practice of his profession. It is not to be expected that 
one can excel in all, but the architect's general equipment 
should be of such character as to enable him fully to 
understand the demands that will be made upon him, to 
have a working knowledge of the scientific, as well as the 
artistic, sides of his art. This general knowledge may in 
the beginning be enhanced by practice and observation, 
not only of architectural work, but of other allied arts. 

The student having the general qualifications and ten- 
dencies outlined above, and who has a certain natural 
facility in drawing, is in a fair way to undertake success- 
fully an artistic career. In Renaissance times it was not 
considered too much for an artist to undertake work in 
architecture, painting, and sculpture, and many of them 
produced beautiful work as silversmiths, bronze-workers, 
wood-carvers, etchers, and the like. We are taught in 
these times to believe that we must specialize in order to 
succeed ; but I believe there is too much of specialization, 
with the result that we are content to do a very few things 
where, with a little exertion, we are capable of doing a 
great many. The tendency is to restrict and to interfere 
with the liberty of action which is so necessary to the 
artist. The artist should have the field of art opened to 
him, and he should be trained in away to make him appre- 
ciate more and more its unlimited possibilities. 

But it is not my purpose at this time to discuss the qual- 
ifications of students seeking an architectural education in 
our schools and colleges, but rather of those who have 
neither opportunity nor desire to enter a regular architec- 
tural school and who prefer to take their chances in the 
office of a regular practitioner. My observation is that 
most men in this class are but ill prepared to enter on pro- 
fessional training. There an' exceptions to this rule, 
however, as many men who have been graduated from 



183 



1 84 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



our high schools and colleges enter offices directly and be- 
come accomplished architects. 

To meet the requirements of the large class of students 
who, from choice or otherwise, do not enter colic 
system of teaching, based upon that followed in the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in Paris, has been in existence m this 
country since 1890. This work is conducted under the 
auspices of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects, with 
headquarters in New York City, and instruction is given 
through the medium of architectural ateliers, under the 
guidance of a patron, who is a graduate of the Paris 
School or has had a thorough training in architecture un- 
der that influence. These ateliers are designed to give 
instruction to men in offices, and the system which worked 
so successfully during the years subsequent to L890 has 
now been extended to many of the technical schools, col- 
leges, and universities throughout the country. The re- 
sult is that the number of students seeking instruction 
under this method has increased to about fifteen hundred. 

I nder present condition the designs executed by the 
students are judged by an impartial jury, who have no 
knowledge of the authorship of drawings submitted for 
judgment. In fact, this series of ateliers partakes largely 
of tlie nature of a school of art, witli its teaching force 
widely separated, yet all working on similar lines. The 
work of preparing programs and issuing them to the vari- 
ous colleges and ateliers, the selection of the jury and the 
judgment of the problems submitted, is all in the hands 
of an Education Committee of the Beaux Arts Society. 
The programs are issued upon definite dates, problems 
are studied and executed under the personal supervision 
of the patron or instructor and delivered in Xew York for 
judgment at stated periods. The advantage of the system 
as worked out to-day is that it brings a great number of 
young men into competition upon similar problems, and 
it is of great benefit to men in offices, schools, and colleges 
to participate in this work, as it gives each the Opportunity 
of measuring his strength with the other, with the result 
that a more comprehensive system of instruction has been 
developed and a more concerted effort made looking to 
the solution of the same problem in different parts of the 
country. A broader view is thus obtained by the teach- 
ing staff of the general progress of architectural instruc- 
tion than could be realized under any other system. 

Prior to the introduction of the Beaux Arts system, we had 
our individual departments in the universities and colleges 
the same as we have to-day. There were also in the 
offices of the practising architects a vast number of drafts- 
men pursuing their art blindly and without encouragement. 
To-day the man in the office has been brought quite up to 
the standard of the man in the department of architec- 
ture in the university ; in fact, the judgments show that 
the best work comes from the men who pursue, in a meas- 
ure, the two courses together. The student having the 
point of view of the practitioner, as well as the point of 
view of the atelier, is apt to work out more rational and 
logical solutions than one who has only the theoretical in- 
struction ; and, to meet further the needs of students unable 
to enter regularly upon a university course, ami who have 
to maintain themselves through the medium of office work, 
extension courses have been established in the various 
cities of the country which, in point of opportunity, offer 
quite as much as the regular college course. These ex- 



tension courses are generally presided over by instructors 
regularly employed in the Departments of Architecture, 
and the work of the extension courses is understood 
generally to be a part of the regular college departmental 
work and is judged under the same conditions by the jury 
of the Beaux Arts Society. Thus the atelier system is 
made to reach a very large and diversified class of stu- 
dents, various divisions executing similar projects, all 
criticized on the same general principles, and, finally, all of 
them judged from practically the same standpoint. 

Under present conditions there are no special qualifica- 
tions demanded of students entering an atelier conducted 
upon the Beaux Arts system. Nevertheless, the student 
desiring- to enter these ateliers should seek to perfect him- 
self in the subjects above enumerated, with a view to enter- 
ing- the various competitions for prizes and scholarships 
which are now conducted by the Beaux Arts Society. A 
student's capabilities in design may enable him under 
present conditions to compete for a scholarship; but if he 
is deficient in the scientific courses, he would be unable to 
qualify. It is, therefore, of great advantage to all students 
contemplating- work under the atelier system to perfect 
themselves as far as possible in regular academic work. 

The work of the ateliers is based on development of the 
principles of classic architecture, but in a much broader 
sense than the term "classic" is generally applied. When 
I speak of classic principles, I mean such principles founded 
upon acknowledged excellence and authority as may apply 
in the production of a great national monument in any 
school in any country. The term " classic " may refer to 
works of art, music, or painting-, to Roman or Greek archi- 
tecture, Gothic or Byzantine. While the methods of 
teaching in an atelier are those of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts in Paris, the varied conditions in this country help 
us to produce a different architecture from that of any other 
country following- the same line of instruction. The aim 
of the system is not, as has been claimed, to develop paper 
draftsmen, but to train men to design in a logical way. 
This means that one so trained will take conditions as he 
finds them, and will so compose his structure as to make it 
adaptable to the uses for which it is intended and to have 
the appearance, both inside and out, of fulfilling- these 
requirements. 

We may, perhaps, rightly criticize the taste at times ex- 
hibited in French architecture, but such criticism is, in a 
measure, superficial. The unintelligent critic does not 
realize the truth existing- in many of the great problems 
which French architects have in the past solved and, while 
it is not my purpose to discuss French architecture, it is 
important to know that there is a system of instruction 
which has been thoroughly tried out and found to produce 
good results. 

The instruction in the ateliers is not necessarily con- 
fined to the five orders and developments therefrom. Stu- 
dents are given great liberty in the choice of style, meth- 
ods of rendering, and general presentation of their 
problems, but the main idea of logical development, adap- 
tation to the uses for which the building is intended, are 
always preeminent in the mind of the instructor and critic. 

The next paper will discuss more particularly the gen- 
eral equipment necessary to beginners in the actual work 
of the atelier, — instruments, drawing-paper, methods of 
rendering, and character of elementary work. 



Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 
VIII. THE WORK OF VDDISON B. LE HOUTILLIER. 



SINCE Mr. Le Boutillier, some ten years ago, won the 
first prize, the Church Competition, the second of the 
series of The Brickbvilder competitions, his work has 
been constantly prominent in the American architectural 
world, and his lovely drawings have been favorably re- 
ceived through this entire time. Unlike most of the men 
whose reputation has been made as renderers, his black 
and white drawings are the things which have attracted 
most attention ; not that he kicks ability in color, but that 
the natural bend of his mind seems rather toward black 
and white. The fact that he is a resident of the city of 
Boston may, to some extent, account for his predilection 
toward black and white, since one of the most prominent 
of American renderers has always been Mr. D. A. Gregg, 
whose loveliest work was invariably done without color, 
and the influence of Mr. Gregg has been potent in shap- 
ing the line of development of all the Boston men, just as 
that of Hughson Hawley has tended to turn the methods 
of rendering in New York toward color. Such a develop- 
ment in either city is only natural, since it is always easier 
to follow along the path of one successful man than to blaze 
out new roads to success : and while many of the New York 
renderers are as able with the pen as with the brush, the 
work asked of them is, as a rule, water color, while in 
Boston we find a comparatively larger amount of pen and 
ink drawings. 

There is probably no one in the country who can make a 
more exquisite black and white drawing than Otto Eggers, 
yet the drawings by which we know Mr. Eggers are his 
lovely water colors. Had he been trained in Boston, and 
with the demands upon him constantly for black and white 
drawings in place of water colors, it is quite conceivable 
that his color sense might have remained undeveloped, and 
that he would have become known 
as an artist in black and white. 



So with Mr. Le Boutillier, the hulk of his work has been 
in black and white, although such of his color drawings as 
have been exhibited do not indicate any less potential skill 
in that line. 

A brief note, published some time since in The Archi- 
tectural Review, speaks of two pen renderings of his in 
the following terms : " These drawings should be studied 
by the architectural designer for the technical perfection 
with which they have been rendered. With the exception 
of the shadows in the foreground, intentionally handled in 
a freer manner, every line is used with extreme care to 
express architectural detail or texture and to suggest the 
atmospheric effect that might easily have been lost in so 
minute and painstaking a rendering. The dry and ' brit- 
tle ' pen-line employed is exactly suited to best express 
the structure — and its surroundings. The work of Daniel 
Yicrge is considered a model of architectural pen drafts- 
manship ; but these drawings are equally worthy of being 
so considered. They show all of Yierge's ingenuity in 
the uses of parallel lines, with the rare resort to cross- 
hatching, for which that master of the pen is justly 
famous." These remarks seem to the writer extraordi- 
narily apt from a technical point of view, and indicate the 
chief distinction between his work and that of most of the 
other pen renderers, — his adherence, wherever possible, to 
shading by parallel lines and not by cross-hatching, 
unless to indicate a particular texture. 

It will be found also that his drawings form patterns of 
uniform color ; strong accents and heavy 
blacks are usually absent, so that in- 
terest is not, as a rule, focused on am- 














• - -■*•■■* — *' ■*•■" v."'*' - *._ . , ~ ' y* 



■ 



- 



Pen and Ink Drawing of a Country House 
Addition B. Le Boutillier, Architect and Delineator 



185 



1 86 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



/ 



^ 















fl 





'»* 





D 














« 







w 



Water Color Drawing of an Interior 
Addison B. Le Boutillier. Architect and Delineator 



one particular part of the composi- 
tion, but is distributed uniformly over 
the whole surface of the paper cov- 
ered. Such a way of working' is, of 
course, unusual, and is apt to be Bat 
and stupid ; and it requires very much 
more precise and delicate treatment 
to insure a drawing which shall be 
interesting when every portion of it 
is worked up pretty nearly equally 
far, than it does when the eye is per- 
mitted to dwell on one strong focal 
point, with the background subordi- 
nated. The writer does not believe 
that the method which Mr. Le Boutil- 
lier uses can be made responsible for 
this result ; with any other method 
he would have accomplished the same 
thing, although at an expense of 
clarity and distinction. His work is 
allot" it intelligent, intellectual, rather 
than sympathetic, and is austere 
rather than warm. One feels that 
each of his drawings has been very 
carefully thought out in advance, and 
that the scheme has not been per- 
mitted to develop itself, but has been 
kept under complete control, with a 
definite end in view from the moment 
the drawing was begun. 

Comparing his drawings with those 
of Rockwell Kent is like comparing 
Woodrow Wilson with Theodore 
Roosevelt ; there really is not any 
comparison, because doing the same 
things, they do them so differently, 
and while the slap-dash, devil-may- 
care methods of Rockwell Kent get 
delightful results, because the man is 
so thoroughly an artist, one often 
finds in them a carelessness in 
composition and a looseness of ac- 
cent which one never sees in Mr. 



.__ ~_ 



You cannot m^ke the leg's of 
the STORK short: neither 
can you make the legs of the 
DUCK long - - Chuang Tzu 




Book-Plate by 
Addison B. Le Boutillier 



Le Boutillier's work. Nor does Mr. Le 
Boutillier lose by being careful ; his ex- 
quisite delicacy is not frailty, and his low 
tones do not impress us as weak — they arc- 
rather restrained than impotent. 

The drawing's which have been chosen to 
illustrate this issue are two water color ren- 
derings of interiors, four pen and ink ren- 
derings of his own country houses, — one of 
which is done on tracing cloth and the 
others on oil paper, — a rendering of the 
First National Bank, designed by Mr. R. 
Clinston Sturgis, and a book plate. These 
cover a fairly wide range of subjects, and 
demonstrate how thoroughly he is at home 
in all of them. We often find that men who 
can render a picturesque country house, 
with trees standing about it in a very pic- 
turesque way, fail utterly when confronted 
with the problem of making a drawing of a 
city building w r ith no trees, no foliage, and 
surroundings which are at best uninterest- 
ing, often positively bad. 

The rendering of the First National Bank 
is quite as interesting, if not more so in 
itself than those of the country houses, and, 
when one considers the comparative difficul- 
ties of the scheme, is the best of them all. 
The bank is a quiet, decent piece of Eng- 
lish Renaissance architecture, comparatively 
low and set in an angle between two tall 
buildings. It would have been very easy to 
have made this a rendering of two tall 
buildings, with the bank in a completely 
subordinated position, and especially one 
would have thought it difficult to accent the 
lower building enough to make it evidently 
the subject of the picture, without rendering- 




Water Color Drawing of an Interior 
Addison B. Le Boutillier, Architect and Delineator 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



187 



«^fe *fc-f*'A' 













(ABLtB 



3S& 



PEN AND INK DRAWING OF A COUNTRY COTTAGE 











PEN AND INK DRAWING OF A BRICK COUNTRY HOUSE 
ADDISON B. LE BOUT1LLIER. ARCHITECT AND DELINEATOR 



1 88 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



the building's in the background in- 
sufficiently ; and although, as before 
stated, Mr. Le Boutillier's method 
treats all parts of the paper as if the 
subjects of them were equally worthy 
of attention, one recognizes instantly 
the dominance of the low building over 
its higher neighbors. Of the beauti- 
ful line which Mr. Le Boutillier has 
used, it is unnecessary to speak further, 
but he has done one very daring- 
thing in so successful a way that one 
hardly thinks of it as daring at all. 
This is the heavy shadow of the flag 
pole on the short corner of the build- 
ing. To deliberately cut a drawing in 
two with a thin line of white, accented 
by the blackest shadow used anywhere, 
might be expected to destroy all unity 
and harmony, but Mr. Le Boutillier 
has so successfully indicated the solid- 
ity of the building that the shadow 
does not even begin to disturb one. 

' )f the country houses, that of 
Renaissance architecture is the more 
agreeably rendered ; it is architecture 
of distinction, presented in a tranquil 
and simple way, and not less beauti- 
ful on that account. There is no in- 
dication of sky at all, the grass is 
only hinted at, yet we know the shape 
of the ground on which the house sets, 
and can clearly understand the texture 
of both the wall surfaces and the roof 
omission of the irrelevant and unnecessary details, and of 
suppression of the relevant and necessary. 

It is impossible to conceive in black and white a more 
lively impression of material and color than he has real- 
ized in the fountain drawing. The wall is evidently of 
stone with low rustications, while the immediate setting of 
the fountain is of tile, light colored in the border, darker 
colored in the panel, with a brilliant floral pattern. This 
pattern is so wonderfully drawn that we know that it is 
flat, and impossible to be confused with the natural 




Pen and Ink Drawing of Tile Wall Fountain 
Addison B. Le Boutillier. Delineator 



It is a triumph of 



shrubbery about it. The cornice is 
of painted wood, supporting a tile 
roof, and the indication of color, 
showing it in a difficult condition of 
reflected light, is really extraordinary. 
The renderings of the interiors are 
not so unusual as the others ; they 
are rather excellent renderings of con- 
ventional type than expressions of 
originality in method, but in the white 
paneled room slight variations in the 
surfaces are so excellently modeled, 
and the accessories are so beautifully 
treated, as to bring it up far beyond 
the usual decorator's interior render- 
ing. The girandole, specially, is re- 
markable for its indication. The 
other interior, the room paneled in 
dark oak, with a marble mantel and 
blue and white lacings, is both amus- 
ing and exquisite, and the portrait 
above the fireplace, with its pictured 
light shown under the assumed light 
of the rendering, is something which 
the average man would either not 
have attempted, or would have com- 
pletely failed to realize. 

The book-plate displays a certain 
sly humor unsuspected from his other 
drawings ; they are so admirably 
serious, that we would hardly have 
believed this to have been the work of 
the same man, were it not for the 
sureness of execution and the same 
beautiful line. The one thing about the book-plate to 
which the writer desires to call most attention is the let- 
tering. Of all our architects there is none known to the 
writer who can surpass Mr. Le Boutillier in this specially 
difficult art ; many of us can letter well in strictly archi- 
tectural fashion, either on working drawings or in the sort 
of lettering which is incised over the doorway of a bank, 
but that is not the lettering which will make admirable 
type ; this lettering has personality without being forced 
or archaic, and the talent to design it is a most rare and 
precious gift. 



^L&j&ftiftaff 




Pen and Ink Drawing of a Country House 
Addison B. Le Boutillier. Architect and Designer 



The Circular Prison and Jail Plan. 

A DISCUSSION OF ITS MERITS AS EXEMPLIFIED 
IN THE NEW ILLINOIS STATE PENITENTIARY. 

By W. CARBYS ZIMMERMAN. 

" In proportion as men delight in battles, bull-fights, and combats of gladiators, 
will they punish by hanging, burning, and the rack." — Herbert Spencer. 



FROM the beginning- of history, society's method of 
dealing - with lawbreakers has been based, primarily, 
upon revenge. " An eye for an eye and a tooth for 
a tooth," runs the law in the Old Testament, and through- 
out the ages man's ingenuity has been taxed to the utmost 
in the invention of barbarous and revolting punishment 
for evil-doers. From the crucifixions and the more hor- 
rible punishment of the ancients have evolved the more 
subtle tortures of the later day. The Romans condemned 
outlaws to slavery or to the circus, where their deaths 
furnished amusement to the multitude, as a lesson to so- 
ciety. In the Middle Ages, society began in other respects 
its march toward higher ideals, but the old ideas of pun- 
ishment for prisoners remained. Cruelties became more 
ingenious ; the rack and the stake were introduced, while 
public executions replaced the cross and the lions. 

Then, gradually, societies developed along humanita- 
rian lines. The grosser forms of torture disappeared first ; 
then the world abolished 
slavery. When it was dis- 
covered that the death sen- 
tence did not deter others 
bent on committing crime, 
an enlightened public de- 
manded that capital pun- 
ishment be limited and that 
the public execution cease. 
To-day, apparently all 
forms of brutality have 
been discarded. The death 
sentence is very seldom ad- 
ministered, and the model 
prison is intended as a place 
of confinement to prevent 
further aggression and teach 
the criminal to respect the 
rights of others rather than a 
place for punishment or a me- 
dium for revenge. As the 
average sentence is such that 
the culprit will in time again 
mingle with society, it is 
recognized that he should be 
given every advantage to 
improve himself mentally, 
morally, and physically, so as 
not to work further harm 
when released. Though it 
seems, on cursory investiga- 
tion, that the old time systems 
have been completely done 
away with, many of the old 
methods still continue. 

Condemned to live in poorly 
lighted cells, often reeking 



with filth and vermin, swarming with germs of deadly 
diseases, with no privacy from the moral and physical 
foulness of his fellow-prisoner, any one serving a sentence 
in such a place has little chance of improvement and is in 
constant danger of his life through disease, as the death 
records of penal institutions show. Even in our modern 
prisons of to-day the most sanitary plan had to be dis- 
carded to secure more certain confinement of the inmates, 
and, although evey effort has been made to insure health- 
ful quarters, our newest prisons will soon be in the same 
condition as those they have replaced. In fact, the prison 
system of to-day is but little better than that of a hundred 
years ago. The horrors endured by the erring unfortu- 
nates are overlooked because they are hidden, but never- 
theless they still exist. 

The world, however, is coming to realize that the cell- 
house is not built for punishment but for restraint. 
Society has a right to protect itself against the evil-doer, 

but further than this, it 
cannot ethically go. Penol- 
ogists universally agree 
that society has the moral 
right to restrain the crimi- 
nal from working further 
injury to law-abiding citi- 
zens, but that is all. If 
his incarceration is for the 
purpose of curing the dis- 
eased brain, which inspired 
his criminal acts, and mak- 
ing him fit to return to 
society, it is certainly an 
obvious truth that society has 
not the right to inflict subtler 
tortures upon him, such as 
undermining his body so that 
it is an easy victim to conta- 
gious diseases. 

The prisoner has well de- 
fined rights which must be 
respected by his jailers. 
Granted the right to live, he 
has a right to his health, and 
in order to maintain his health 
he must have healthful quar- 
ters with sunlight and air 
and exercise. It is to these 
truths that penologists are 
working, and it is agreed that 
a convict, though deprived of 
his liberty, has a right to life, 
to health, and to as much 
happiness as he can secure 
under the circumstances. 
Notwithstanding these 




Section thru Cellhouse 




Typical Dloor Plan 

Plan and Section of a Circular Jail 
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect 

189 



190 



THE BRICKB V I LDER 




Mod 



commonly accepted truths, the modern prison, though 
efforts have been made previously to better conditions, is 
a breeding-place^for vice, vermin, and disease. Architects 
have striven toward new ideals and have tried to adopt 
the theories of the penologists, but, hampered by old ideas 
in prison construction and the necessity of absolutely safe 
confinement, have fallen short of the mark. The fault for 
the horrible conditions which sicken the heart of the 
visitor to the penitentiary of to-day lies not in the detailed 
construction, but in the planning or arrangement of the 
buildings thought to be requisite. 

Prison construction, now standard over the world, is of 
two types. The first, 
an European scheme 
commonly known as the 
outside cell block, con- 
sists of long, rectangu- 
lar buildings, with cells 
built along the walls, 
with windows opening 
directly into the cells 
from the outside air, and 
a deep court, or well, in 
the center of the build- 
ing. By this arrange- 
ment the prisoner has a 
certain amount of out- 
ride light and air. How- 
ever, these necessities are limited, because economy of space 
requires the buildings to be joined, and in the angles and 
corners thus formed air does not circulate nor can light 
readily enter the windows. 

The objections found to this plan by American wardens 
is that escape is comparatively easy. A determined man 
can work at the window until the guard approaches and 
then later, when the guard has passed, can return to his 
work at the bars until the guard again makes his rounds, 
as the guard can only see a prisoner as lie passes or is 
immediately opposite his cell. 

For this reason the European system has been practi- 
cally discarded in America. In this country the inside 
cell block is more popular, the same type of narrow, oblong 
buildings being used, but with the cells in the center of 
the buildings and away from the walls. With these cages 
placed back to back, with a service corridor between, the 
possibility of escape is materially lessened, for the man 
who breaks from his cage has still to cross the light court 
surrounding the cell block, and to get away must break 
through a steel barred window. However, prisoners can 
hear the guard as he makes his rounds and consequently, 
if up to mischief, have due warning of his approach, and 
again the prisoner is only visible at the time his keeper is 
directly opposite the cell. 

Now, although the American system of inside cell block 
is far safer than the European system, it is condemned 
because of the conditions which make proper sanitation 
impossible. The only light that reaches the cells comes 



:1 Showing Half Interior Elevation of Circular Jail 
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect 



from windows across the light court and about 18 feet from 
the cell front. Consequently very little, if any, direct sun- 
light and air enters a cell. This system, acknowledged to 
be wrong by wardens and criminologists, is used, never- 
theless, on account of its one good feature, viz., safe 
confinement. 

The European system is superior in many ways to the 
American scheme, which has safety as its first and only 
excuse for adoption, but both systems are at fault. While 
architects have persistently tried to break away from these 
faults, which all admit exist, changes for the better, when 
attempted, have not been in the general planning but 

detailed construction. 
Modern ventilating 
schemes, toilet devices, 
and new lighting sys- 
tems are all that make 
the modern prison of 
to-day different from 
prisons of one hundred 
years ago. 

It is obvious, then, 
that these evils can only 
be overcome by some 
radical change in the 
form of the buildings 
used for detention pur- 
poses. The acceptable 
plan must permit an abundance of light and air, and per- 
fect supervision must at all times be maintained. It 
would seem, therefore, that these conditions would be met 
if the cell-houses were made circular. 

If the cells are arranged in a circular form, as shown by 
Fig. I, each cell has a window admitting direct sunlight 
and air. Even the north cells get direct sunlight through 
skylights in the roof of the wide light court in the center. 
By combining the space generally used in front of and 
at each end of the rectangular cell block, a very wide, 
airy light court is obtained in the center of the building 
without adding to the size or cost. 

The side walls of the individual cells radiate toward the 
center of the light court, where an observation tower is 
located, from which point it is possible to see the entire 
interior of every cell, including a full view of the window, 
so that the inmates are under constant observation and 
escape is practically impossible. The lights and doors to 
the cells are controlled from this guard's station. The 
danger of signaling or communication is entirely done 
away with, as all of the inmates are in full view of the 
guard at all times, while the guard is in a position where 
he cannot be seen by the inmates. 

The circular plan is also readily adapted to city and 
county jails and prisons where only a small cell block is 
desired, but where the objections of the present types are 
just as great. By using a segment of the circular plan as a 
bay on the building, any size cell block may be had with- 
out changing the fundamental principles of the scheme. 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 113. 




a 

o 



< 

CQ 
< 

Q 

Z 
< 

o 

a: 

>-■ 

< 

< 

a. 



>- S5 



85 
> 

z 

D 

4 

_j 

5 

m 

< 
ui 

UJ 

-J 
-J 

UJ 

5 

CQ 



K 

u. 
O 

Ld 
tfi 

D 
O 

I 



190 



THE BRICKB V I LDER 



Mode 



commonly accepted truths, the modern prison, though 
efforts have been made previously to better conditions, is 
a breeding-place'for vice, vermin, and disease. Architects 
have striven toward new ideals and have tried to adopt 
the theories of the penologists, but, hampered by old ideas 
in prison construction and the necessity of absolutely safe 
confinement, have fallen short of the mark. The fault for 
the horrible conditions which sicken the heart of the 
visitor to the penitentiary of to-day lies not in the detailed 
construction, but in the planning or arrangement of the 
buildings thought to be requisite. 

Prison construction, now standard over the world, i- of 
two types. The first, 
an European scheme 
commonly known as the 
outside cell block, con- 
sists of long, rectangu- 
lar buildings, with cells 
built along the walls, 
with windows opening 
directly into the cells 
from the outside air, and 
a deep court, or well, in 
the center of the build- 
ing. By this arrange- 
ment the prisoner has a 
certain amount of out- 
side light ami air. How- 
ever, these necessities are limited, because economy of space 
requires the buildings to be joined, and in the angles and 
corners thus formed air does not circulate nor can light 
readily enter the windows. 

The objections found to this plan by American wardens 
is that escape is comparatively easy. A determined man 
can work at the window until the guard approaches and 
then later, when the guard has passed, can return to his 
work at the bars until the guard again makes his rounds. 
as the guard can only see a prisoner as he passes or is 
immediately opposite his cell. 

For this reason the European system has been practi- 
cally discarded in America. In this country the inside 
cell block is more popular, the same type of narrow, oblong 
buildings being used, but with the cells in the center of 
the buildings and away from the walls. With these cages 
placed back to back, with a service corridor between, the 
possibility of escape is materially lessened, for the man 
who breaks from his cage has still to cross the light court 
surrounding the cell block, and to get away must break 
through a steel barred window. However, prisoners can 
hear the guard as he makes his rounds and consequently, 
if up to mischief, have due warning of his approach, and 
again the prisoner is only visible at the time his keeper is 
directly opposite the cell. 

Now, although the American system of inside cell block 
is far safer than the European system, it is condemned 
because of the conditions which make proper sanitation 
impossible. The only light that reaches the cells comes 




"JTlTVi 



Showing Half Interior Elevation of Circular Jai 
W. Carbys Zimmerman. Architect 



from windows across the light court and about 18 feet from 
the cell front. Consequently very little, if any, direct sun- 
light and air enters a cell. This system, acknowledged to 
be wrong by wardens and criminologists, is used, never- 
theless, on account of its one good feature, viz., safe 
confinement. 

The European system is superior in many ways to the 
American scheme, which has safety as its first and only 
excuse for adoption, but both systems are at fault. While 
architects have persistently tried to break away from these 
faults, which all admit exist, changes for the better, when 
attempted, have not been in the general planning but 

detailed construction. 
Modern ventilating 
schemes, toilet devices, 
and new lighting sys- 
tems are all that make 
the modern prison of 
to-day different from 
prisons of one hundred 
years ago. 

It is obvious, then, 
that these evils can only 
be overcome by some 
radical change in the 
form of the buildings 
used for detention pur- 
poses. The acceptable 
plan must permit an abundance of light and air, and per- 
fect supervision must at all times be maintained. It 
would seem, therefore, that these conditions would be met 
if the cell-houses were made circular. 

If the cells are arranged in a circular form, as shown by 
Fig. I, each cell has a window admitting direct sunlight 
and air. Even the north cells get direct sunlight through 
skylights in the roof of the wide light court in the center. 
By combining the space generally used in front of and 
at each end of the rectangular cell block, a very wide, 
airy light court is obtained in the center of the building 
without adding to the size or cost. 

The side walls of the individual cells radiate toward the 
center of the light court, where an observation tower is 
located, from which point it is possible to see the entire 
interior of every cell, including a full view of the window, 
so that the inmates are under constant observation and 
escape is practically impossible. The lights and doors to 
the cells are controlled from this guard's station. The 
danger of signaling or communication is entirely done 
away with, as all of the inmates are in full view of the 
guard at all times, while the guard is in a position where 
he cannot be seen by the inmates. 

The circular plan is also readily adapted to city and 
county jails and prisons where only a small cell block is 
desired, but where the objections of the present types are 
just as great. By using a segment of the circular plan as a 
bay on the building, any size cell block may be had with- 
out changing the fundamental principles of the scheme. 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 113. 




UJ 

O 



< 

< 

Qu 

Q 
Z 

< 
-J 

o 

> 

< 

OS 

< 

CL 

> 

H 

3 
> 

z 

D 

_| 

_j 

a: 
m 

< 

a 

ui 
J 

UJ 

s 

CQ 



CD 

K 

s 

u. 
O 

UJ 
CO 

■D 
O 
X 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 114. 




UJ 

K 
O 
§ 

H 
_1 
< 
00 

2 
< 

a 
z 

< 

o 

cc 

a 

< 
o 

Di 

_j 
_j 

x 
cc 

UJ 

> 

o 



<y 9 



t/3 

UJ 

>' 



a 
< 
x 

cd 
en 

UJ 

< 

u. 

O 

UJ 

to 
3 

O 
I 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 115. 




HOUSE OF DR. J. H. MASON KNOX, GUILFORD. BALTIMORE, MD. 
F.DWARD L. PALMER. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 116. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF DR J. H. MASON KNOX, GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 
EDWARD L. PALMER. JR . ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 117. 




HOUSE OF HENRY F. BAKER, ESQ.. CHARLCOTTE ROAD, GUILFORD. BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWARD L. PALMER, JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE I 18. 




SEMI DETACHED HOUSE ON CHANCERY SQUARE. GUILFORD. BALTIMORE. MD 
EDWARD L. PALMER. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 119. 




.See 





DETAIL OF STREET FRONT 



. .3 I I— Imf ■ ■ L. - ■ . -j I | " ' 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE ON CHANCERY SQUARE. GUILFORD. BALTIMORE. MD 
EDWARD L. PALMER, JR , ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 120. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE ON CHANCERY SQUARE, GUILFORD. BALTIMORE. MD 
EDWARD L. PALMER. JR . ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 121 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE ON CHANCERY SQUARE, GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 
EDWARD L PALMER. JR., ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER. 



PLATE 122. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



FRONT ELEVATION 
HOUSE OF JOHN S. BRIDGES, ESQ., CHARLES STREET. BALTIMORE, MD. 
EDWARD L. PAI.MF.R. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 123. 




VIEW FROM STREET 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



END AND REAR VIEW 



HOUSE OF H. ROWLAND CLAPP. ESQ., GREENWAY. GUILFORD, BALTIMORE. MD. 
EDWARD L. PALMER. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 124. 




VIEW FROM REAK 




VIEW FROM STREET 



HOUSE OF G. EMORY MORGAN, ESQ.. KENWOOD ROAD, ROLAND PARK. BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWARD L. PALMER. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 125. 




sc*i.t ■ m m =^— — ■ 

OS to is 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PI AN 



HOUSE ON UNIVERSITY PARKWAY. ROLAND PARK. BALTIMORE. MI). 
EDWARD L PALMER. JR . ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 126. 





HOUSE ON UNIVERSITY PARKWAY. ROLAND PARK. BALTIMORE. MD. 
EDWARD L. PALMER. JR.. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 127. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSK ON UNIVERSITY PARKWAY. ROLAND PARK. HAl IIMORF.. MD 
EDWARD I PALMER. JR . ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER 



PLATE 128. 





HOUSE OF THOMAS L. JONES. ESQ.. OVERHILL ROAD. ROLAND PARK. BALTIMORE. MD 

WALTER M. GIESKE. ARCHITECT 




A Suburb Conforming to Architectural Standards. 

ROLAND PARK, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 
By ARTHUR B. CRANFORD. 



REAL estate developments, which in recent years 
have come to exert a large influence on the appear- 
ance and character of many suburban districts 
lying" close to the larger cities, afford an opportunity to 
note the trend of domestic architecture in different and 
widely separated sections of our country. Roland Park 
was one of the earliest of these 
developments to be conceived on 
broad lines, and where the archi- 
tectural character of individual 
houses was to be carefully con- 
sidered. Its development has 
been carried on consistently 
from its founding, and its archi- 
tectural achievements show that, 
where there has been a sym- 
pathetic understanding of archi- 
tectural ideals and of good con- 
struction, the resulting commu- 
nity will be one in which it will 
be satisfying to live, and which 
will be a real asset to the neigh- 
boring city by constantly im- 
proving and maintaining values 
in its vicinity. 

Roland- Park is situated on 
high ground, lying about three 
and one half miles to the north 
of Baltimore, and is the princi- 
pal residence suburb of the city. 
It was developed by the Roland 
Park Company and also includes 
"The Roland Park-Guilford 
District," — another develop- 








Plot Plan of Guilford, Baltimore, Md 
191 



ment under the same management, — and comprises nearly 
a thousand acres of land devoted to residential purposes. 

When Roland Park was started, in 1891, the purpose 
was to build a residential suburb not differing in any radi- 
cal way from other high class residence-suburbs, and the 
portion of Roland Park which was built during the first 

few years is of a character not 
dissimilar to many other devel- 
opments. By careful inspection 
of this earlier work, however, 
one may detect the beginning 
of the application of principles 
which later led to radical differ- 
ences from the usual type. 

From the beginning, however, 
there were departures made in 
Roland Park which serve to dis- 
tinguish it from other develop- 
ments, notably, certain provisions 
in the deeds of sale providing for 
a restricted use of the land . Such 
beneficial restrictions have be- 
come, to a certain degree, com- 
monplace in these latter days of 
suburban developments; in 1891, 
however, they were looked upon 
as an innovation, and there were 
many who felt that they would 
not be accepted by purchasers. 

It is to be noted, however, in 
the latest of the developments of 
the company, that, as new tracts 
of land have been acquired and 
developed, the demand of the 



(Ouilfor^ 



' If) r* It II I 



if h« Kolan» p«V leap-*; 



192 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



community has not been for fewer restrictions, but for 
more detailed, comprehensive ones. Another unusual fea- 
ture was a provision in the deed for the care of the public 
streets. This is effected by laying a maintenance tax, 
which is collected by the company and expended for vari- 
ous purposes of public service, —such as the care of roads 
and road side lawns, the lighting of streets, removal of 
snow from public sidewalks, employment of special police, 
and similar purposes. This tax is a purely local affair 
and has no connection with the state and county taxes. 
In the deeds there is a provision that the tax shall not 
exceed, in any one year, a certain amount per one hun- 
dred square feet of lot area. As new subdivisions were 
added to the development, certain minor changes have 
been made as to the amount, method of collection, and the 
purposes for which the maintenance tax is expended, but 
the principle of the tax remains the same. 

After the first three plats of Roland Park had been 
developed and largely sold out, the company felt that the 
time had come when the functions reserved to it in its 
deeds, relating to the approval of plans, the care of the 
streets and sewerage system, and the collection and dis- 
bursement of the Maintenance Fund, should be placed in 
the hands of the property owners. It, therefore, invited 
the owners of lots in Roland Park to form an association 
for the purpose of assuming these functions. As a result 
of this movement, the Roland Park Roads and Maintenance 




5tFI 



Second 

House on University Parkway, Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. 
Edward L. Palmer, Jr., Architect 



Corporation was formed. This corporation is controlled 
by the Roland Park Civic League, an association of resi- 
dents and lot owners in Roland Park. It is interesting to 
note that, although, when the proposal was first made by 
the Roland Park Company to turn over the streets and the 
above public functions to the property owners, there was 
considerable objection to the proposal, time has shown 
that the plan was a wise one. There has been a continual 
increase in the efficiency with which the work has been 
done, and what is felt is more important, a pronounced 
growth among the citizens of interest in the public affairs 
of the community. 

These two items of beneficial restrictions and the main- 
tenance tax constitute the principal departures from the 
common custom of suburban real estate companies. The 
effect has been to give stability to the value of the property, 
by affording protection from the undesirable use of adjoin- 
ing lots and providing for the upkeep of the property as a 
whole, so that a feeling of permanence and reliability has 
been given to the whole enterprise. 

In the development of the first subdivision, the company 
designed and constructed a lay-out of roads, which, at that 
time, was rather unusual ; more particularly in the careful 
adaptation of the roads to the topography of the land, with 
a resulting interest and charm not often encountered in 
suburban districts. In laying out the streets, ample space 
was allowed for sidewalks and sidewalk lawns, and much 

attention was given to the 
planting of shade trees. The 
plots of land devoted to each 
house were considerably 
larger than those commonly 
seen . 

The original plot of about 
one hundred and fifty acres 
having been developed and 
largely disposed of, the com- 
pany decided to subdivide 
an adjoining tract of about 
three hundred acres. The 
land in this new subdivision 
presented difficulties in en- 
gineering and landscape de- 
sign which were not present 
in the original tract. To 
help in the solution of the 
problem, the services of 
Messrs. Olmsted Brothers 
were retained, who laid out 
the general scheme of roads 
for the whole tract, and this 
firm has been employed by 
the company in all of its sub- 
sequent developments. The 
detailed construction of the 
roads was worked out by 
the company's resident engi- 
neer, under the supervision 
of the landscape architect, 
the highest and most sub- 
stantial type of road con- 
struction being adhered to. 
The roads in the latest de- 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



193 



velopment, i.e., " Guil- 
ford," are solid concrete 
with a topping- of bitumi- 
nous macadam. 

Two of the problems 
presenting- themselves to 
the company, upon the 
successful solution of 
which the success of the 
development depended, 
were the matter of pure 
water supply and the dis- 
posal of sewage. The 
water supply was ob- 
tained from deep artesian 
wells, the water company 
being organized and oper- 
ated by the Roland Park Company 




House on University Parkway 
Edward L. Palmer. Jr., Architect 



a provision by which the 
company reserved the 
right to approve the plans 
for the dwellings to be 
erected, and the effect of 
tlie supervision of the com- 
pany in this matter is very 
plainly indicated in the 
architectural aspect of the 
whole d e V e 1 p m e n t , 
the artistic character of 
improvements receiving 
closer and closer scrutiny 
as time went on. The 
company itself built a num- 
ber of houses which they 
offered for sale, with the 



The sewerage plant 
was designed by the late Colonel Warring of New York, 
and from the beginning there has been a system of sani- 
tary sewers throughout the development, entirely sepa- 
rate from the very elaborate system of storm water drains. 
As new land has been acquired, and the size of the 
development consequently increased, new units for sew- 
age disposal have 
been installed. 

It is interesting to 
note, in the growth 
of this suburb, gov- 
erned by the ideas 
set down above, a 
progressive im- 
provement in the 
details of construc- 
tion and a more 
detailed supervision 
of the design and 
character of im- 
provements. The 
deed of sale, from 
the beginning, had 




Group of Houses on University Parkway 
Edward L. PJmer. Jr., Architect 



aim that they might serve as examples of good practice, 
and in this work they employed the most capable archi- 
tects at their disposal. There have been houses designed 
for the company by such men from other cities as Charles 
A. Piatt, Wilson Eyre, and W. L. Price, and by many of 
the well known local firms. 

About ten years ago, in order to more efficiently earn- 
forward this archi- 
tectural supervis- 
ion, and to enlarge 
its own architectural 
activities, the com- 
pany organized an 
architectural de- 
partment, under the 
care of Mr. Edward 
L. Palmer, as resi- 
dent architect. This 
department has de- 
signed the majority 
of the houses for the 
company since its 
organization, but 
the architectural 




Edward L. Palmer. Jr., Architect 



Edward L. Palmer, Jr., Architect 
Entrance Doorways to Three Houses in Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. 



Ellicott & Emmart, Architects 



i 9 4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



services required by the company have not been confined 
to its own architectural department, as in various cases 
and for certain purposes, other architects are still employed. 
The architectural department, in turn, has extended its 
work to include a general architectural practice, design- 
ing and supervising the construction of houses for the 
purchasers of lots, as well as for the company in its own 
work. To it is entrusted the general architectural super- 
vision of the development, in connection with the approval 
of plans. 

It has been the policy of the Roland Park Company to 
employ in every branch of its work experts who are familiar 
with the best standards of practice in their respective pro- 
fessions, there being a sympathetic attitude with the best 
ideals of each profession and a willingness on the part of 
the company to adhere to the recommendations of the man 
it has employed. The effect of this policy is shown in the 
character of the road construction, and in the general feel- 
ing of unity and good taste in architectural expression of 
the development as a whole. 

It should be said that in the exercise of its right to 
approve plans, the company has endeavored to allow the 
utmost freedom to each lot 
owner in the selection of the 
design and in the construc- 
tion of his house : its chief 
care being that, whatever 
kind of house it might be, 
it should be reasonably in 
accordance with the canons 
of good taste. The effect of 
such supervision, carefully 
exercised, would be hard to First Floor Plan 




over-estimate in the production of a general atmosphere of 
orderliness and dignity. 

In order to indicate the extent of operations under way, 
it may be of interest to say that, within fourteen months 
from May 1, 1913, the time that building was begun in 
Guilford, there had been 38 houses completed, at an 
approximate cost of $439,000. At the end of that period 
there were under construction 53 houses, which will cost 
approximately $764,350. making a total of 91 houses, costing 
approximately $1,203,350, which sum does not include the 
value of the land. The cost of individual houses varies 
from $7,500 to $50,000, the cost of the average house 
being about $16,000. The illustrations will serve to give 
an idea of the exterior aspects of the buildings. 

During the past three or four years the company has 
built several groups of houses in which the problems of 
group-planning and collective design and construction 
have been carefully studied. From an artistic point of 
view, these groups constitute, probably, the most interest- 
ing work of the company along architectural lines, and 
with one or two exceptions this sort of design and con- 
struction has been carried farther by this company than 

elsewhere in America. 

To the writer, the most 
interesting point in the de- 
velopment of Roland Park 
is that these high standards 
have been adhered to by a 
development company that im- 
purely commercial : that is 
to say, it is concerned with the 
business of buying, develop- 
Second Floor PUr. ing, and selling for profit. 




House of Mrs. J. C. Jones, Somerset Road, Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. 
Edward L. Palmer. Jr., Architect 



Competition for a Suburban House and Garage. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD AND PRES- 
ENTATION OF PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS. 



THE Brickbvilder Competition for a Suburban 
House and Garage, on a lot having a frontage of 
50 feet and a depth of 100 feet, to be built of hollow- 
tile, brought out designs of average excellence, equaling 
some previous competitions having to do with similar prob- 
lems. From about three hundred drawings submitted, it 
became comparatively easy for the judges to agree upon 
some sixty or seventy designs, from among which it was 
their problem to select the four prize and the mention 
drawings. This selection proved more difficult. It was, 
nevertheless, possible to eliminate from consideration 
designs that, for one reason or another, failed of uniform 
excellence, the plan perhaps being weak, or sometimes 
the competitor fundamentally failing to regard his house 
as fronting upon the street; thus many of the competi- 
tors endeavored to avoid the problem presented by the 
narrow street front, and preferably dwelt upon the more 
attractive side elevation which, in final analysis, the 
judges were compelled to consider of minor importance. 
This was, if anything, the prevailing defect, of which 
many competitors were guilty. Again, too many designs 
were distinctly of the country house type, and would be 
severely injured by the close building up of adjoining 
property, in exterior aspect as well as interior liveableness 
and arrangement of plan. A number of drawings also 
failed sufficiently to indicate the garage as a part of the 
problem ; while surprisingly few among the contestants 
undertook to relate the garage structurally with the dwell- 
ing, — a possibility evidently in mind when the program 
was written, but which was an added difficulty on a lot of 
the narrow width allowed. A certain number of other 
schemes, even one or two of those admitted to mention, 
were obviously too pretentious for the size of the lot — 
especially when the lots adjoining were already built 
upon, as was one requirement stated in the program — 
and could only have gone upon the site with an appearance 
of crowding — or, actually, would have required to be 
" scaled down " in proportion. Despite this fact a large 
majority of the contestants took their perspective either 
from a point which required that the next two or three 
lots at least be vacant, for the dwelling to be seen from 
the situation chosen ; or, if shown viewed from the street, 
they disregarded adjoining property lines, widened the 
frontage by including adjoining lots, and indicated sur- 
roundings of more rural a type than strictly belonged to 
the problem. In several cases the garage was ignored 
in the perspective ; but where the competitor recognized it 
as part of his problem in plan and evinced a sufficient mas- 
tery of handling of the exterior of his house to indicate 
that the garage where placed could easily become a har- 
monious part of the lot development, this omission was 
not allowed to prevent the design being considered for 
mention or place. 

Such was, indeed, the case with the drawing given the 
First Prize ; but, despite the rather careless detail of the 



entrance, and what the judges felt to be somewhat a 
crowding of features across the first story, the house was 
in plan so excellently adapted to the limitations of pro- 
gram and site ; the designer had so frankly accepted the 
narrow frontage, and yet treated his logically resulting 
design so quietly, simply, and attractively, that this draw- 
ing was accepted as easily the best all-around solution of 
the problem received, in spite of the gutter construction 
behind the parapet, where difficulties might result in 
northern localities in protecting exterior and interior plas- 
ter from leakage of roof water. Of all the plans attempt- 
ing two living rooms and an entrance hall across the front 
of the building, this competitor alone was felt to have con- 
densed his vestibule and doorway to the point where such 
a scheme was possible within the narrow dimensions pro- 
vided. The perspective, outside of a somewhat awkward 
layout of the curving bay roofs, is gracefully and charm- 
ingly rendered. 

The winner of the Second Prize assumed — as he 
fairly might under the program — his house fronting 
nearly north upon the street, thus determining his ar- 
rangement of the plan and location of kitchen and entry. 
The garage, while limiting the size of the garden at the 
rear, is yet placed in convenient relation to the house, 
making it possible for the owner to reach it easily, — a 
convenience ignored in many of the designs. The second 
story is rather crowded, particularly the bath, but the less 
desirable rooms are again placed at the north ; and the 
exterior — simple, direct, and while somewhat evidently 
influenced by the work of a leading architect — is yet free 
from plagiarism in composition and a perfectly rational 
and successful treatment of the assumed problem. 

The Third Prize has a simple yet convenient plan, 
although more suited to a closely built suburb if high 
casement windows had been used each side of the living- 
room chimney, in place of the long windows proposed, 
thus possibly requiring a larger light opening toward 
the street, which the simple fenestration on the front 
of the house makes easily possible. A minor criticism 
is that the rendering of the roof suggested either the 
use of slate too large for the scale of the building, or one 
of the cheaper paper roofs hardly susceptible to artistic 
treatment. The designer was thoughtful enough to indi- 
cate a turntable in front of his garage, a convenience, for 
a small car, that was not thought of by many other con- 
testants when placing their garage on the rear lot line. 
The exterior detail on this house is direct and well con- 
sidered. 

The Fourth Prize was one of the best of those grouping 
the garage as a part of the house composition. The plan 
is interesting, although depending somewhat too much 
for comfort on adjoining property, being unimproved on 
both sides. The designer obviously considered the end 
to the street as less important than the side he has chosen 
to render, whereas, in reality, it should require more 



195 



196 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



careful consideration. His plan is weak also along the rear 
line, where insufficient space is provided in the pantry for 
shelving ; and in making so much use of light at the sides 
of both first and second floor. The exterior treatment is 
simple, convenient, and the roof promises nearly as inex- 
pensive a type of handling as the Third Prize design. 

On account of the general excellence of the designs that 
remained for consideration, the judges finally provided 
for ten Mentions, and are further willing to acknowledge 
that some half-dozen other drawings were nearly as good 
as those given that honor! 

Drawing Xo. 258, another scheme where the garage was 
combined with the house (and even more completely than 
in the fourth prize design), shows a clever and open 
plan-arrangement, despite the garage on the north and 
street front of the property, leaving — as in the last con- 
sidered design — the entire rear of the lot free and open 
for garden treatment. This house failed of winning a 
prize largely because of the several features, crowded 
upon the street front, having just failed of successful and 
harmonious interrelation. 

In Drawing Xo. 64, too much dependence was placed 
upon the adjoining lot being unoccupied, — a manifest 
violation of the program conditions, — and little, if any, 
consideration was given to the end upon the street, except 
to place living room and owner's bedroom upon that side 
of the building. The kitchen and bedroom above would 
be dark when the adjoining property was built upon ; and 
while the garage was nicely combined with the building, 
it would obviously be better to have separated it from the 
house by the passageway which the fourth prize contes- 
tant provided. The dining room is also darkened by the 
garage ; and the dining room chimney would better have 
been placed upon the garage wall, when the entire rear 
of the room could have been utilized for lighting. 

Drawing Xo. 157 was given a Mention largely because 
of the importance frankly recognized as belonging to the 
street end of the building, besides producing a house 
simple, attractive, and thoroughly and distinctively Ameri- 
can and refined in type, with a living porch that could be 
secluded by shrubbery, and a comfortable vista from the 
porch across the living room to the dining room fireplace. 
The plan is, in other ways, not so successful, the dining 
room and bedroom over it depending upon light from the 
side of the lot, and the front door having hardly sufficient 
importance to suit many clients. The garage is well 
related to the house, allowing the owner to reach it 
through front entry and side yard, if he so desires, and 
the attractive rendering gives it an exceptionally charm- 
ing presentation. 

I (rawing Xo. 136 is an exceptionally interesting and indi- 
vidual design ; that, also, nearly won its place in the prize 
group. The axis corridor established across the plan, with 
the attractive foot entrance on one side and from the drive- 
way on the other, displayed a refreshing and novel point 
of view ; and while the designer frankly accepted being 
limited by adjoining property on both sides, he, never- 
theless, assumes a pretentiousness of type which would 
seem better at ease on a lot of 100 rather than 50 feet 
width. His dining room would also be somewhat injured 
by the wide gravel turn coming so near the windows ; 
which, however, could easily be treated differently, if the 
owner desired. An open plan, of some sparseness and 



naivete, but, nevertheless, actually well considered and 
developed. Xote, for instance, how one plumbing stack 
does for both floors — an economy not attempted by most 
of the contestants. The perspective is well arranged and 
excellently presents an exterior treatment of unhackneyed 
style and individuality of aspect. 

Drawing Xo. 81 has a simple, carefully worked-out plan, 
coming logically under its roof ridge, and one that would 
be economical of construction. Somewhat too large a pro- 
portion of the cellar is left unused ; while the compact 
arrangement of plumbing and chimney is to be com- 
mended. The presentation of the exterior is not altogether 
successful ; and the central chimney, as designed, is a 
bit obtrusive and out of keeping with the remainder of 
the design. It is also a question if the house would not 
have been still better adapted to the material if the front 
windows had been placed closer together, with wooden 
mullions, instead of requiring terra cotta piers to separate 
them — an obvious lack of economy that, in a house other- 
wise so compact, seems slightly out of character. 

Drawing Xo. 135, while presenting two harmonious ele- 
ments in the type of house and garage that it displays, 
would, nevertheless, have better been taken from a point 
where the house front would have been more in evidence, 
particularly as the plan recognizes, with considerable 
success, the importance of front and back outlooks and 
the near relation of the side lot lines, in which it some- 
what resembles the second prize plan. From the point of 
view shown, the front of the house appears crowded with 
window openings, probably because the designer attacks 
the problem of locating four openings on the second story 
over three on the floor below, without convincingly show- 
ing that he has done so with success. 

Drawing Xo. 260 belongs transparently — even in the 
mind of its author — to the group where the front has 
been assumed as facing upon the side line of the lot. 
Although the end toward the street is gracefully treated, 
yet a part of this available outlook is sacrificed (on the 
second floor) to the staircase, and, while, indulging in pre- 
vailing structural eccentricities in the treatment of the 
roof covering, the designer could not maintain this point 
of view with sufficient consistency to continue it over the 
dining room bay, of which he provides a separate and 
differently treated detail. If the right side of the house 
is also to be considered the front, it is obviously not desir- 
able to have the kitchen entrance given an equal, if not 
rather a superior, amount of importance on that facade. 
The sheet is otherwise composed so as attractively to 
present the solution, although the plans would also 
better have been arranged with the street front parallel 
with the bottom of the sheet, and then lettered corre- 
spondingly. 

Drawings Xos. 134 and 248 are both similar in plan, 
toward the street, to the first prize drawing, but the three 
rooms located across the front require more space in both 
cases than would be allowable on so narrow a lot. In Xo. 
134 there exists some further doubt as to the treatment of 
the roof at the rear. In all probability it would require 
a considerable deck, but a flat hip roof running into the 
main roof might be employed to advantage. The plans 
present fairly compact developments of two well defined 
types, but in the carrying out both would be much bettered 
by a wider frontage, as has been acknowledged by the 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



197 




2 

g 



N < 



D- Q 



Q 
Z 

o 



y 



i-i M 



r-i X ■ 2 x £ * 

80: s. S ^ g S 

n 1 3 S3 i 



o 



la 





iasf: 




iJjFffffl. M 












— r^; — >- - , • 







f!***Vis > .-. . I 




■ . 





z 









- 




«) 









en 


7 




'J 


D 


in 


3 


LU 


- 


Q 


.<£ 




<r 


UJ 


EC 


x 




rr; 


d 


0. 


£ 


H 


< 


£ 


-j 


Lu 


* 




>- 




ca 




q 




UJ 




P 




H 



I9« 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 







,u s; IB 

w : 


till . 




fa 






pH 


^■»»^" 









s9 O £ *r 

(Tk-^ix »< x -: x » 









^uj y. 




- 




rriiE 
rr; — 





g 






, , ! 









* 



a© 



hi Ul 




uj a: 

s * 

y ° 

N a. 

X g 

f- < 

O x 



\ 













S 4a 2 












■-- 




* 


S5 : ^ 






— 





■ ' -- 

*< a 



5® 



« - : 



z 

g 

Q. 

Q 
OS 

I 
P 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



199 




Drawing No. 258 



MENTION DESIGN 



SUBMITTED BY ERNEST HAYWARD AND SIGMUND NESSELROTH 
BOSTON, MASS. 



Drawing No. 64 



MENTION DESIGN 



SUBMITTED BY W. P. HUTCHINS AND J. P. MORGAN 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 





DESIGN FOR A SUBURBAN HOUSE AND GARAGE 
— I— tt-» ^ xxx HOLLOW TILE 

m 



•TUB C L'DACE- 

[.■■■■ 



•DESIGN rORAVT- i-.'O: ■ .. ±M O GAKAGLTOiiF-llUll.T ' jY MA' '.Vf llli.a 

Drawing No. 157 

MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY CHARLES C. GRANT, NEW YORK. N. Y. 




DrawinK No. 136 



MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY T. H. ELLETT, NEW YORK. N. Y. 



2 00 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 







1«K 




THE CUBIC CONTENTS 

Main Ttbo)r y'Suitdino JO^V 
"ftyUmmus Xtm ica'safed ' portion 
i*Sj is 'Sy.fpA/j pprtWa^/i 

eouots J* #«fl ciftrrfcef fofals 

■ ■, 






. . . 


An^STI 


PgJJIfiJ 


t^B 


•mt 


• ' ■ '- 


■■■-■ 




DESIGN FON. A 5UK.BUK.BAN HOUSE O 1 C AKAGE 

Q CO TO BE BUILT OF NATCO XXX HOLLOW TILE EUBSSSBgSH 



Drawing No. 81 _„„.„«, 

MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY WARNER A. EBBETS. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 




DESISN•FOR.■A•5UaJRTiAN■HOU5E•A^ro•GASAGE.•TO•EE:•BUtLT'''•-'- a ' 
V-TILX ' 'TJ E-EEICKBUILXEK.- 1£>I4- 



3Uev"UTTr»-BY A 








Drawing No. 135 

MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY ROBERT A. TAYLOR. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



^7^ 




k<m(2 : raMLra - 
MH)-w-m±of-m ; . 



Drawing No. 260 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY WILLIAM J. MOONEY AND GORDON H. ROBB 
BOSTON, MASS. 




-?"•■ 



JM! Mm Ki 







* DU1CN UK. A BUIMN HOUSE AND CAKAGL ID BL BUILT Of NATCO M HOLLW Till* 



Drawing No. 248 

MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY ANTONIO DI NARDO AND WILLIAM GEHRON 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



20I 



contestants in their treatment 
of the perspectives, — obviously 
rendered as country rather than 
suburban houses. 

Drawing: No. 147 was a suc- 
cessful design that nearly won a 
place among- the prize winners 
because of the skill with which 
the competitor had met many 
requirements of the problem. 
He had accepted all the limi- 
tations imposed, and obtained 
an attractive and distinctive 
house, somewhat more English 
than American in type, to be 
sure, but with an unusual ar- 
rangement of principal rooms 
upon the first floor. Too much 
was sacrificed, however, to give 
what was, after all, an over- 
long connection between house 
and garage, shutting out direct 
light to kitchen, pantry, lava- 
tory, and service stairs, com- 
bined — with unusual compact- 
ness — with the front 
stairs, and a bath con- 
veniently located be- 
tween two bedrooms. 
The perspective is 
crisply and well pre- 
sented, with little waste 
of unnecessary render- 
ing. 

The ten mention 
drawings are presented 
as of equal merit, and 
all the designs given 
mention or place are re- 
garded by the judges 
as being sufficiently 
adapted to construction 
in the specified mate- 
rial, no drawing where 
this essential qualifica- 
tion has been even par- 




Drawing No. 134 

Mention Design 
Submitted by Lawrence L. Wolf, Pittsburgh, Pa. 








Ceef 


T 



DESIGN FOR 

A SUBURBAN HOUSE 
AND CARACE 

TO BE BUILT 



NATCOAXX HOLLOW TILE 1 



Drawing No. 147 



Mention Design 
Submitted by Robert North, Buffalo, N. Y. 



tially ignored reaching even the groups retained for final 
consideration. 

The program of the Competition being as liberal as it 
was, — undoubtedly with the intention of giving all possi- 
ble variety in scope and treatment of plans, — made it diffi- 
cult to consider all the various plan solutions on an exact 
parity, because of their many different relations to grades 
and points of the compass, which it was fair to allow the 



detail with 
or place. 



contestants the right to as- 
sume for themselves, as they 
had not been otherwise defi- 
nitely specified in the program. 
Outside, therefore, of some- 
what rigidly applying the very 
important essential of depend- 
ing principally for light and 
outlook on the front and rear 
of the house, because of the 
stipulated close placing of ad- 
joining buildings, the judges 
endeavored to be lenient in 
their consideration of all pos- 
sible and allowable variations 
attempted by the contestants. 
It would seem that some future 
competition might produce an 
added interest by restricting 
the contestants still more ex- 
actly to one problem in the 
arrangement of rooms by stipu- 
lating at least the points of 
the compass and the contour 
conditions existing on the hypo- 
thetical site, although 
the result would obvi- 
ously then develop less 
variety than the method 
this time adopted. 

The judges feel sure 
that all the contestants 
in this Competition can- 
not but personally bene- 
fit by the care and time 
they gave to the con- 
sideration of the 
problem and the ma- 
terial, which they can 
now complete by care- 
fully studying the prize 
and mention drawings 
reproduced, especially 
for experience and 
profit in contrasting 
their own solutions in 
been selected for mention 



those that have 



Frank Chouteau Brown, Boston, Mass., 
F. Ellis Jackson, Providence, R. I., 
Calvin Kiessling, New York, N. Y., 
Linn Kinne, Utica, N. Y., 
F. R. Walker, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jury of Award. 



Note : In order to present the criticism of the Jury of Azvard of the 
different Mention designs in as clear a manner as possible, they have 
been referred to above by the number given to the drawing, at the time 
of its receipt at the office of The Brickbvilder, for identification. 



■ ww««««««<««««««. 


y/w<yw?rtg??7?ajgs?gg^<:tfa<<w<<<g^^^>^^>>^»>^>^>^>>>w 


>»»»»»»»»»»»»?ggffff?ffffyy?CTffffWCTww ■ 


EDITORIAL COMMENT _^f^ rfflftv ,0~- I 

AND^NOTES * * CWC IfKW § 
| FOU^THE^MONTH » w^=#^ ^ j 



THE last chapter of Viollet-le-Duc's "Annals of a 
Fortress" is devoted to a eulogy of war, as tend- 
ing to develop patriotism and stimulate courage. 
This chapter was written before his house was attacked 
during the Commune, and the treasures within its walls, 
jeopardized and at the mercy of an ignorant mob, were 
saved by the efforts of his pupils. Viollet-le-Duc, an 
idealist, an optimist, found underlying virtues in the worst 
of national crimes, but failed to recognize the fact that 
these virtues belonged to the few, and that the masses, like 
the men of the Commune, were swayed by the lust of com- 
bat and the power to destroy. 

To-day, in the great cities of France, Germany, Austria, 
and Belgium, and in a multitude of towns and villages of 
Europe, are masterpieces of art, — cathedrals, museums, 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, all of which are at the 
mercy of mere military machines. These are works which 
are the heritage of the past, any of which can never be 
replaced . They are the work of creators , not of destroyers ; 
of the men who have brought delight to thousands, not of 
those who sow misery. 

Among the many outrages of war it is not the least 
that the works that men have thought precious and have 
cherished, that have been considered priceless, may van- 
ish from the earth. No doubt there will be an attempt by 
the nations to respect historic monuments and museums, 
but the exact control of projectiles at the distance of sev- 
eral miles is a somewhat difficult matter. 

But a still greater danger lies in the ignorance and disre- 
gard for art amongst the militant world. Militarism fo- 
cuses its attention upon scientific measures for offense 
and defense and the details which are pertinent to such 
subjects. The higher achievements of man are often 
unsympathetic to many of the officers of an army, and it 
is to these officers that the world must look for the protec- 
tion of its museums and monuments. 

Already there are rumors of the destruction of the roof 
of the Cathedral of Liege and of other important build- 
ings, and also that the altitude of the cathedrals of 
Cologne and of Strassburg has been utilized as " strategic 
points," by the conversion of their towers into locations 
for machine guns, which would naturally cause a con- 
centration of the enemies' fire upon these towers. 

Mankind has for centuries deplored the loss of the 
Library of Alexandria, and to-day as great losses are 
imminent. There is little use in an appeal to the nations. 
Madness seldom listens to reason. We can only hope that 
by some fortunate chance but little of the art of Europe 
may perish in this unnecessary war. 

MONTGOMERY SCMUVLER, widely known and 
appreciated for his published works and studies 
in architecture, died on June 16, after a short 
illness. As an editorial writer he belonged to the school 
of Raymond, Marble, and Hurlbert, imparting to the 



discussion of subjects relating to architecture literary 
graces of an uncommon sort and the charm of a cultivated 
and genial mind. Since the death of Russell Sturgis, Mr. 
Schuyler was acknowledged to be the leading critic of 
architecture in the United States, his contributions being 
numerous and constant, and confined in late years to the 
pages of 77/.? Architectural Record &n& The Brickbvii.der. 

THE buildings shown by the interesting series of 
drawings by Mr. Rockwell Kent, which comprised 
the illustrations in an article treating of his render- 
ings (July issue of The Bkickkvilder), were credited 
through error to Messrs. Delano & Aldrieh. The subjects 
shown were designed by Ewing & Chappell, architects, 
and included the tower of St. Mary's Church, New Lon- 
don, Conn., Connecticut College for Women, and country 
houses at Greenwich, Conn., and Tarrytown, N. V. 

THE growing tendency on the part of the modern 
architect to consider his work first and his self- 
advertisement last, is pointed out by Tin Builder, 
London, in an article which takes us back to Michelangelo, 
and traces the attribute of modesty from his day to the pres- 
ent. ' ' Modesty, we all know, was never the characteristic 
of Michelangelo, who would refuse to work for a Pope or 
represent a cardinal in hell with equal alacrity, and build 
fortifications, design a tomb, or produce a painting 120 
feet long with the same fiery zeal. His sviccessor, Vignola, 
the architect of Caprarola and of the Escurial, worked on an 
even greater scale in his single trade of architecture, and 
his treatises on perspective and on the Five Orders were, 
and remain, masterpieces ; but modesty was not to be 
expected from a man who, at Caprarola, was encouraged 
to rival the mountains and precipices which surround his 
palace, and took with him to the Escurial two-and-twenty 
architects, the most celebrated of their day, as his assis- 
tants in his work. Fontana, Carlo Maderna, and Palla- 
dio had similar successes: so had Scamozzi, who illus- 
trated his own principles by perhaps the greatest of his 
works, the Strozzi Palace at Florence. Inigo Jones seems 
to have been a modest man. Wren certainly was so, in 
spite of the proud boast as to his true monument in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

"As the eighteenth century advanced, self-advertise- 
ment on the part of a professional architect became rarer. 
The Brothers Adam, for instance, had too high a sense of 
the greatness of the antique to let self intrude into works 
which professed to deal with general principles or partic- 
ular monuments, while during the Neo-Classical revival 
architects were too many for any individual to have the 
opportunities of laying down the law to others. Competi- 
tion has its evils, and the lot of the modern architect its 
thorns ; but if modern conditions are against the creation 
of fantastic masterpieces, the Caprarola and great monu- 
ments on the scale of the Piazza of St. Peter's, archi- 
tecture as a whole has gained by the change." 



202 





THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE MODERN GERMAN DEPARTMENT STORE 

William L. Mouill 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 

THE SURVIVAL OF THE UNFIT Louis La Beaume 

MINIATURES AND THEIR VALUE IN ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE 

__ Berthold Audsley 

Illustrations from Photographs of Models 

THE ATELIER SYSTEM OF ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN AMERICA 

Austin W. Lord 

MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTURAL RENDERERS 

IX. The Work of Charles Z. Klauder 
Illustrations from Drawings 

THE ARCHITECT IN COST PLUS CONTRACTS ...... William L. Bowman 



SOME OLD AND UNFAMILIAR SPANISH BUILDINGS Arthur G. Byne 

Part III. The University of Salamanca and the Palacio Polentinos. Avila 
Illustrations from Photographs 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



llt'il" ti'iji] |J ' 7 'if iU' i iiui 1 iii'' h]i |i 1 



mmmuuuaw 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass 

il'R I). ROGERS RALPH REINHOLD 

1 Treasurer Vice President and Business Manage! 

Single ( "r >|ii<s, SO rents 

scription, payable in advance, U.S. A.. Insular Possessions and ( !uba, 85.00 

85.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal 1 in. m 6.00 j^S 

All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trad.: Supplied by the Amerii an News Company and ita Branchas. Entered ai 

Second I la Matter, Mareh 12. 1892, al the Po i Office at Boaton, Maaa 

. right, 191 1, by H.igera and Manaon Company 

Ni,, -y^jk ''? v 7i'ili^i j^ ^ -4' ■•■-■ h i ' a i aaaamaM ma - i u g 8>3J85iwSriiSvM i 









■' 

• 


■"1 


1 





WATER COLOR DRAWING OF HOLDER TOWER 

DORMITORY GROUP, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, PRINCETON, N. J. 

DAY & KLAUDER. ARCHITECTS 
CHARLES Z. KLAUDER, DELINEATOR 



See Article on page 220 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIII 



SEPTEMBER, 1914 



M MHKK ') 



The Architecture of the Modern German Department Store. 

By WILLIAM L. MOWLL. 
Accompanied by Illustrations Reprinted from " Moderne Bauformen." 



IN Germany, as in this country, there has been a great 
development of the department store business. The 
architects of Germany have seized upon this problem 
which presents many points of difference from problems of 
the past and characteristics which differentiate it from 
other commercial buildings of the present ; and all the 
more eagerly as there has developed in Germany a 
national school of architec- 
ture, not less typical or less 
patriotically regarded than 
many of their other institu- 
tions, for which this prob- 
lem gives an especially good 
opportunity. 

The large retail merchants 
of Germany evidently believe 
in the value of fine commer- 
cial buildings. The larger 
stores are carefully designed 
and built of good materials. 
Space is given to features 
which are crowded out of our 
stores by the pressure of land 
value, and money is lavished 
upon features that are re- 
garded as extravagance in all 
but the most exclusive of our 
stores. 

German architecture might 
be expected to be logical, as 
the achievements of this na- 
tion are rather in science than 
in art. As a basis for judg- 
ment, the requirements of the 
American department store may be used, as in general the 
conduct of this business is not widely different on the 
continent from the methods in use in this country. Selling 
space, display space, light, and circulation are primary 
considerations. To gain the first, the American architect 
builds to the lot line everywhere, as far down as engineer- 
ing can reasonably do, and as high as the building law 
will permit. Entrance features are made of marquises 
which cover the sidewalks, and side streets are boldly pre- 
empted for shipping facilities. The show window is ex- 
aggerated to the extinction of piers, until the building 
apparently rests on glass. To gain light, the basement is 
carried out under the sidewalks, and the piers above the 
show windows are made as thin as possible in steel and 
terra cotta. The passage of customers through the plan 
is facilitated by the aisle systems and by many elevators. 
On the other hand, that clearness of planning which guides 
the visitor to the various parts of the composition by the 




greater and less emphasis placed upon parts of varying 
importance is mostly omitted, and the stranger left to the 
guidance of the floor walker; and that distinction of 
design that attracts every good instinct is generally passed 
over as unnecessary expense. 

In American stores, great halls, extending through sev- 
eral or all of the stories, have sometimes been made 

features of the plan ; but this 
idea, borrowed from the con- 
tinent, has not come into 
general use. In Germany it 
is evidently an essential. It 
may exist to centralize the 
plan or to illuminate it. In 
the first case, it serves, in 
the vast maze of people and 
goods, as a point of orienta- 
tion, which not only opens 
up a general view of a very 
considerable portion of the 
departments in the store, but 
also reveals the stairs and 
elevators by which they may 
be reached. This is a de- 
cidedly practical function. 
The large and attractive 
space is not sacrificed, but 
serves as a guide, and brings 
about free and rapid move- 
ment of customers. As a 
means of lighting, it is ap- 
parently considered equally 
indispensable. 

That these courts are in 
general use in Germany, points to a number of conditions 
which are different from those in this country. Even in 
the larger cities the ceiling lights of these halls are 
not more than five stories above the floor, although 
roofs may rise around them to the height of two or 
three stories more. Concentration of business is less, 
for not only are the buildings low, but the building 
owners are willing to take space for out-of-door courts, 
as well as for these light courts, both within the 
building and also facing back streets for service pur- 
poses. Given the American conditions of greater busi- 
ness congestion, not only does a light court in a 
ten-story building take twice as much space as in a five 
story building, but the possible angle at which the light 
may enter becomes such that the lower stories are little 
benefited ; and further, where a hall five stories high 
presents a comprehensible number of divisions, in ten 
stories a view of the whole would only add to its incom- 



Central Light Court, Wertheim Store, Leipziger Strasse, Berlin 
Prof. Alfred Messel, Architect 



:o6 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



prehensibility. Apparently in German conditions these 
halls, in general, answer every requirement of good de- 
sign. In detail, however, they seem not to be quite as 
reasonable. Either for view or light, the piers surround- 
ing them should either be narrow or should, at all events, 
present their narrower faces toward the light. This would 
be logical, but it is not done. 

The facade has for possible motives either the singleness 
of the whole enterprise, or the existence of the great halls 
inside. Both are large, simple ideas and neither contains 
an\' suggestion of variety or of lack of continuity. If the 
motive of the hall is light let into the plan, then the facade 
must express the same thing; many and large openings 
are to be expected. In general, there is as much neces- 
sity for light on one story as another, with the possible 
tion of the first, where the whole area of glass is 
never considered by the owner to be too much. 

Singularly, this is not what actually happens. In no 
case is the facade treated as a unit. Arbitrary divisions 
occur at most unexpected levels, and the divisions are 
most unrhythmical. These facades seem to stop as they 
do chiefly because they continue no further. The facades 
of classical antiquity started with a strong, vertical move- 
ment at the base, and by a subtle arrangement of details 
came to rest above on horizontal lines ; Gothic architecture 
starts with moderate movement at the base and accelerates 
constantly to a climax, and many facades of the Renais- 
sance, through stories of graded and alternated height 
and interest, follow this latter scheme, apparently to sat- 
isfy a fundamental craving of the eye. Some such rhyth- 
mical scheme must underlie the arrangement of the 
vertical order of every architectural design. Rhythm is 
replaced by abruptness in much German general design 
and detail. 

Every department store facade is crowned with a roof, 
never less than two stories in height, sometimes much 
more, commonly not well enough lighted to permit of the 
use of the space within, although provided with dormers 





Design for a Department Store Building at Nuremberg 
Prof. Ludwig Ruff. Architect 



The " Agrippinahaus,' Cologne 
Georg Falck, Architect 

of all types, gables, and turrets. A roof that shows is one 
of the most unnecessary features of any building from the 
point of view of structure. When it shows, it takes a part 
in the general movement of the structure, generally a very 
important one. The steep roofs of Gothic architecture 
were not necessary for any climatic reasons ; the aisles of 
Notre Dame are flat roofed. Then, since any but a flat 
roof exists only to be seen, if it cannot usually be seen, it 
is architecturally unreasonable. On 
a city street, we consider it entirely 
impracticable on account of ice and 
snow. A great difficulty of these 
designs is the total lack of trans- 
ition between the scheme of the 
walls and that of the roof. These 
general considerations are illus- 
trated by the buildings illustrated 
herewith. 

In the "Agrippinahaus," Co- 
logne, by Georg Falck, the show 
windows are well separated by 
piers. It would appear that the 
best opinion on the part of window 
dressers as well as architects is 
that each show window exhibit 
should be a unit, and that no sacri- 
fice is made of the continuity or, 
consequently, of the horizontal 
unity of the facade by frankly 
carrying the piers down. In part 
with the picturesque influence felt 
in all of these buildings is the pro- 
jection of the third story of this 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



207 




Rug Department in the Althoff Store, Dusseldorf 

Wilhelm Kreis, Architect 

facade and the iron balcony at the fourth floor. The piers in 
the windows are too wide and too deep for adequate light- 
ing-. Such carving as the building has is modeled in a 
manner somewhat more than merely vigorous. Con- 
trasted with the delicate elliptical sections of Greek sculp- 
ture, it has sections which are not only fuller and rounder, 
as in Roman or Romanesque work, but this effect is 
exaggerated by starting the section out perpendicular to 
the plan of the back surface and 
flattening the highest parts ; this is 
dwelt upon in this connection be- 
cause it is typical. 

In this building the scheme of the 
first two stories is fine ; the next 
story and its balcony fairly complete 
the movement of the whole, which 
then continues. Another view of 
this same building shows the roof 



brought down to the top of the fourth story, with gables. 
As a picturesque arrangement, this is more successful than 
the front. 

A sketch for a store in Nuremberg shows a building 
about six stories high, with a tremendous development of 
roof, equal to more than three stories of the building, witli 
stepped fantastic gables pierced with great circular 
windows. 

The Althoff store in Dusseldorf is not in the sort of 
location that would be chosen by the American depart- 
ment store manager, who seeks the most crowded districts 
without open spaces to interrupt the streams of traffic. 
Its five stories are crowned by the inevitable heavy roof, 
which should justify itself by being attractive. The alter- 
nation and balance of the varied bays of tin's front are 
vigorous enough to determine the symmetry of a facade 
of three times its length. The Ionic cap above the open- 
ings is amusing. An Ionic cap is only a bait to the eye 
to lead it up the flutes of the column and so produce a 
sense of vertical movement. Wishing to produce a sense 
of vertical movement in a wall with openings, this feature 
may be used over the window openings as well as over the 
piers ; and just to show that the Ionic cap form lias 
nothing special to do with it, it is alternated with another 
device in the bays of the side elevation. There is no har- 
mony in the movement of the various parts of these 
facades. The walls rise and crash into the cornice, and 
the clumsy device over the central door threatens to fall. 
The large room of the rug department in this store is high 
and well proportioned, simply paneled, and admirably 
free from cash railways, sprinklers, wires, drain pipes, 
heating pipes, signs, water pipes, and so on. 

The plan is an arrangement of structural bays about 
1 7 V2 feet each way. The light courts occupy nearly one- 
fifth of the plan. One of these courts is, curiously, only 
one bay back from the street. 

The plan of the Wertheim store on Konig Strasse, by 
Ernst Rentsch, is the truest to type of those at hand. 





u 








1 






















^ 




-- 













\ >K ■ 












X\ 














'■. 






























a 




, . , 


- 


1 




Ground Floor Plan 
Althoff Department Store, Dusseldorf 



Althoff Department Store Building, Dusseldorf 
Wilhelm Krcis. Architect 



208 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



The entrance is on the axis of 
the court, the court leads to 
the principal communica- 
tions. The heavy piers and 
other architectural features of 
Renaissance suggestion are 
not better than if more 
closely stylistic. A set back 
from the lot line is hardly ex- 
plainable as for purposes of 
obtaining more light, as two 
projecting pavilions have 
blank walls. The design of 
main cornice and attic is 
worthy of some study. The 
vertical movement due to 
these attractions is taken up, 
and a conclusion provided at 
the top by the multiplicity of 
parts made up of the breaks 
in the cornice, the consoles, 
and the breaks in the cap of 
the attic. A considerable 
portion of this store — the 
grocery and dairy products 
departments — is very care- 
fully done in glazed terra 
cotta. 

The store of the Tietz con- 
cern, in Dusseldorf, is a very ambitious 
design in rough pointed stone. The in- 
teresting pier design demands no less 
space than the engaged column scheme. 
It must be fully five feet from the 
outside of the piers at the base to the 
inside of the wall at the top. The win- 
dows are reduced to slits, and the span- 
drels darkened to get an effect of 
vertically. It is interesting to see the 
use here of the dark railings above as 
arrests to the vertical movement of the 
piers. The garland feature of this 
cornice is typical of the introduction of 
ornament without harmonizing features on broad, flat, and 
frequently rough surfaces. The sculpture spotted on this 
facade is as queer as Art Nouveau, and further proves 
that the rhythm of previous forms of art can as success- 
fully be produced in forms entirely different. 

The light court has extremely interesting marble cased 
piers and a fine great window and glass ceiling. It 
seems rather curious that a light court should have a win- 
dow ; or is the difficulty that it is so hard to realize that 
there should be a department store owner altruistic enough 
to want a fine, great room in his store just because it is 
fine ? 

The very most interesting example is another Wertheim 
store in Berlin. Although the plan covers an immense 
area, the total height is only six stories. There are an 
amazing number of light courts, some glazed over and 
some open. The general arrangement suggests that the 
building is, like so many of our store buildings, a growth, 
one building after another having been added. Stairs 
and elevators are grouped near the light courts where they 




theim Store Building 
Berlin 
Ernst Rentsch. Architect 




Ground Floor Plan 
Wertheim Store. Konig Strasse, Berlin 



are conspicuous from many 
points in the plan. The larg- 
est of these light courts is 
surrounded by great piers 
five stories in height, con- 
nected by arches at the top, 
the whole surmounted by a 
tremendous ceiling light. At 
the level of the ceiling of the 
fifth floor two great elliptical 
arches or bridges cross the 
room, the whole illuminated 
at night by festoons of incan- 
descent lamps, and by other 
large and elaborately de- 
signed lighting fixtures. A 
great recessed vestibule at 
the corner of Leipziger 
Strasse and Leipziger Platz, 
with a very large hall above 
it, serves as an announce- 
ment of the whole establish- 
ment on this side toward the 
more important approach. It 
should be noted that even in 
this location a considerable 
space has been set off at the 
back on Voss Strasse, evi- 
dently as a shipping space, 
so that the traffic of this store does not 
interfere with that on the street. The 
building, as seen from Leipziger Platz, 
is a very wonderful conception. It 
cannot be said to be in any style from 
an archeological point of view, but it 
certainly has style. The varying treat- 
ment of space above the arches, the fine 
sculpture, free in treatment and very 
finely placed, the wonderfully assumed 
naivete of the smaller carving, and the 
rough blocks which are distributed 
about above on the piers, are all worthy 
of careful study. If it is possible to 
reproduce the charms of Lombard Romanesque work, it 
has certainly been done here, although without in the least 
closely following that style. The very narrow windows 
above the arches, with small elliptical features at the tops, 
which open into a great hall, together with the treatment 
of the piers, supports for the figures at the imposts of the 
arches — all work up an astonishing vertical movement 
which is, however, very rudely terminated by the roof, 
which hardly avoids the appearance of being temporary. 

In architectural criticism, the points which are first seen 
by an observer are those least likely to be indicative of 
fundamental quality. Criticism is usually prejudiced be- 
cause the critic cannot escape from tradition, whether it 
be that of yesterday or of some more remote time. It is 
much more difficult to pass upon the scheme of a design 
than upon the forms in which it is clothed. It is useful 
lure to insist upon the principles which have entered into 
the criticisms preceding. 

With respect to plan, all plans are roughly divisible 
into two general classes which may, for convenience, be 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



209 



termed private and public. 
The latter of these two types 
is usually termed monumen- 
tal. The first type of plan is 
that which is from the nature 
of the program destined 
for the use of those familiar 
with its use or for those who 
will use it under guidance. 
Such plans will always be 
found to contain vestibules 
and reception rooms to de- 
tain the stranger. They are 
deficient in symmetry. Sym- 
metry in architectural com- 
position is only necessary, in 
groups of features, as a guide 
to what lies beyond them. 
The axis of the symmetry, in 
large composition, is the line 
along which it is desired that 
the greater number of visitors 
to the plan shall proceed, and 
lesser axes in like proportion. 
As there is little motive for 
symmetry in plans of the 
familiar type, those are most 
successful which are arranged 
on free lines. Further, the 
most important spaces in an 

intimate plan are precisely those which must be reached 
last ; and the route to them is no less good if it is devious, 
if it remains convenient to those who use it. The domi- 
nant features of such plans are usually placed with 
reference to exposure and lighting rather than from con- 
siderations of exterior appearance. In the public type of 
plan, on the other hand, exposure and lighting become 
entirely secondary to the first consideration of communi- 
cation. The principal features of the scheme must 
announce them- 
selves from the 
principal view 
points on the ex- 
terior, and from 
as many others 
as possible. In 
the plan, it is 
essential to in- 
troduce features 
not to be formed 
at all in the pri- 
vate plan. Con- 
spicuous centers 
or foci must be 
established in 
number equal to 
the groups of 
parts of princi- 
pal importance. 
The purpose of 
these is, first, to 
attract those 
entering the 




Central Light Court, Tietz Department Store Building, Dusseldorf 
Prof. Josef Olbrich. Architect 



plan, and then to present 
clearly, and in the order of 
their importance, the parts 
accessible from this focus or 
the avenues by which they 
may be reached. This ar- 
rangement is indispensable 
in any building intended for 
use by large numbers of 
people ; and the use of foci is 
still advantageous when the 
parts to be reached are merely 
subdivisions of the surround- 
ing space, as in the case of the 
departments of a big store. 

The plan of a department 
store does not help the de- 
signer of the facade very 
much. The designer of the 
Wertheim store was fortu- 
nate in having a great hall to 
put on the most conspicuous 
corner, or else he was genius 
enough to induce the owners 
to permit him to create it for 
that purpose. In general, 
however, architects who have 
sought novelty in these 
facades have resisted the 
frank solution of the problem 
same way as have most other modern architects, 
a unit from the ground to the roof, 

The design- 
a 



in the 

The building is 

divided into nearly equal vertical spaces. 

ers of classical antiquity got along very nicely with 




Tietz Department Store Building, Dusseldorf 

Prof. Jo«ef Olbrich, An I 



single vertical division of building. The architects of the 
Renaissance were obliged to admit horizontal divisions, 
and invented rhythmical arrangements to join them all 
together. Besides these precedents the German designer 
is affected by the varied and picturesque arrangements of 

his own more 
immediately 
traditional 
types. Few de- 
signers can es- 
cape from tradi- 
tional forms. It 
is a delightful 
academic exer- 
cise to theorize 
about the rela- 
tionships of the 
forms of tin's 
art; but the con- 
ditions under 
which it is prac- 
tised call for ex- 
pedition, and in- 
vention is slow 
and uncertain. 
Still, when a 
group of design- 
e r s c o m m i t 
themselves to a 



2 IO 



THE BRICKB VILDER . 



movement to create something new, why is it that they 
refuse to see that the new creation already exists when 
their plan and construction are complete? They not 
only do not see this, but cloak the new grouping of forms 
in a badly fitting old garment. If the main lines were 
new. and the detail remained classic, or what you please, 
the result would be new. as witness the difference 
between Classic and Renaissance architecture. The 
best parts of these store build- 
ings are those isolated sections 
where the piling of one story 
on another, supported by equal 
piers, equally shaped, is frankly 
recognized. 

In the detail, some of the de- 
signers have caught the mean- 
ing of traditional forms. This 
is shown by their accurate plac- 
ing and Spacing of ornament. 
especially sculpture. 

Although the general tone of 
the foregoing criticisms seems 
unfavorable, it is certainly 
not their intention to with- 




Ground Floor Plan, Wertheim Store, Berlin 



hold cordial approval from the results of all this work. 
In the first place, the attitude of the owners is fine. They 
have made great material sacrifices in order to secure 
well planned and otherwise architectural buildings for the 
conduct of their business. There is a unity in treatment 
which is, on the whole, superior to the defects of their 
detailed composition. There is here seen another un- 
doubted manifestation of German nationalism. In the 
use of materials and the treat- 
ment of each, in the scale of 
these buildings, in their adher- 
ence, even on the most crowded 
of city property, to picturesque 
traditions, the architects have 
shown a new independence and 
an enterprise in art that is 
worthy of much praise. Archi- 
tecture of this sort, in which the 
effort of the designer is still vis- 
ible, is a much more fruitful field 
for study than more perfect 
architecture in which the effort 
is concealed in the perfection of 
the result. 




Werlheim Department Store Building, Leipsic Street, Berlin 
Prof. Alfred Messel. Architect 






The Survival of the Unfit. 



By LOUIS LA BEAUME. 



AS one long- inured to the sin of plagiarism and not 
only hardened to the innate viciousness of its prac- 
tice, but even influenced by many distinguished 
examples to regard it as a virtue, it is easy to appropriate 
as a subject for these notes a phrase already coined. I lad 
it not been natural to follow the line of least resistance, it 
might have been possible to have invented a title some- 
what more obviously expressive of the subject. 

At a time when sociologists are discussing the duty of 
society toward the unfit who do survive in large numbers 
and the means by which those numbers may be reduced, 
when physical and political scientists are discarding old 
formulas, when the discoveries in every field of endeavor 
to-day are tending to repudiate the theories of yesterday, 
when the note of modernism is being sounded by leaders 
in the arts of literature, sculpture, painting, and drama, it 
is difficult to understand the acknowledged stagnation in 
the practice of architecture. Architecture as a living art 
has not kept pace in its development with the march of 
civilization, and the reproach under which it is fallen is 
distinctly traceable both to the attitude of the public and 
of the profession. Formerly the living and vital expres- 
sion of customs, manners, and necessities, it has now 
become as a dead language in the mouth of pedantry. 
There are evidences in literature, music, play-writing, and 
sculpture that the trammels of tradition may be thrown 
off, and we have in these arts many achievements which 
reflect truly the aspects and impulses of contemporaneous 
life. However, with the rise of the comparatively modern 
science of archeology, the art of architecture has undoubt- 
edly declined. It is pretty generally conceded to be a 
dead art and, strange as it may seem, its chief mourners 
resent violently while deploring its decease any effort to 
galvanize it back to life. This paradoxical phenomenon 
has manifested itself in the realm of other arts, sciences, 
and professions, but never with more stifling persistence 
and obstinacy. Its most respectable alias is Conserva- 
tism, and its most vaunted deity is Precedent. In the 
modern art of music, pioneers like Wagner have broken 
through the bonds of tradition, under protest it is true but 
with such success that the bizarre iconoclast of yesterday 
has become the commonplace fogie of to-day. Other men 
like Richard Strauss have taken up the threads where he 
laid them down and gone on with the result that music 
to-day occupies the place once held by architecture as the 
art most expressive of the emotions and aspirations of 
modern life. Similar progress has been made in the field 
of literature, and Ibsen has evolved a form of drama dis- 
tinctly modern in both its theme and treatment. 

In sculpture, men like Rodin have revolutionized the 
standards of taste so that the generation which came to 
scoff has stayed to pay him his due meed of praise as a 
master of modern thought expressing itself in modern 
technical methods. No longer is it popular in literature 
to imitate the models of the past nor to write after the 
manner of Homer, Dante, Chaucer, Milton, or Words- 
worth. Likewise it would be considered an anachronism 
to paint in the style of Giotto or Botticelli as it would be 



to imitate the musical forms of the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries. It is just as great an anachronism to 
set up in our American parks imitations of the Parthenon 
or to transplant stone for stone, Venetian palaces, or Fran- 
cois Premier chateaux to our busy metropolitan thorough- 
fares. 

Historical investigation has revealed to us the antiquity 
of the art of building, and while it has instilled in us a 
veneration for the high water achievements of the past, its 
scientific method has also shown us that these achieve- 
ments were no less the result of evolution than of inspira- 
tion. The Greek masterpieces of the time of Pericles 
were the culmination of centuries of tortuous and pains- 
taking experience, labor, and struggle. Parthenons less 
perfect and temples cruder and yet more crude were fruits 
of the same strong branch which had its roots far back in 
the soil of Assyria, and finally blossomed with such glory 
on the Acropolis. The Romans came, saw, but were not 
quite conquered by the dazzling beauty of the art of 
Athens. They realized its perfection, but at the same 
time felt that that perfection was no less the result of its 
fitness in expressing the Greek civilization than of its in- 
herent grace and simplicity. The principle of the col- 
umn and lintel, the fundamental principle of Greek 
architecture, could be put to use at Rome ; but the chaste 
austerity of their treatment would be out of harmony in a 
civilization whose keynote was exuberant splendor and 
the pomp which vigorous concpiest made possible. So the 
Greek orders — the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian — were ap- 
propriated by the Romans, but they were translated into 
the language of their new users. The Tuscan order was 
invented and then the Composite, to satisfy the Roman 
desire for ornate floridity. In this process the original 
Greek motifs lost much of their refinement, but gained 
in vigor, and were used in an infinite variety of ways 
without regard to precedent, and in combination with the 
arch and vault of Roman invention. The result was the 
living, vital architecture now become, along with that 
of the Greeks, what we call classic. 

During the Dark Ages in which the Romanesque and 
Gothic styles flourished, all recollection of the classic 
architecture of Greece and Rome seems to have been lost. 
About the beginning - of the fifteenth century the human- 
ists of Italy began to turn their attention to the study of 
antiquity, to scan the models of Greek and Latin litera- 
ture, to explore the recesses of the past, and to remould 
the arts of poetry, drama, sculpture, and architecture on 
the masterpieces of the ancients. Tin's awakening of 
interest in older civilizations, this drawing of inspira 
tion from them, became a mighty movement sweeping 
overall Europe, creating new enthusiasm in all the arts 
and sciences and revolutionizing thought and action 
so vehemently that it amounted practically to a re- 
birth of civilization, and as such it is known to this 
day, namely, the Renaissance. Interest in the past 
became a passion, and architects traveled to Rome to 
study the fragments of antiquity. The classic column 
and capital, the round arch, mouldings, and ornaments 



211 



212 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



were incorporated into buildings as Latin and Greek 
phrases were incorporated into the language. Buildings 
were not built in frank imitation of older ones, but older 
motifs were grafted on to current forms in such a way as 
to produce a new and distinguishable type. This 
hybrid though it was, had a myriad variations in Italy, 
France, Germany, Spain, and England, and survives after 
a fashion to this day. 

Now men have said looking back on these periods of 
activity and invention that the gamut has been run. No 
further variety of design or composition is possible, and 
every conceivable combination of architectural forms has 
been accomplished. They have expressed greater or less 
admiration as their temperament, taste, or fashion impelled 
for the examples of particular styles, but the consensus of 
judgment seems to award the palm of perfection to the 
architecture of Greece, to maintain it as a standard of 
beauty, and to declare the Parthenon the noblest example 
of architecture in the world. The Gothic style has its 
partisans also, but they do not seem to be at the moment 
in the ascendency, although by dint of skilful practice it 
is unsafe to prophesy that they will not be to-morrow the 
heralds of the chosen style. Three decades ago the Ro- 
manesque party (in this country, at least) claimed all the 
honors, but with the death of its chief apostle Richardson, 
his rivals spread out a full line of samples in the correct 
cut of the Italian Renaissance. 

For a century we have been helpless as the devotees of 
fashion awaiting the pronunciamento of some Redfern or 
Worth of architecture, and we have received their dictum 
with unprotesting docility. Here and there a heretic has 
risen up and proclaimed his conception of the truth only 
to be howled down as a dangerous innovator. The safe 
and sane are in the lead. We cannot presume to com- 
pete with the masters of the past. We must venerate 
them and, since imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, 
we must imitate them. In a democracy of taste it does 
not matter much which respectable cadaver we imitate, 
but he must be really dead. Since we cannot invent, we 
must plagiarize. It is after all but a conventional offense 
and harms no one. If a building is beautiful, why not re- 
peat it, reproduce it instead of risking the perpetration of 
something for which there is not precedent and for which 
no past civilization stands sponsor? 

This, then, is the condition of architecture to-day in this 
country, — a chaos in which whim, fancy, or the fashion of 
the hour dictates what model to follow, what master or 
school to plagiarize. As a result there is scarcely a build- 
ing of note in the world of which several versions more or 
less grammatical do not exist. In New York alone, for 
instance, almost every Italian palazzo of importance, from 
the massive rusticated semi -fortress type of the Ricardi 
with its heavily barred windows, the stronghold of the 
Medici, to the light and fantastic Gothic and late Renais- 
sance fabrics that front the Grand Canal, may be seen in 
duplicate. Buccaneers of the business world boast posses- 
sion of faithful reproductions of the chateaux and castles of 
royalty. Marie Antoinette's Petit Trianon may be found 
literally scattered over the country; and Chcnonceau, 
once the cause of so much bitterness between the neg- 
lected Catherine de Medicis and the pampered Diane de 
Poitiers, now stands on Riverside Drive. The examples 
might be multiplied ad infinitum of these architectural 



snares for archeologists to ponder in future years. 

As a matter of fact, this catholicity of tastes is not strictly 
confined to our own cities, but of all peoples the French 
seem least open to criticism on this score. From the hour 
when France first began to feel the influence of the 
Renaissance, French architects have been alert to develop 
and freely use classic forms bequeathed to them, with the 
result that the social and political history of France may 
be clearly traced in her architectural monuments, one epoch 
succeeding another in natural sequence, and each bearing 
the distinct imprint of its time. Realizing that conditions 
change with the change of customs, and the introduction 
of new materials and methods of construction, the French 
architect seeks to meet these new conditions fairly. 

The charge that all the changes have been rung is being 
continually disproved in France, and buildings are being 
erected every year, modern in their very essence and as 
original in their way as the Parthenon was in its way. 
Some of them may be said to be as perfect also. For it is 
not true to say that the Parthenon is the most perfect 
building in the world. There are a thousand most perfect 
buildings judged by the only standard it is possible to 
judge by, namely, their fitness for the functions they are 
designed to serve and their logical and truthful expression 
of those functions. There can be no abstract standard of 
beauty. No man can say that a Gothic cathedral or Chinese 
pagoda is more or less beautiful than a Greek temple. 

The province and the aim of the architect of to-day 
should be to take the conditions as he finds them and create 
an architecture to fit them ; not to distort and cramp them 
to fit the architecture of another day. Where new prob- 
lems present themselves as in some of our commercial 
work, no precedent existing, we are forced to this pro- 
cedure with the result that critics see in this sort about 
the only thing they can commend. With the introduction 
and larger use of burnt clay, concrete, iron, and glass, 
we shall be thrown more on our own resources, forced 
to invent more as it becomes less possible to plagiarize. 

Meantime tentative efforts are being made in Europe 
and in this country to break away from the outworn tradi- 
tions of the past, to invent new forms and new details. 
The effort known as Art Nouveau is not always crowned 
with success, but underneath it lies a healthy impulse 
which should tend to mitigate much of the scorn it meets. 

It indicates a promising reaction against the banalities 
of repetition, especially the repetition of classic motifs, 
and if it does not point the only path to a real and living 
architecture, it will at least incite us to a fresher point of 
view. Moreover, it has preempted a name which it should 
be the aim of all contemporaneous art to deserve. The 
first question which the layman is apt to ask on being con- 
fronted by a newly erected building is, " Of what style is 
it?" The question is in itself a condemnation of our 
architectural condition. Not until the answer, "It is 
Art Nouveau" be possible will architecture have reached 
a development which will entitle it to stand with the other 
arts as an expression of the spirit of the times. 

Do not understand me to imply that all precedent should 
be thrown to the winds. That would be like attempting to 
invent a new language. Rather let us sift the languages 
which we have inherited of such phrases and motifs as 
have outlived their usefulness and infuse into them such 
new terms as new conditions demand for their expression. 



Miniatures and Their Value in Architectural Practice. 



By BKRTHOLD AUDSLEY. 



MINIATURES of all styles of buildings and monu- 
ments in which ornamentation and figure -subjects 
are largely introduced, have been, and are being 
prepared to enable persons interested in their erection to 
properly judge of their appearance when executed. The 
everyday value of miniatures, built either in a temporary 
or a permanent nature, is not perhaps properly realized 
by the architectural profession. This lack of appreciation 
is much to be regretted, for if miniatures were more fre- 
quently made, there would be fewer mistakes made in 
proportions and grouping, and in the character and com- 
piling of details. Perspectives may be more or less cor- 
rect, but as a rule are misleading, especially when beauti- 
fully colored and enhanced by the addition of affected 
surroundings, which only exist in the artist's brain, and 
never can exist in the locality of the building when erected. 
Also other artistic properties, such as automobiles, street 
cars, and crowds of men and women, are introduced to 
make a taking picture. Such a picture is sometimes made 
to secure the approval of the design by the client, who is 
generally little versed in matters architectural, and who 
is, accordingly, unable to divest his eye of the glamour of 
the artist's cunning and come down to the proper criticism 
of the architect's design, even should the architect have 
been careful to show sufficient detail to enable any one to 
form a correct idea of what the building will look like. 
Then again a perspective shows a building from only one, 
usually the most favorable, point of view, and under such 
a condition displays two of its sides only. It is at the 
most an insufficient exponent, even if it is a fairly truthful 
one, of the architect's conception. 

A miniature, on the other hand, if properly made to 
scale (scales ranging from 1 inch to the foot down to the 
minute scale of 32 feet to the inch) and carefully detailed 
in strict accordance with the architect's design, would make 
an honest statement of facts 
which cannot mislead any one, 
although he may be quite 
unskilled in architectural treat- 



ment. I mean when I say " carefully detailed " that all 
details such as all mouldings be shown in relief, windows 
pierced and glazed and sashes shown, doors built and pan- 
eled, chimneys carefully built and accurately placed, as well 
as all other details called for in the design, great care being 
taken to have all angles clean and sharp. From such a mini- 
ature the client can get a perfect idea of the building, what- 
ever it is, which the architect proposes to erect for him, and 
approve or disapprove with perfect assurance and so avoid 
any ultimate disappointment. Another important factor 
is perhaps that it may show the architect, before it is too 
late to remedy it, any weakness which may show in the 
design, either in comparative proportions or in the group- 
ing of parts when seen from all points of view. Should 
everything appear right, both the client and the architect 
can be absolutely sure the building will be a success so 
far as its external treatment is concerned. No such assur- 
ance can ever be positively arrived at from the inspection 
of a perspective or geometrical drawings. 

There are different classes of miniatures which can be 
made to meet certain requirements, and which vary con- 
siderably in the labor necessary for their constructions, 
and also in the materials for the same. The most impor- 
tant of the classes can only be alluded to in this article with 
advantage, and that briefly, and cannot begin to give one 
any idea of the beauty of such miniatures executed as 
stated, whether it is an important interior built to the 
scale of 1 inch to the foot or a complete miniature of a 
village built to the minute scale of 32 feet to 1 inch. 

The simplest class of work may be properly called 
" block miniatures," — scales 4 and 8 feet to 1 inch, — for 
this term conveys a correct idea of their simple treatment. 
In this case very little detail is shown, — only the main pro- 
portions of the building in correct proportion and position 
with respect to each other, dispensing with most of the 

details except the principal 
mouldings and cornices, etc. 
These are modeled correctly so 
as to get the proper projections, 




Fig. II 

Three Views of a Model of an English Country House and Tower 
213 



Fi K III 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Fig. IV. Model of an English Country House and Estate 



also having the walls pierced for all windows and doors 
to get the correct recessing, etc. A miniature constructed 
on these lines, bald though it may seem, is extremely 
valuable in enabling the architect to judge correctly 
how his design is going to work out ; how the diiferent 
elements will group, whether artistically or otherwise 
when viewed from all sides. Every experienced architect 
knows how very different such a feature as a tower, con- 
structed with stages of varied forms, appears when drawn 
on paper and when built and seen from different points of 
view, and it can be safely surmised that numerous towers 
and spires would have assumed more artistic and pleasing 
proportions and treatment had they been tested by cor- 
rectly made miniatures prior to construction. These 
miniatures are also valuable for other purposes, such as 
developing and critically examining complex and unusual 
roofing problems, whether architectural or engineering. 
The best and indeed the only materials necessary for the 
construction of this class is stout cardboard, accurately 



drawn and cut, and put together 
with a thick solution of gum arabic 
and painted in one color or several 
to represent the different materials 
to be used. It is very desirable that 
all students in the architectural 
schools all over the country should 
be taught architectural miniature 
work in its elementary stages at 
least, leaving them, should further 
tuition be impossible and having the 
inclination to carry the art of minia- 
ture making into its more advanced 
form, to work out the problems 
themselves, as it becomes a most 
fascinating and profitable hobby. 
Speaking from an experience of 
eighteen years in this direction, it 
would be impossible for a young 
architect to have a more instructive 
hobby, or one that would be better 
calculated to foster his interest in his profession. 

It is necessary to enlarge somewhat on the great advan- 
tages of using cardboard as the chief material in the con- 
struction of architectural miniatures. It is superior to every 
other material when properly handled. It is more dura- 
ble and trustworthy than either plaster or wood. It be- 
comes impervious to moisture and changes of climate, im- 
possible in wood for any length of time, even if you could 
work wood to such small detail. On the other hand, card- 
board can be more accurately and sharply shaped to all 
the usual architectural details, which include complex 
mouldings and pierced tracery work, than either plaster 
or wood. The construction of cardboard miniatures in- 
volves no objectionable mess, such as is found in using 
plaster or wood. It requires no very complicated tools or 
instruments, outside the usual drawing instruments, a 
knife, a few punches, a cutting edge, a simple circular 
cutter, a few perfectly true lead weights of different sizes, 
several sheets of plate glass to use as pressure frames and 




Fig. V. Model of a Manufacturing Plant at Birmingham, England 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



215 



also to cut on — no other tools are 
necessary for any kind of miniature 
work ; but the chief tools will always 
be found to be the knife, cutting- 
edge, and a sheet of plate glass. The 
cardboard must always be cut on 
plate glass, as this is the only mate- 
rial that will not turn the edge of 
the knife, if of good steel, of course. 
All the largest flat pieces, even the 
smaller ones, in fact, when gummed 
together, are best pressed between 
plate glass so as to give a uniform 
pressure all over. Of course the 
lead weights or even pieces of flat 
marble can be brought into play. 

In many cases no other material 
but cardboard is used in any of the 
constructional work. Figures I, II, 
and III show examples of a half 
timbered house with prospect tower. 

Figures I and III show the tower from two views. This 
complete miniature was executed throughout of card- 
board, with the exception of the glazing of the windows, 
which is transparent celluloid, and the two small shafts 
in the entrance archway. This piece of miniature work 
clearly demonstrates the great possibilities of this humble 
and little recognized material when skilfully and artisti- 
cally handled. Even the richly carved and ornamented 
work in the gables, in the panels above the entrance, and 
on the beam ends is carved in thick cardboard. 

The second class of architectural miniatures includes all 
those that are made on purely suggestive lines and are 
only sufficiently detailed and otherwise treated to convey a 
general idea of the dimensions and architectural features 
of the buildings represented. Miniatures of this class are 
useful for the purpose of showing, in an effective manner, 
arrangements of buildings and other features in town 
planning schemes and local improvements, and for con- 




Fig. VI. Model of School at Port Sunlight, Cheshire, England 



veying correct ideas of the grouping of detached build- 
ings, such as are found in large institutions, colleges, and 
hospitals. Miniatures for the purpose just alluded to can, 
as a rule, be made almost entirely of cardboard, wood 
being used only for such details as columns, vases, etc., 
or any other details which can be formed on a lathe. Great 
elaboration is unnecessary, and ornamentation of any kind 
need only be represented in a very simple manner. It is 
a very common thing to see in miniatures, now frequently 
made by hands understood to be skilled in this work, 
most of the details merely drawn or painted on the per- 
fectly flat surfaces ; but there is no necessity for this 
method to be followed by the artist endowed with moder- 
ate skill, who, instead of drawing or painting the doors, 
windows, and other details, can render all such details 
with their proper recessing and projections, by the aid of 
his knife, and other simple tools. It is as easy for a 
skilled artist to cut out a door or a window opening and 




Fig. VII. Model of Cycle Works at Coventry, England 



2l6 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



finish it in an expressive manner, as to carefully draw or 
color it on a flat surface, so as to convey the idea of depths 
and projection. 

Miniatures of the class described above are sufficiently 
expressive for all ordinary purposes, while they are not 
necessarily expensive. There is little doubt that two con- 
ditions have largely interfered with the more frequent use 
of miniatures in the profession : first, the difficulty com- 
monly obtained in procuring: them of a satisfactory char- 
acter ; second, the cost when they are constructed in any 
way approaching a truthful and artistic manner. The 
last condition must always be reckoned with, as all minia- 
tures, it" they are at all perfect, will take time to construct : 
but such a miniature so built will always be worth the 
time and money expended. 

So-called "high art miniatures" are constructed as 
absolutely perfect as skill and materials can attain, taking 
into consideration the scale being used and with the view 
of permanent interest, or for museum or exhibition pur- 
poses. The miniatures shown in Figs. IV, V, VI, and 
VII demanded the greatest care and attention to de- 
tail throughout their formation, from the planning to the 
final touch, and the proper use of the numerous materials, 
which are not only beyond the power of cardboard and 
paint to successfully imitate, however cunningly manipu- 
lated, but are desirable in themselves, such as certain 
forms of iron work, marbles and granite, stained glass, 
choice woods, ornamentally worked or turned, or inlaid to 
represent parquetry (to proper scale). Notwithstanding 
the introduction of these adjuncts, cardboard must remain 
the dominant material if the miniature is to be lasting and 
in every way satisfactory in its character. The writer has 
already spoken of the disadvantages and the limitations 
attending the use of plaster and wood in miniature con- 
structions and need not enlarge upon them here. It is 
enough to add that none of the miniatures illustrated could 
be made of plaster or wood in any way approaching their 
accuracy and delicacy, even if the question of their dura- 
bility were not considered . 

The miniatures illustrated in Figs. IV, V, VI, and 
VII are perfect reproductions of their prototypes, hav- 
ing every detail shown to scale. No one has any idea 
of the fascination of such a miniature, especially when the 
group of buildings is artistically built and colored in flat 
oils and surrounded by such accessories as roads with 
miniature trees — not merely pieces of sponge stained, or a 
lot of grasses or moss stuck around, but little trees beauti- 
fully constructed and treated for their foliage : also little 
scale automobiles, street cars, etc.; pretty rivers with 
huts, etc.; railroads with perfectly ballasted tracks and 
perfectly scaled trains (sec Figs. IV, V,and VII). Figure 
IV represents a miniature — scale % foot to 1 inch — built 
for a model engineering firm in London, England, show- 
ing a beautifully laid out private estate, with a miniature 
railroad running around the grounds, such as is seen in 
many of the large estates abroad. This miniature shows a 
fine English house, with its surrounding lawns, garage, 



greenhouse, tennis lawn, lake, river, and with a very beau- 
tiful little Japanese tea house in the center of the lake, 
with a little bridge joining it to the garden. This miniature 
was built to illustrate more fully the different accessories 
needed for such a miniature railway, which would be one- 
quarter full size, or 15-inch gauge, and, as they were per- 
fect reproductions, the miniature was used to order from 
instead of keeping the different parts in stock. 

The next miniature is that built of the Austin Motor 
Works, Birmingham, England (Fig. V), built to the 
scale of 16 feet to 1 inch and covering an area of 16 square 
feet. This shows a fine group of one-story buildings, sur- 
rounded by a layout of roads, grounds, and railroads, 
with all the fine details necessary. There is nothing out 
of scale, not even the automobiles, which are correct and 
yet arc only }i inch long. Note how artistically the road 
which crosses the tracks is treated with its English 
hedges and old trees. This model was specially con- 
structed for a lighting scheme, having all the windows 
and roofs pierced and glazed, so the miniature can be 
shown as if lighted at night by diffused light reflected 
through the buildings from lamps in the deep base seen 
in the illustration. The miniature was shown at several 
exhibitions abroad. 

Figure VI is a view of one of the several hundred 
buildings used in the wonderful model of the village 
of Port Sunlight, Cheshire, England, and was con- 
structed to the minute scale of 32 feet to 1 inch ; 
every building being built to allow the passage of 
reflected light, having all the tiny windows glazed. The 
tiny building under consideration is a copy of one of 
the schools at that place. Every detail was shown in this 
little building, even to the ivy on the walls, which was 
not painted on but made of a special material. It will be 
noted that there is a sunken playground, entered by two 
sloping ways from terraces at the main level. The play- 
ground shown in this view is for the girls, the boys' is at 
the back. This little building is not 7 inches long, and 
to the top of the bell tower is only about 1% inches high. 
The reader can quite understand the experience needed, 
other things not considered, of fabricating such a minia- 
ture, first in laying out the different sides of the building, 
then cutting out and constructing same — some pieces not 
being more than Vic inch long — then the painting, need- 
ing the greatest care, as that branch of the work could 
ruin a fine piece of work very easily. 

Figure VII is a miniature of the large Rudge-Whit- 
worth Cycle Works, Coventry, England, also built to the 
scale of 16 feet to 1 inch, and was exhibited all over Eng- 
land by the said firm. It is a very interesting piece of 
work and shows some very tine and unique construction. 
In the miniature is shown a complete private telephone 
system, with poles and wires, perfect outside staircases, 
and in the foreground will be seen two double decked 
street cars, while the two directors' private automobiles 
are seen standing in front of the offices. This was also 
constructed for a lighting- scheme. 



VOL. 23, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 129. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



THE HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS, PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

GROSVENOR ATTERBURY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 130. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THE HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

CROSVENOR ATTERBURY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 131. 





THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 



THE HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

CROSVENOR ATTERBURY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 132. 








MASONIC TEMPLE BUILDING. MEMPHIS. TENN. 
JONES & FURBRINCER. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 9 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 133. 






























DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 





SECOND MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 








T— LJ| |j-tzi 1 

jslljIU 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 




!_TCL ^- 1 L^U 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



MASONIC TEMPLE BUILDING. MEMPHIS, TENN. 
JONES & FURBRINGER. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKB VI LDER. 



PLATE 134. 





< 
U 

< 

z 

Q 
< 

< 
a. 

d 
z 

5 
_j 

D 

CQ 

Z 

< 

< 
Z 

o 
(- 
< 
z 

< 
z 

UJ 

Q 
< 

< 
a. 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE B RICKB VILDER 



PLATE 135. 




< 
U 

< 

z 

LU 

Q 

< 

' u 

LU 

h 
I 



< 

o 
z 

Q 
-J 

D 
m 

z 

< 
m 

< 
z 

o 

H 
< 

z 

< 
z 

ul 
Q 
< 

< 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 136. 




VIEW FROM REAR 



JOSEPH SEARS PUBLIC SCHOOL, KENILWORTH, ILL. 
CEORGE W. MAHER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 137. 




_] 
_J 

X 

H 

cc 

o 

— UJ 
Z H 

8 < 

o a 

u < 



3 * 

CQ uj 
D O 
CL K 

a 2 

< ° 

UJ 

CO 

I 

cu 

CO 

O 



VOL. 23, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 138. 





£ 



Du 
_J 

UJ 

Q 
< 
-J 

X 
a. 

uJ 
to 

D 
O 

I 

OS 
ul 
P 

< 

u 

z 

o 

J 

c/) 

Q- 

D 

< 
H 

-J 
UJ 

Q 



.^ 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE B RI C KB VI LDER. 



PLATE 139. 




MJ3 i.i 




u--MiiiL 




ENTRANCE FRONT 




H^ + 

fcf till i~u h5! 



poem 

COCHCRL 

• . • 



pin 



H — 



-:Jf 



— r.T."7r" h _ri TT-Tr'^TT-r r-- It — 



■ 

b t//V£/v O.Q3 

... 



LJLJ 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



• • • 

TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 




I JT|M 



r 



II 



iH"wiJ[tL»kUi! 

-I I MM l 




VIEW FROM REAR LAWN 



HOTEL O TE-SA-GA, COOPERSTOWN, N. Y. 
PERCY GRIFFIN. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 140. 






UJ 






O 






u 
z 


1 1 




UJ 


u 




_J 


h 




o 


I 
U 




c 




(- 
z 

o 
cc 
u. 


Hi 
> 

OS 


z 

a: 




< 


UJ 


<r> 





u. 


<. 


s* 


►* 

^ 




z 


u 




T 


a; 




O 


UJ 

q 

UJ 




u. 


X 




O 


u. 




UJ 






e/1 






D 






O 






I 





VOL. 23, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 141. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF JOHN W. GARY, ESQ., GLENCOE. ILL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKB VILDER. 



PLATE 142. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF JOHN W. GARY. ESQ., GLENCOE. ILL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



PLATE 142. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF JOHN W. GARY, ESQ.. GLENCOE, ILL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 23, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 143. 




VIEW FROM GARDEN 



HOUSE OF JOHN W. GARY. ESQ.. GLENCOE. ILL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS. ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 144. 




LIVING ROOM 



HOUSE OF JOHN W. GARY. ESQ., CLENCOE. ILL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS, ARCHITECT 



The Atelier System of Architectural Education in America. 



By AUSTIN W. LORD. 



IN a previous paper emphasis was laid upon the abso- 
lute necessity of thorough qualification on the part of 
students before entering upon an architectural career, 
and let it be remembered that one should be fully satisfied 
of a real interest in and taste for things artistic; for with- 
out this inherent desire inspiration is lacking and only an 
indifferent pursuit of the art will result. Further, let the 
student be well equipped mentally and physically, and with 
the culture that a good academic training gives, he is in a 
fair way to secure recognition. 

Coincident with architectural study there should be some 
definite and practical pursuit of the study of painting, 
more particularly, perhaps, as it applies to architectural 
embellishment. This would include general observation 
and study of work in the museums, and, if one has the 
opportunity of foreign travel, the study could be extended 
to the great mural decorations found in important build- 
ings in foreign cities. This study and observation should 
include sculpture, as in the strict sense we cannot have a 
perfect piece of architecture without certain painted and 
sculptured accessories. Naturally, an interest in the arts 
of painting and sculpture will lead one to a study of the 
applied arts, — the art of the silversmith, the mosaic-worker, 
the wood-carver, the stone-cutter, to the design and com- 
position of fabrics, furniture, stained glass, etc. It is 
almost impossible to name any art that does not, in one 
way or another, enter into the general composition and 
realization of an architectural undertaking, and, while it 
is, perhaps, impossible for a student to acquire knowledge 
through the medium of schools, academies, or offices in 
these various branches of his work, he can, as pointed 
out above, acquire a general knowledge through observa- 
tion and study of work always in evidence in the museums, 
in the street, in monuments, in exhibitions devoted to the 
various productions in the applied arts, in the shops, etc. 

The student having the general qualifications and ten- 
dencies outlined above, and who has a certain natural 
facility in drawing, is in a fair way to undertake success- 
fully an artistic career. In Renaissance times it was not 
considered too much for an artist to undertake work in 
architecture, painting, and sculpture, and many of them 
produced beautiful work as silversmiths, bronze-workers, 
wood-carvers, etchers, and the like. We are taught in 
these times to believe that we must specialize in order to 
succeed, but I believe there is too much of specialization, 
with the result that we are content to do a very few things 
where, with a little exertion, we are capable of doing a 
great many. The tendency is to restrict and to interfere 
with the liberty of action which is so necessary to the 
artist. The artist should have the field of art opened to 
him, and he should be trained in a way to make him appre- 
ciate more and more its unlimited possibilities. 

But with all of this preparation talent and opportunity, 
nothing avails without hard work and there is perhaps no 
other profession, certainly in the arts, that calls for such 
unremitting toil both day and night as the profession of 
architecture. This is particularly true in times of great 
competitions for important buildings and monuments, 



when every resource of the architect and his staff is called 
into play. It is generally under these conditions that the 
most successful work is put forth, and one must have that 
equipment born of natural ability and thorough training to 
be at all in the running. Therefore, let no man attempt 
this work on the supposition that he is to become great 
through merely receiving impressions and through exer- 
cising his faculties without effort and without direction, 
for in such case his brother practitioner of more solid 
training and more rational point of view will in the end 
outstrip him. 

Assuming that the student has actually made up his 
mind, it is important that he should be properly equipped 
with the simple tools of his profession. 

Instruments. There are various makes of instruments 
in the market, those of French, Swiss, and German manu- 
facture being of high quality. An application to The 
Brickbvilder, or to any architect whom the student 
knows, will suffice to inform him where they can be pro- 
cured, and the catalogues which these firms will gladly 
furnish will enable him to choose intelligently. A box of 
instruments may cost from $10 to $15 or $20 and upwards. 
I would not recommend the purchase of cheap instru- 
ments for this work. As one progresses the value of good 
equipment of this character is always in evidence. The 
same is true of T-squares, triangles, curves, and special 
instruments. Of inks, the best results are usually secured 
by the use of stick India ink ground in a saucer made for 
the purpose and carefully protected from dust. However, 
the bottled waterproof ink which can be bought all pre- 
pared is more convenient to use and gives excellent 
results. 

There are many makes of drawing papers on the market, 
and the kind to be used depends in a great measure upon 
the character of the problem and the method of rendering. 
A trial of a few grades of good paper on different problems 
will enable the student to find one which will give uniform 
satisfaction. The usual paper comes in sheets of various 
sizes and weights, and where extra large sizes are required 
two or more sheets may be pasted together. 

In addition to the above, students of the atelier should 
provide themselves with ink or color slabs, water-color 
boxes and sketch book or sketch block, scrap book for 
clippings and other architectural notes, portfolio for 
drawings, pencil rubbers and ink erasers, sponge or 
kneaded rubber, pencil holders, lettering pens, oil stone 
and oil, liquid gum, paste or mucilage, agate stylus, good 
quality of tracing paper in rolls, cross section paper, and 
an adequate supply of manila or ordinary detail paper used 
in architects' offices. 

For the mounting of drawings there should be provided 
stretchers of various sizes, various grades of colored 
paper for borders (preferably gray in tone), paste pot, 
paste brushes, etc. 

Of drawing boards little need be said — they should be 
of pine reinforced at the ends, and when above twenty- 
four inches in width should have an added reinforcement 
of cleats on one side. For small drawings, preliminary 



217 



2l8 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



sketches, and exercises, special boards may be obtained. 
A convenient style of small board much used in the ateliers 
consists of an outer frame and a flush panel, over which the 
paper may be stretched and the edges forced into grooves 
and secured by small strips of wood without the aid of 
glue. Drawing- tables may be purchased from firms who 
make a specialty of their manufacture. Table tops should 
be adjustable in a way to give a slight pitch to the draw- 
ing board, thus obviating the necessity of the draftsman 
bending too far over his work. 

Students may provide themselves with brushes and 
water color, but no elaborate equipment of this kind is 
necessary. In the beginning two or three brushes for 
rendering are all that is required, and a water-color box 
containing five or six tubes of color is sufficient. In fact, the 
organization of the atelier would necessarily be under the 
direction of the Patron, who would advise his students in 
all matters pertaining to materials, equipment, etc. 

To go more particularly into the organization of the 
atelier, we will assume that in a certain thriving town arc 
a number of progressive young men who have received 
their education in the city schools, with perhaps some 
special training in certain branches. These young men 
are employed in architects' offices and have been encour- 
aged to study architecture independently of their office 
practice. They have neither the time nor the means to 
attend a school of architecture in this country, much less 
abroad. At this juncture some one of the practising 
architects in the city offers his services, generally free of 
charge, as Patron of the proposed atelier. The atelier is 
formed with a mossier and sous mossier as the authorized 
officers, who look after the details of administration, etc., 
and maintain the general organization. 

These ateliers are organized on the most economical 
basis possible. Owing to the fact that young men engag- 
ing in this work are generally of limited means and can- 
not afford any unnecessary expense, a cheap loft in the 
commercial part of the city can be secured at a low rental. 
Elevator and janitor service is generally not available. 
Heat and light often add a maintenance charge, but with 
a reasonable number of students, say twenty to thirty, the 
entire individual expense per month ought not to exceed 
$8 to $10. This expense is quite within the means 
of the average draftsman, and when this expenditure is 
compared with the expenditure of a college course, it will 
be seen that the student working under the atelier system 
is placed in a very advantageous position. lie does not, 
of course, have the same advantages regarding academic 
instruction as the college man, but he makes up for it in a 
measure through his experience in office work at a certain 
remuneration. 

With a view of supplying this scientific instruction, 
many of the colleges have organized courses in extension 
teaching in various cities and towns throughout the 
country. If students in the ateliers will avail themselves 
of the extension teaching courses, they place themselves 
quite on a par with the advantages of the average college 
student. It has been pointed out that men giving their 
days to office work and their evenings to atelier work and 
extension courses develop into quite as competent archi- 
tectural draftsmen as those from our colleges, and they 
have the added advantage of practical experience in an 
office which to most young men eager to enter into busi- 



ness for themselves is a valuable asset. There are, of 
course, advantages both on the side of the courses given 
in our schools and the courses given in ateliers. In the 
schools young men cannot, under the requirements of a 
full curriculum, have time for practical office work. On 
the other hand, the men working under the atelier system 
have little time for the broad instruction to be secured in 
a thorough college course. Experience only will make up 
for this deficiency in either case ; that is, experience in an 
office for the college man, and a longer term of study for 
the man studying under the atelier and office system. In 
other words, it becomes a matter of time as to when both 
classes of men will have arrived practically at the same 
proficiency by different roads. There are, however, many 
decided advantages in favor of the atelier-office system as 
it is thus far developed in this country. The men under 
the atelier-office system are perhaps a little more serious 
and a little more helpful to each other. The latter ten- 
dency is of vital importance in the success of any atelier. 
Without it the spirit of comradeship is lost, and any lack 
of co-operation and assistance between the various classes 
of men that make up an atelier generally results in failure. 
The whole success of the atelier depends upon the assis- 
tance one student may be able to render another, either in 
the way of advice, consultation, or in actual work upon 
the designs in hand. 

The ateliers in the large cities and in the small towns as 
well are of necessity made up of a class of men of varied 
attainments. Some may have received their education in 
a grammar or high school, some in small colleges, others 
will have had only the advantages of a district school. 
They will have had varying degrees of office experience 
or no office experience at all. Some will have had in- 
struction in free-hand or mechanical drawing, and others 
will be totally ignorant as to the most elementary require- 
ments in connection with this work. This lot of students 
in a properly organized atelier can soon be moulded into 
a perfect working machine. The competitive side of the 
atelier work is ever an incentive to extraordinary exertion 
on the part of the student, and the fact that the student is 
put in a position where he has to depend upon himself, 
and where he gets proper credit for work performed natu- 
rally, tends to cultivate that enthusiasm which is the basis 
of successful work in any art. As before stated, the pur- 
pose of the foundation of the atelier system was to provide 
instruction for draftsmen in offices and for all those 
who desire to study architecture, but are unable to avail 
themselves of the advantages of a college course. The 
atelier system is quite fully recognized by the colleges, 
and at present about one-third of the total enrolment of 
the ateliers is from various colleges and technical schools 
in the country. From this it will be seen that the men 
competing under the atelier system cannot be classed under 
regular academic standards and that, therefore, scientific 
instruction should be given either in the atelier or through 
the medium of extension courses above referred to. Not- 
withstanding this lack of qualification, the general results 
shown have been so universally satisfactory that the ate- 
lier system is growing in strength and favor throughout 
the country. Under present conditions the only require- 
ment for admission to the atelier is that a man shall have 
studied and drawn out the orders of architecture. The 
student can generally accomplish this in an architect's 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



2 19 



office, the night school, or the correspondence school, or 
the work could be done under the guidance of the Patron 
of the proposed atelier. The competitions extend over a 
period of ten to eleven months, from August to July, and 
are carried on through the medium of a series of programs 
issued by the Society of Beaux- Arts Architects in New 
York in consultation with representatives of the college 
and other ateliers. Programs are issued from time to 
time and the students work out their solutions in the form 
of a sketch (esqiiisse) , without the aid of any data in the 
way of photographs or books or other information given 
directly or indirectly. A certain number of hours are 
allowed for the preparation of this sketch, which must be 
the basis for future development of the problem. The 
credit award to the student by the jury in the final judg- 
ment is based not only upon his performance in the prepa- 
ration of the sketch, but upon its subsequent development 
from the standpoint of composition, draftsmanship, and 
general presentation. 

The " preliminary sketch " must not in any way be an 
elaborate production. It should be simple and straight- 
forward in what we call indication ; that is, it should be 
simple and direct in character and drawing. No detail is 
to be indicated. In other words, a broad suggestion of the 
idea in mind must be so simply indicated in the drafts- 
manship as to be capable of many different interpretations 
in the final development of the problem. A copy of this 
sketch is retained by the student, and the original is left 
with the officer or attendant in charge during the prepara- 
tion of the sketch. A certain period, depending upon the 
character of the problem, ranging from four to seven 
weeks, is allowed for its development under the advice of 
the Patron. The aim in the development of the sketch is 
to carry out the ideas embodied without fundamental 
changes from the original scheme or parti, which might 
mean the elimination of his drawings from the judgment 
(hors de concours) , thus depriving him of any mentions or 
values. Experience has shown that this system encour- 
ages the student in the work of extensive study and obser- 
vation both of books and of executed work with a view to 
acquainting himself with the various solutions of a single 
problem, and having once made a sketch and thereby 
formulated his impressions, to compel him to develop these 
impressions along systematic lines and in a certain fixed 
direction, instead of wasting his time in fruitless search 
after other solutions of the problem. 

The final drawing (rendu) is generally forwarded to 
New York and judged by a jury of architects selected by 
the members of the Committee on Education, and com- 
posed of representatives from the various colleges and 
ateliers interested. All drawings bear the names of their 
authors and the school or atelier from which they come, 
but the names are covered as soon as the drawings are 
received for judgment, so that the jury has no knowledge 
of their authorship. Each drawing receives careful atten- 
tion and its status is determined by a vote of the jury. 
To make these judgments of the jury as thorough as possi- 
ble, the custom of having a preliminary jury inspect the 
drawings and group them according to merit into two, 
three, four or more classes, according to the number of 
drawings, has been found of great advantage. When the 
regular jury comes to give its judgment a much more 
comprehensive comparison can be made of the quality of 



the various drawings submitted. The double jury lias the 
advantage of bringing competitive work under the scrutiny 
of at least certain members of the jury a second time and 
thereby gives opportunity for more thorough study of the 
respective presentations. It will be seen that in cases 
where four to five hundred drawings are submitted for a 
single judgment that a great deal of time and care is re- 
quired. There are, of course, certain drawings that can 
be judged quickly and proper marks attached. There are 
other drawings that are difficult of judgment and conse- 
quently require more time and even two or three votes and 
intervening discussions to arrive at a decision. I refer to 
this to show with what care this work is conducted by the 
Committee on Education. The committee tries not only 
to give proper judgment, but to aid Patrons and teachers 
in the various ateliers and schools by writing criticisms 
directly upon the drawings to make more clear the point of 
view of the jury. This kind of criticism is almost univer- 
sally demanded by the students of the ateliers ; but up to 
the present time no system has been devised by the Com- 
mittee on Education whereby full criticism can be given 
to each drawing. It would entail a great deal of time and 
expense which the committee is not at present organized 
to meet, but the aim is gradually to develop the judgments 
to the extent that they will more strongly supplement the 
work of the Patron and instructor and at the same time 
give needed encouragement to the student. It has been 
pointed out that the least qualification required of students 
entering the atelier is that they shall know something 
of the orders of architecture. This does not mean that 
they will be allowed to go on with advanced work without 
first having demonstrated their ability to do the orders as 
required in the regular program of competition. Even 
students of advanced standing profit by taking up the 
work in its early stages and carrying it through in a sys- 
tematic way, and generally the only proof that the Com- 
mittee on Education has in regard to a man's ability must 
be based upon the work he produces under the regular 
competition system. His work can then be compared with 
that of other students and the student himself has a chance 
to compare his work with others, and thus the status of 
each individual student can easily be determined. The 
students are grouped into classes and can be taught to 
better advantage in this manner than if allowed to pursue 
the course in a hap-hazard way. It is pointed out by the 
Committee on Education that the most elementary divi- 
sions of the society's work is known as " order problems " 
or " drialytiques ." It goes on to say, " success in problems 
of this class depends primarily upon a correct understand- 
ing and knowledge of the orders, — such a knowledge as 
would enable a student to design a doorway, a gateway, 
an entrance pavilion or similar problem with ease and 
accuracy, presenting some detail at a large scale, casting 
the shadows correctly, and arranging his drawings effec- 
tively on the sheet. It should not be concluded from the 
above that a design is considered poor and incomplete that 
does not in some way involve the use of one of the classic 
orders ; quite the reverse is true, but the society holds 
that a careful study of these columns and entablatures in- 
sures invaluable training to the eye and memory of the 
beginner." 

The next paper will treat of the various classes and 
a general discussion of the programs and projet work. 



2 IcS 



THE B RICKB VILDER 



sketches, and exercises, special boards may be obtained. 
A convenient style of small board much used in the ateliers 
consists of an outer frame and a flush panel, over which the 
paper may be stretched and the edges forced into grooves 
and secured by small strips of wood without the aid of 
glue. Drawing tables may be purchased from firms who 
make a specialty of their manufacture. Table tops should 
be adjustable in a way to give a slight pitch to the draw- 
ing board, thus obviating the necessity of the draftsman 
bending too far over his work. 

Students may provide themselves with brushes and 
water color, but no elaborate equipment of this kind is 
necessary. In the beginning two or three brushes for 
rendering are all that is required, and a water-color box 
containing five or six tubes of color is sufficient. In fact, the 
organization of the atelier would necessarily be under the 
direction of the Patron, who would advise his students in 
all matters pertaining to materials, equipment, etc. 

To go more particularly into the organization of the 
atelier, we will assume that in a certain thriving' town are 
a number of progressive young men who have received 
their education in the city schools, with perhaps some 
special training in certain branches. These young men 
are employed in architects' offices and have been encour- 
aged to study architecture independently of their office 
practice. They have neither the time nor the means to 
attend a school of architecture in this country, much less 
abroad. At this juncture some one of the practising 
architects in the city offers his services, generally free of 
charge, as Patron of the proposed atelier. The atelier is 
formed with a mossier and sous mossier as the authorized 
officers, who look after the details of administration, etc., 
and maintain the general organization. 

These ateliers are organized on the most economical 
basis possible. Owing to the fact that young men engag- 
ing in this work are generally of limited means and can- 
not afford any unnecessary expense, a cheap loft in the 
commercial part of the city can be secured at a low rental. 
Elevator and janitor service is generally not available. 
Heat and light often add a maintenance charge, but with 
a reasonable number of students, say twenty to thirty, the 
entire individual expense per month ought not to exceed 
$8 to $10. This expense is quite within the means 
of the average draftsman, and when this expenditure is 
compared with the expenditure of a college course, it will 
be seen that the student working under the atelier system 
is placed in a very advantageous position. He does not, 
of course, have the same advantages regarding academic 
instruction as the college man, but he makes up for it in a 
measure through his experience in office work at a certain 
remuneration. 

With a view of supplying this scientific instruction, 
many of the colleges have organized courses in extension 
ling in various cities and towns throughout the 
country. If students in the ateliers will avail themselves 
of the extension teaching courses, they place themselves 
(piite on a par with the advantages of the average college 
student. It has been pointed out that men giving their 
days to office work and their evenings to atelier work and 
extension courses develop into quite as competent archi- 
tectural draftsmen as those from our colleges, and they 
have the added advantage of practical experience in an 
office which to most young men eager to enter into busi- 



ness for themselves is a valuable asset. There are, of 
course, advantages both on the side of the courses given 
in our schools and the courses given in ateliers. In the 
schools young men cannot, under the requirements of a 
full curriculum, have time for practical office work. On 
the other hand, the men working under the atelier system 
have little time for the broad instruction to be secured in 
a thorough college course. Experience only will make up 
for this deficiency in either case ; that is, experience in an 
office for the college man, and a longer term of study for 
the man studying under the atelier and office system. In 
other words, it becomes a matter of time as to when both 
classes of men will have arrived practically at the same 
proficiency by different roads. There are, however, many 
decided advantages in favor of the atelier-office system as 
it is thus far developed in this country. The men under 
the atelier-office system are perhaps a little more serious 
and a little more helpful to each other. The latter ten- 
dency is of vital importance in the success of any atelier. 
Without it the spirit of comradeship is lost, and any lack 
of co-operation and assistance between the various classes 
of men that make up an atelier generally results in failure. 
The whole success of the atelier depends upon the assis- 
tance one student may be able to render another, either in 
the way of advice, consultation, or in actual work upon 
the designs in hand. 

The ateliers in the large cities and in the small towns as 
well are of necessity made up of a class of men of varied 
attainments. Some may have received their education in 
a grammar or high school, some in small colleges, others 
will have had only the advantages of a district school. 
They will have had varying degrees of office experience 
or no office experience at all. Some will have had in- 
struction in free-hand or mechanical drawing, and others 
will be totally ignorant as to the most elementary require- 
ments in connection with this work. This lot of students 
in a properly organized atelier can soon be moulded into 
a perfect working machine. The competitive side of the 
atelier work is ever an incentive to extraordinary exertion 
on the part of the student, and the fact that the student is 
put in a position where he has to depend upon himself, 
and where he gets proper credit for work performed natu- 
rally, tends to cultivate that enthusiasm which is the basis 
of successful work in any art. As before stated, the pur- 
pose of the foundation of the atelier system was to provide 
instruction for draftsmen in offices and for all those 
who desire to study architecture, but are unable to avail 
themselves of the advantages of a college course. The 
atelier system is quite fully recognized by the colleges, 
and at present about one-third of the total enrolment of 
the ateliers is from various colleges and technical schools 
in the country. From this it will be seen that the men 
competing under the atelier system cannot be classed under 
regular academic standards and that, therefore, scientific 
instruction should be given either in the atelier or through 
the medium of extension courses above referred to. Not- 
withstanding this lack of qualification, the general results 
shown have been so universally satisfactory that the ate- 
lier system is growing in strength and favor throughout 
the country. Under present conditions the only require- 
ment for admission to the atelier is that a man shall have 
studied and drawn out the orders of architecture. The 
student can generally accomplish this in an architect's 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



2 19 



office, the night school, or the correspondence school, or 
the work could be done under the guidance of the Patron 
of the proposed atelier. The competitions extend over a 
period of ten to eleven months, from August to July, and 
are carried on through the medium of a series of programs 
issued by the Society of Beaux- Arts Architects in New 
York in consultation with representatives of the college 
and other ateliers. Programs are issued from time to 
time and the students work out their solutions in the form 
of a sketch (esquisse), without the aid of any data in the 
way of photographs or books or other information given 
directly or indirectly. A certain number of hours are 
allowed for the preparation of this sketch, which must be 
the basis for future development of the problem. The 
credit award to the student by the jury in the final judg- 
ment is based not only upon his performance in the prepa- 
ration of the sketch, but upon its subsequent development 
from the standpoint of composition, draftsmanship, and 
general presentation. 

The " preliminary sketch " must not in any way be an 
elaborate production. It should be simple and straight- 
forward in what we call indication ; that is, it should be 
simple and direct in character and drawing. No detail is 
to be indicated. In other words, a broad suggestion of the 
idea in mind must be so simply indicated in the drafts- 
manship as to be capable of many different interpretations 
in the final development of the problem. A copy of this 
sketch is retained by the student, and the original is left 
with the officer or attendant in charge during the prepara- 
tion of the sketch. A certain period, depending upon the 
character of the problem, ranging from four to seven 
weeks, is allowed for its development under the advice of 
the Patron. The aim in the development of the sketch is 
to carry out the ideas embodied without fundamental 
changes from the original scheme or par/i, which might 
mean the elimination of his drawings from the judgment 
(hors de concours) , thus depriving him of any mentions or 
values. Experience has shown that this system encour- 
ages the student in the work of extensive study and obser- 
vation both of books and of executed work with a view to 
acquainting himself with the various solutions of a single 
problem, and having once made a sketch and thereby 
formulated his impressions, to compel him to develop these 
impressions along systematic lines and in a certain fixed 
direction, instead of wasting his time in fruitless search 
after other solutions of the problem. 

The final drawing (rendu) is generally forwarded to 
New York and judged by a jury of architects selected by 
the members of the Committee on Education, and com- 
posed of representatives from the various colleges and 
ateliers interested. All drawings bear the names of their 
authors and the school or atelier from which they come, 
but the names are covered as soon as the drawings are 
received for judgment, so that the jury has no knowledge 
of their authorship. Each drawing receives careful atten- 
tion and its status is determined by a vote of the jury. 
To make these judgments of the jury as thorough as possi- 
ble, the custom of having a preliminary jury inspect the 
drawings and group them according to merit into two, 
three, four or more classes, according to the number of 
drawings, has been found of great advantage. When the 
regular jury comes to give its judgment a much more 
comprehensive comparison can be made of the quality of 



the various drawings submitted. The double jury has tin- 
advantage of bringing competitive work under the scrutiny 
of at least certain members of the jury a second time and 
thereby gives opportunity for more thorough study of the 
respective presentations. It will be seen that in cases 
where four to five hundred drawings are submitted for a 
single judgment that a great deal of time and care is re- 
quired. There are, of course, certain drawings that can 
be judged quickly and proper marks attached. There are 
other drawings that are difficult of judgment and conse- 
quently require more time and even two or three votes and 
intervening discussions to arrive at a decision. I refer to 
this to show with what care this work is conducted by the 
Committee on Education. The committee tries not only 
to give proper judgment, but to aid Patrons and teachers 
in the various ateliers and schools by writing criticisms 
directly upon the drawings to make more clear the point of 
view of the jury. This kind of criticism is almost univer- 
sally demanded by the students of the ateliers ; but up to 
the present time no system has been devised by the Com- 
mittee on Education whereby full criticism can be given 
to each drawing. It would entail a great deal of time and 
expense which the committee is not at present organized 
to meet, but the aim is gradually to develop the judgments 
to the extent that they will more strongly supplement the 
work of the Patron and instructor and at the same time 
give needed encouragement to the student. It has been 
pointed out that the least qualification required of students 
entering the atelier is that they shall know something 
of the orders of architecture. This does not mean that 
they will be allowed to go on with advanced work without 
first having demonstrated their ability to do the orders as 
required in the regular program of competition. Even 
students of advanced standing profit by taking up the 
work in its early stages and carrying it through in a sys- 
tematic way, and generally the only proof that the Com- 
mittee on Education has in regard to a man's ability must 
be based upon the work he produces under the regular 
competition system. His work can then be compared with 
that of other students and the student himself has a chance 
to compare his work with others, and thus the status of 
each individual student can easily be determined. The 
students are grouped into classes and can be taught to 
better advantage in this manner than if allowed to pursue 
the course in a hap-hazard way. It is pointed out by the 
Committee on Education that the most elementary divi- 
sions of the society's work is known as " order problems " 
or " analytiques .' " It goes on to say, " success in problems 
of this class depends primarily upon a correct understand- 
ing and knowledge of the orders, — such a knowledge as 
would enable a student to design a doorway, a gateway, 
an entrance pavilion or similar problem with ease and 
accuracy, presenting some detail at a large scale, casting 
the shadows correctly, and arranging his drawings effec- 
tively on the sheet. It should not be concluded from the 
above that a design is considered poor and incomplete that 
does not in some way involve the use of one of the classic 
orders ; quite the reverse is true, but the society holds 
that a careful study of these columns and entablatures in- 
sures invaluable training to the eye and memory of the 
beginner." 

The next paper will treat of the various classes and 
a general discussion of the programs and projet work. 




-'■'.&$' 



Water Color Drawing of Dining Halls, Dormitory Group, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 
Day & Klauder, Architects Charles Z. Klauder, Delineator 

Monographs on Architectural Renderers. 

BEING A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON THE ARCHITEC- 
TURAL RENDERERS OF TO-DAY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY CHARACTERISTIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR WORK. 

IX. THE WORK OF CHARLES Z. KLAUDER. 



MORE purely an architect than most architectural 
renderers, Mr. Charles Z. Klauder constitutes 
with Mr. Frank Miles Day the firm of Day & 
Klauder, of Philadelphia. For several years before Mr. 
Klauder 's entrance into the firm he was a draftsman in 
Mr. Day's office, and practically all the renderings he has 
made have been of the work of that firm ; and as most of 
the work which Day & Klauder have done has been in 
the Gothic style, his rendering's cover a less varied field 
than has been the case with most of the other men whose 
work has been discussed and illustrated in these articles. 

The present-day ten- 
dency, emphasized in this 
firm's work, to design 
college buildings in the so- 
called traditional Collegi- 
ate style, is constantly 
becoming more notable, 
not only because the num- 
ber of buildings thus de- 
signed is increasing, but 
also because the standard 
of design is with each suc- 
cessful building gradually 
being raised, and it is, 
curiously enough, to some 
of the Philadelphia archi- 
tects that much of this 
improvement is due. 

The General Theological 
Seminary in New York, 
which was designed by 




Crayon Sketch of Detail of Dining Halls, Princeton University 
Charles Z. Klauder, Delineator 

220 



Mr. Charles C. Haight, is perhaps the earliest and still one 
of the best of these Gothic college buildings ; but the real 
rise of the modern use of this style began when Mr. Will- 
iam A. Potter designed the library at Princeton and 
Cope & Stewardson showed how wonderfully this style 
could he used in their buildings at Princeton, Bryn Mawr, 
Washington University at St. Louis, and in the University 
of Pennsylvania. To the influence of their most excellent 
example we can attribute the vogue which this style is 
enjoying, not only with our architects, but with our col- 
lege authorities, so that one by one our great universities, 

with few exceptions, have 
planned their new build- 
ings in this style. Colum- 
bia and the College of the 
City of New York, dis- 
tinctly city colleges, have 
not followed it ; Harvard, 
with strong classic tradi- 
tions, has adhered to them ; 
the new buildings of the 
Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology will likewise 
be executed in the classic 
school ; but Yale, after ex- 
perimenting with the modi- 
fied French of the dining 
halls and Woolsey Hall, 
and the modified Georgian 
of Woodbridge Hall, has 
come back to the English 
Gothic, and Messrs. C. C. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



221 




Water Color Drawing of End of Hamilton Hall, Dormitory Group, 

Princeton University 

Day Bros. & Klauder, Architects Charles Z. Klauder, Delineator 

Haight and Githens have designed practically all the later 
work at Yale in that style. 

At Princeton Mr. Cram was appointed supervising archi- 
tect, and under his direction various firms of architects, 
including Day & Klauder, have been working, if not with 
equally excellent results, at least with more or less uni- 
formity. The United States Military Academy at West 
Point has been largely reconstructed by Cram, Goodhue 
& Ferguson in a very interesting and free Gothic manner ; 
the Union Theological Seminary has been built entirely 
de novo by Allen & Collens in the same fashion, and 
Cornell, after many unsuccessful buildings in various 
styles, has finally turned to Day & Klauder for Gothic 
work. 

The buildings thus enumerated constitute a formidable 
list, and yet by no 
means include all 
the work, or even 
all the notably good 
work which has 
been executed dur- 
ing recent years. If 
the finest buildings 
of the whole list 
were picked out, we 
would find that a 
very considerable 
portion of them were 
executed by Day & 
Klauder, so that in 
considering the ren- 
derings of Charles 
Z. Klauder we must Pencjl Draw|ng 

bear always in mind Frank Mile. Day & Brolher. Architect. 



that his work is not that of the consummate draftsman ren- 
dering the work of other men, but is rather a method by 
which tlie designer feels his way toward his ends. His 
methods of rendering are far more architectural than is 
usually the case : there is less entourage, less pictorial 
quality than is exhibited in most drawings ; the architec- 
ture is preeminently the thing, and while the texture of 
the surface is sought after, the thing which he mainly 
tries to find is the appearance of the mass in perspective 
with the shadows indicated and the blacks of the openings 
accurately located. 

Since practically all of his subjects are of uniform char- 
acter and his method almost a fixed habit, it is surprising 
that his work is not monotonous. The fact that each of 
his drawings presents some new point of interest regard- 
less of the similarity of the subjects and the uniformity in 
the way of treating them, is probably caused by his happy 
choice of viewpoint rather than by the intrinsic interest of 
the subjects indicated. 

Now while his handling of line varies from such a rough 
approximation as he has used in the sketch of the detail of 
the dining halls, to the extremely formal and mechanical 
draftsmanship of the gymnasium for the University of 
Pennsylvania, there is little difference in the way in which 
he regards the subject : he accepts no adventitious aids 
by way of foliage, trees, and flowers, or fortuitous shadows, 
but permits his architecture to stand forth naked and 
unashamed, even with the interest produced by the sun- 
light firmly reduced to a mimimum. He depends almost 
entirely upon the comparison of the various masses in the 
different parts of the building with the interesting patterns 
produced by the mullioned windows indicated as strong 
accents against a monotone ground. Such a method 
might not be successful in indicating classic forms unless 
in a building of an unusually rich and varied character ; 
but for the picturesque and complicated mass essential to 
produce a high degree of interest in Gothic forms, it is 
perhaps the best that we have seen, as well as being the 
most honest. 

The drawing of the gymnasium the writer finds espe- 
cially interesting because of the extreme simplicity of the 
way in which it is rendered, and the satisfactory result 
thus produced. One could hardly believe that a simple 
perspective with no entourage except the most conventional 




of Gymnasium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 



Charles 7.. Klauder. Delineator 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



ible indication of terraces and streets, and the sug- 
gestion of vines, and with practically no indication of 
texture or materials, could nevertheless convey so accu- 
rate an impression of the completed building. In looking 
at this rendering' we are aware, although we know not 
how, that the building is of brick with stone coigns and belt 
courses ; we know that there is a skylight extending along 
the entire length of the roof, and we realize the projec- 
tions ami reveals of the windows, although no attempt has 
been made to differentiate 
between surfaces on which 
the light would strike ob- 
liquely from those which 
would be exposed to its 
direct action. It would 
hardly be possible to re- 
duce rendering to simpler 
elements ; it would seem 
as if any office boy with a 
high school knowledgi 
perspective could accom- 
plish the same result ; but 
those of us who have tried 
to indicate our work in 
this very formal and in- 
expensive way, know that 
there is as much knowl- 
edge and skill behind this 
parade of simplicity as 
there is behind the most 
finished drawing of Otto 
Eggers. But such a sketch 
as that of the dining- halls 
looks much more difficult, 
although it is in fact some- 
what simpler, since a soft 
line easily passes for being 
"more artistic" than a 
rigid one, and dark- 
shadows across a court will 
invariably add a sense of 
reality whether they are indicated accurately or not. 

Between these two drawing's lies the middle ground 
which Mr. Klauder habitually frequents. This is repre- 
sented by the drawings of the I lolder Tower, the detail of 
Hamilton Hall, and the drawing of the dining halls which 
compose a large dormitory group, part of which has been 
completed for some years, part of which is under erection, 
and part of which is still only contemplated. 

The drawing of the dining- halls is of them all perhaps 
the most interesting-, probably because the design is itself 
as fascinating a piece of Gothic architecture as it has ever 
been the writer's good fortune to behold ; and if this dining 
hall when it is erected so far transcends the drawings in 
beauty, as the parts of the group by Day & Klauder 
already completed surpass the drawings made of them, 
the writer believes that this will constitute the finest group 
of college buildings in the world, not even excepting the 
best that Oxford and Cambridge can exhibit. 

To return to the drawing, the architecture has been left 
for the most part to tell its own story ; the texture of the 
stone work is suggested rather than insisted upon. The 
slate roof is not specially well e but vivid accents 




Crayon Sketch of Rear Entrance to Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa 
By Charles Z. Klauder 



define the windows and their tracery, and Holder Hall 
at the left and Hamilton Hall at the right of the dining 
halls are indicated fully enough to show their relation to 
the dining halls, without being- carried so far as to dis- 
tract attention from the building which the picture repre- 
sents. Vet even in miniature the drawing- of the tower 
exhibits the quality of its design almost as well as the 
larger drawing ; one feels that it is an accurate represen- 
tation, and not a mere indication of mass and form. In 

the larger drawing of the 
tower (sec Frontispiece) 
we are enabled to see some 
of the processes by which 
Mr. Klauder attains his 
ends : it is made on very 
rough paper, but with a 
surprising firmness of line : 
the textures of the surfaces 
are to some extent indi- 
cated by the surface of the 
paper alone, and atmos- 
pheric quality has been 
given to the sky by a pale 
but perceptible graded 
wash. In this drawing- 
there is no indication of 
the divisions in the win- 
dows, which are colored 
in a solid tint, but the use 
of heavy graduated slate 
for roofing- is admirably 
although simply shown. 
This, like all the other 
drawings, is characterized 
by a reduction of effort to 
a minimum, all unneces- 
sary indication is omitted, 
and indeed the mechanical 
part of the drawing-, al- 
though careful and precise, 
is apparently effortless. 
The drawing of the end of Hamilton Hall is of not dis- 
similar character ; the hedge, the walk, and the street are 
indicated in most conventional manner, yet completely ; 
there is a simple indication of vines, sufficient perhaps for 
their purpose, although somewhat more attention might 
have been paid to them without losing the general effect. 
It is almost the sole criticism which might be made, but it 
seems as if simplicity had here been carried too far. 

It may be interesting- also to compare the dates at which 
these drawings were made : that of the gymnasium was 
made in 1903, the Holder Tower in 1908, the end of 
Hamilton Hall in 1911, the dining halls in 1913, the detail 
of the dining halls in 1914. This would indicate that 
Mr. K lander's work had developed slowly and gradually 
from a very mechanical style to one quite as accurate but 
far less rigid. Yet we find that the sketch of the rear 
entrance of Independence Hall was made in 1897, and 
there is perhaps no one of his drawings which exhibits 
greater facility and freedom from mechanical perspective 
than this ; and from this we can know that it was not neces- 
sary for him to develop indication or freedom of line, but 
that this and his sense of composition were his birthright. 



The Architect in Cost Plus Contracts. 



By WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.E., of the New York Bar. 



THE most common and familiar form of cost plus 
contracts is termed the percentage contract where 
the contractor is paid a certain defined cost of the 
construction work with a specified percentage thereon as 
compensation for his overhead expenses, personal services, 
and profit. Another form of these contracts is the cost 
plus a fixed sum contract where a specified fixed sum is 
added to the defined cost to cover the items just mentioned. 
As this sum is usually calculated upon a certain percentage 
of the estimated cost, it ordinarily amounts to the same 
sum as the percentage. This is especially true since such 
contracts usually provide that if the magnitude of the 
undertaking is increased, the fixed sum to be paid the con- 
tractor shall be increased in the same proportion that the 
fixed sum to be paid bears to the cost of the original 
undertaking. There is still another form of contract 
which properly comes under this appellation, namely, 
where the owner agrees to pay for all labor and materials 
and give a building superintendent a fixed weekly or monthly 
compensation for ordering materials, hiring men, and gen- 
erally taking complete charge of the construction work. 
Is the legal position of the architect any different in such 
cases than in the ordinary lump sum contract ? Are his 
duties and responsibilities any different ? 

Generally speaking, both of these questions can be 
answered in the negative. However, since the architect 
must act as the owner's adviser in the matter as to what 
form of contract is most advantageous and economical 
under all circumstances, there are several points regard- 
ing these cost plus contracts and the relations, rights, and 
liabilities created by them that are worthy of some atten- 
tion. In his role as the protector of the owner's pocket- 
book, a knowledge of the good and bad features of such 
contracts is essential. 

The ethics of the architectural profession call for the 
payment of services in certain percentages of a defined 
cost. Thus the architect works under the form of a per- 
centage contract. Why does he as a rule discourage this 
familiar form of contract for the contractor ? The predom- 
inant reason as given by the contractors is that since 
they favor it, the architects must necessarily disapprove. 
To-day the two real reasons for the architect's position on 
this subject are : first, the distrust of the contractors due 
to their reputation in the past ; and, secondly, the fact 
that the architect has much more detail work in his super- 
intendence under the cost plus contracts than in the usual 
uniform contract. He mast keep more assistants on the 
work to properly check the costs of materials, labor, etc. 
This also requires more time of the architect himself, since 
he must keep closely in touch with his assistants and with 
the work so that he may know that they are not being 
misled or deceived. Are there not advantages to the 
owner which should ordinarily make him glad to pay for 
the architect's extra help and somewhat more, if required, 
for the extra personal service ? 

Under the lump sum contract, when the contractor finds 
that he has a losing job, he naturally does everything to 
save himself. He is especially keen on trying to get the 



architect or the owner in a position where he can stop the 
work and claim a breach of the contract. If his losses 
are going to be large, the work is stopped and he takes 
his chance in a lawsuit with the owner. There are always 
constant quarrels between the architect and contractor as 
to what the specifications mean or specify and as to 
whether certain work is, or is not, proper under the con- 
tract. The owner is necessarily drawn into the differences 
and the unhappiness caused can hardly be measured in 
financial terms. It would seem that the use of the per- 
centage contract with a maximum limit of liability for 
the owner would assure the latter more nearly what he 
wants and what he is paying for, provided the architect 
gives the work the proper supervision for that kind of a 
contract. It should eliminate the trials and tribulations 
above enumerated for both the architect and owner, and in 
addition save the owner from the burdensome and costly 
completion after defaults with the inevitable lawsuits and 
their attendant expense and delay. It should cause the 
architect and contractor to vie with each other to see that 
the owner gets exactly what he wants instead of making 
them the enemies they are ordinarily. It should be noted 
that this form of contract increases the competition 
between the large corporations with heavy overhead^ 
expenses and the little contractor whose office is in his 
house, since the percentage paid has to cover these items 
in both cases. Until some more accurate determination 
of contract work becomes fashionable, such as the widely 
suggested quantity-surveying plan, there is no question 
but that under ordinary circumstances a properly drawn 
cost plus contract is the most advantageous for all con- 
cerned. The owner's special plea for economy and cheap- 
ness must be governed by the definition of " cost," by the 
percentage or fixed sum paid, and by a maximum liability 
under all contingencies. 

Cost of Work. As the architect has found in his own 
contracts for services, there is one point that cannot be 
too carefully stated and understood, namely, what ele- 
ments are to be considered in the " cost " upon which the 
percentage is based. Those specially interested in this 
matter from the architect's standpoint are referred to the 
April, 1913, issue of The Brickbvildkr. A case just de- 
cided covering this question involved the following facts : 
An architect had the usual contract for a fixed percentage 
based, however, on the ' ' cost of the contracts. ' ' A contract 
was given for the entire work at $7,500. When the work 
was within three weeks of completion the owner was un- 
able to make a payment then due the contractor. This 
failure of the owner, due to some difference with the loan 
company, gave the contractor the chance he was looking 
for, and he immediately declared that the owner had 
broken the contract and therefore he was stopping the 
work and would claim the value of the work done to the 
time of stopping. The fact was, that the contractor had 
known for some time that he could not complete the work 
for his contract price, and that if he had to continue it 
would cost him from #1.000 to #1,500 more than he was to 
receive. As the owner was in a hurry, he finally promised 



223 



22 4 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



to pay for the unpaid materials and labor, and pay for the 
necessary material and labor to complete, and also a 
weekly salary to the contractor to act as superintendent 
for the completion, limiting it to three weeks. After the 
house was completed, believing he had a grievance against 
the architect, the owner refused to pay him a balance due, 
which resulted in the filing of a lien and an action to fore- 
close the same. At the trial the owner admitted that he 
understood that the architect was to j>et his percentage on 
the cost of the house. It was proved that the cost, with 
the troubles above mentioned, was > C M>00, and the court 
held that the architect could charge his percentage on this 
actual cost, and that he was not restricted to what it should 
have cost, or $7,500, had the contractor done as he agreed 
to do. This case is also important in that it shows that 
" cost " means what it says, irrespective of the causes for 
its amount. 

Just lately, in a very important building case, the ques- 
tion as to what was a reasonable percentage was raised. 
The experts who were called upon to give opinions upon 
that matter seemed to agree fairly well that 10 per cent 
was fair and 15 per cent a maximum, without taking into 
consideration that the percentage must depend upon the 
basis or definition of "cost." Let us see if they were 
correct in their general opinion. 

Ordinarily " cost " to the average person means only 
money spent at or near the construction work for foremen, 
mechanics, laborers, etc., and for materials actually incor- 
porated in the construction or wasted in its construction. 
Such a person usually fails to remember that this does not 
include such actual costs to the contractor as official, engi- 
neering and clerical salaries in large firms or corporations, 
rent, etc., of spacious general offices, interest on money 
invested in office, plant, equipment, depreciation, etc. 
It. has been found that these items for a big corporation 
doing large work vary from 5 per cent to 20 per cent 
of the "cost" of labor and material on the job. For 
this reason the ordinary 10 per cent upon such "cost " 
often represents little or no profit for the contractor, al- 
though the owner usually considers it all profit. What 
percentage might be fair under certain circumstances is 
well illustrated by a rather late case in the West. 

The laws of a certain western state provide that the state 
shall pay for excavation of waterways and filling in of tide 
lands at cost plus 15 per cent. A state contractor for this 
work sublet his filling work to a subcontractor at 15 cents 
per cubic yard. The contractor's supervision, engineer- 
ing, etc., cost him 1 cent per cubic yard, so that this basis 
of 16 cents was certified as the cost to which the 15 per cent 
was added. When the assessments were attempted to be 
collected, they were resisted and in the resulting lawsuit it 
was proven that the actual cost to the subcontractor to 
do the work was but 12 cents, giving them a 3-cent profit. 
The first court held that the cost heretofore certified should 
be reduced by this 3-cent profit ; but the Supreme Court 
held that the cost was 16 cents to the contractor, and there 
being no proof of any fraud, he was entitled to use that as 
the basis for the calculation of his percentage of profit. 
Thus instead of paying what was supposed to be 15 per 
cent of cost, the failure to stipulate that there should be no 
subcontracting unless the subcontractor's cost should be 
considered the contractor's cost, caused the state to pay 
38 per cent upon the "actual cost," or 53 per cent upon 



the " cost " as that term is ordinarily considered. Yet, as 
was well said in that case, there was no showing but what 
this was a fair charge for the state to pay for the work. 

This failure to prevent subcontracting is even more 
strongly shown in a New York case where a contractor on 
a cost plus 10 per cent contract was held to be entitled to 
charge his 10 per cent on various subcontracts which he 
had given to the subcontractors at their cost plus 10 per 
cent. In other words, he actually collected 21 per cent 
on the " cost " to the subcontractor. In still another case 
an interesting conclusion was reached. A railroad grad- 
ing contract provided that the contractor was to receive 
payment of wages for actual labor, payments for powder 
and fuses plus 10 per cent of said amounts which were to 
be in full for all advances, shanties, pay of foremen above 
ordinary labor, general supervision, clerk hire, agents, 
personal care, etc. Upon receiving the contract, part was 
sublet and the contractor charged his 10 per cent upon 
the subcontractors' charges to him. The court held that 
since there was no specification against subletting, and as 
" wages" might be paid either for time or piece work, 
hence payment made to subcontractors were "wages" 
for actual labor upon which he could properly charge his 
10 per cent. 

These are but a few of the cases which show that 
as a matter of fact 10 per cent upon the usual basis of 
" cost ' ' is really a very small percentage, which ordinarily 
would give the contractor little or no real profit. These 
cases also show that an owner may pay from 20 per cent 
to even 50 per cent on the usual " cost," and yet only pay 
what the work is reasonably worth. In this connection the 
owner eliminates the extra charge which a contractor 
always adds to his bid to take care of unknown con- 
tingencies. As a matter of policy, it is naturally much 
preferable to make the defined " cost " include all possible 
expenses of every nature and keep the percentage down, 
although for purposes of giving a greater range to com- 
petitive bids it may at times be deemed otherwise. 

These cases thus show that the protection of the owner 
depends largely upon the contract provisions regarding 
subletting. Of course a general contractor must be per- 
mitted to subcontract his plumbing work, since that class 
of work is in many cities restricted to registered and 
licensed plumbers. Again, a general contractor who 
makes a specialty of foundations and mason work should 
be permitted to subcontract his steel work, since he could 
not possibly do that character of work as cheaply as the 
others making that a specialty. Hence this is where the 
architect should be given some discretion to approve or 
disprove of subcontracts and their amounts, since the cost 
to the owner depends so largely upon such subcontracts. 

The care with which the definition of " cost " must be 
scrutinized is well shown by a very late case in which the 
" cost " was fully defined, but unfortunately for the owner 
contained the phrase "cost of accidents." During the 
work an employee of the contractor's was badly hurt and 
recovered a judgment against them of $27,000. As this 
award was affirmed upon appeal the company had to pay, 
and they then asked the owner to reimburse them as it 
was part of the defined cost. The owner refused on the 
ground that it was not reasonable to charge him with such 
a judgment under the wording mentioned. However, the 
court ruled against him and held that the interpretation 



THE BRICKB VILDER 



225 



of the phrase by the company was correct and the owner 
must pay. 

While these suggestions and cases show that the cost 
plus contract has its pitfalls for the owner, yet there are 
really very few of serious import, and the advantages 
suggested are so great that there are times when it would 
undoubtedly be of advantage to the architect to use this 
form of contract. 

Architect's Duties. As has been previously stated, there 
is practically no difference between the architect's duties 
under the cost plus form as differentiated from the lump 
sum form. This is well illustrated in a late case where the 
owner refused to pay a contractor because the sidewalls 
were not watertight and because the same condition existed 
in the roof and around the windows. The contract was a 
percentage contract and the proof showed that the con- 
tractor had carefully followed the plans and specifications 
of the architect, which were very detailed. The court held 
that as far as the contractor was concerned the owner war- 
ranted the sufficiency of the plans, and hence there was 
no liability against the contractor on these scores. That 
opinion also meant that the owner could probably recover 
against the architect for the insufficiency of his professional 
work. 

Hence we can take it as our general rule that the archi- 
tect has the same liabilities and duties under